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Dimitri II

( The second pretender Time of Troubles)

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Biography Dimitri II
second impostor Time of Troubles, which adopted the name of the son of Ivan the Terrible, Dimitri. Following the death of Dimitri the first in Moscow and in cities there were rumors that the "king Demetrius" managed to escape from the conspirators, the boyars. Measures taken by the Tsar Vasily (Shuiski) to stop this popular rumor, have not been successful. Rumors were maintained and spread by some prominent persons close to the slain man, among others fled to Poland M. Molchanov and exiled with Shuya in Silesia in Putivl Prince Grigory Shakhovskoi. Under the hand of the latter in Seversk Ukraine, not so long been walking from Poland, Prince Dimitri, began to gather troops to protect the rights of the deposed king and Shuisky led Bolotnikova went to Moscow. After the failure of the last under the capital, in the summer of 1607, a man appeared reshivshiysya assume the role of King Demetrius. For information about its origins are so diverse, contradictory and unsupported, that the past it remains completely unknown, can only mean good knowledge of religious books, to conclude that he was of the spiritual through birth or the service. The people gave this a conscious deceiver apt nickname "The Thief", with whom he went down in history. The first more-established facts of his biography is his arrest on suspicion of espionage in a foreign, then the Polish town of Propoisk. Calling himself naked, fleeing revenge Shuyskiy relatives of the slain king Demetrius, he requested a pass to Russ. Appearing around June 12, 1607, Mr.. in Starodub, . "Nude", . himself and a companion, . Rukin-named, . dissolved by the district rumors about the existence of King Demetrius, . When, . August, . representatives and residents Putivel Starodub, . excited by these rumors, . demanded, . threatening him with torture, . show them the king, . he declared himself to Demetrius, and was once solemnly declared,
. Surrounding cities went over to the long-awaited king. One believed the Brigand Starodubtsev sacrificed their lives for "Dimitri", appearing in a camp near Tula Shuyskiy with the king denouncing the abduction of the throne. Awards thief and rumors quickly spread to Russia and Poland, and dragged him martial people. Little resemblance to the first pretender, . rude and lewd, . The thief could not bring confidence or sympathy in close contact with him, . especially saw or knew of his predecessor, for the majority of those present to him, he was only banner, . under which it was possible to pursue those or other personal goals, . and failure or trouble him so easily leave, . as joined,
. Weak-willed and cowardly, not knowing how to subdue and govern, he became a plaything of larger chiefs who have come together for him detachments. In September, numbering up to 3 thousand people army thief, having led the elected hetman Mehovetskogo, moved to Oka, obviously - to help Bolotnikov. In the middle of October magistrates thief already occupied Krapivno, Dedilov, Epiphany, but news of the surrender of Tula (October 10) made his hasty retreat to the south-west, to Karachev. Hence, fearing for himself, he escaped from the wayward and somewhat resentful of the Poles in the Eagle, but was found and returned to the army. There is still fear of persecution by Shuisky, and Dimitri from Karachev continued to go all the small roads on the border, meeting in the way of new marching his troops to the Poles. Tsar Vasily failed to complete the victory and hurried to the capital to celebrate the capture of Tula. Dimitri rallied and again in November moved to Oke. After experiencing a setback at the Bryansk, he stopped for the winter in Orel, which led to him 5 thousand more in the Don Starodub accessions Zarutsky, and from 4 thousands of Poles came to serve P. Rozhen, which was instead Mehovetskogo elected hetman. In the spring of 1608, Mr.. Lisowski and Zarutsky with the Cossacks were sent to the east to raise against Shuisky ukrainian, polish, and the city of Ryazan, and the main forces Rozhinskaya moved to Moscow. One army of the king of Basil was broken when Bolokhovo; in the other (on the ignorance) was overlooked Rozhinskaya, was "shatost" in the magistrates, and had to withdraw. In early June, the thief was already near Moscow, and encamped in Tushino (north-west of Moscow), which was named Tushinskogo. Take Moscow failed, and Tushino became the temporary capital "King Demetrius". In September he was already the queen - Marina, the widow of the first Dimitri. They had created a palace staff, modeled on the Moscow. Developed in Tushino and own boyar duma, . consisted not only of "low-born" supporters Thief, . like Zarutsky, . Ivan Naumov, . Fedor Andronov, . Mikhail Molchanov, . but some of the noblest men, . ridden in Tushino from Shuya, . Prince Trubetskoy, . Mikhail Saltykov, . cousins and relatives of the Romanovs - the princes Sitsky and Cherkassky, . Ivan Godunov and other,
. Were arranged and orders, which were headed by such experienced dealers, as P. Tretyakov, and. Chicherin AND. Gramotin, D. Safonov. There was a Tushino and its patriarch, not yet dedicated, but "betrothed", on whose behalf mailed letters on spiritual matters. It was Metropolitan Filaret of Rostov (in the world Fedor Nikolaevich Romanov), captured in Rostov, but in Tushino lived in freedom and in honor. Under the power Tushinskogo government was a vast territory. Of the major centers only Smolensk in the west, . Kolomna, . which still managed to "vygrabit" Lisowski, . and Pereslavl-Ryazan (Ryazan) - in the south, . Nizhni and Kazan - in the east remained loyal to Tsar Vasily; to them, . after a brief period of oscillation, . joined by Novgorod,
. Untouched by the Troubles of Pomorie did not dare to define its position. Center and South recognized Demetrius. However, men of Tushino failed to intercept all the way to Moscow and most of its isolation. In the capital flared up carts with bread and military men, walked out of her appeal in favor of the king of Basil and the Orthodox faith, trampled "Latin" and "thieves" that have an impact on the oscillating. Trinity-Sergius monastery, the courageous defense chained to a significant force men of Tushino, an Orthodox example of patriotic course of action. Cruelty and violence Tushino governor, strongly extorting fees from different people more for their own pockets than the sovereign's treasury, was too much. By the end of 1608, Mr.. in the Volga and the Trans-Volga local insurrection against Tushin, relying on the Lower and Kazan - On the one hand, Pomerania cities that are now for order and the king against the "thieves" - in other. It was supported by moving from Novgorod to the support by the Swedish detachment (under an agreement made in late February 1609) Skopin-Shuiski and approaches to the Volga to Kazan, Astrakhan troops put down unrest Sheremetev. Men of Tushino suffered defeat and were forced to circle on the edge of their ruined already, not being able to break through to the north. In October 1609, Mr.. Skopin-Shujskij took Alexandrova Sloboda, which soon came Sheremetev and other magistrates. The situation became critical Tushina. At the same time, Sigismund besieged Smolensk, causing so much discontent in Tushinite the Poles, who considered Russia its prey. In Tushino were the royal emissaries who called the Polish and Russian at the service of Sigismund. The thief saw that in the beginning of the dispute and haggle over compensation least think about it, and fled, disguised, in early January 1610, to Kaluga, where they were soon followed him and Marina, have tried unsuccessfully to campaign for him in Tushino. Only the Cossacks, and even then not all followed the "king of Dimitrij; even his lord Zarutsky moved from the Don part of the service of King. Of the noble men of Tushino only a few came in Kaluga (eg Trubetskois), part of the Poles went to Smolensk, in part, as Sapieha, occupied an independent position. The thief left with almost no troops and no followers, but the failure of troops in battle with Shuisky Zolkiewski under Klushin inspired his hopes. he moved to Moscow, and his supporters, offering both Muscovites to depose kings and to choose together the new, played a role in the overthrow of Shuya. But instead of Dimitri capital swore Vladislav; thief, under the pressure Zolkiewski, was forced to return to Kaluga, where drunkenness and hunting spent the last days. Dissatisfaction with self-serving policies of Sigismund gave ground for new attempts Thief. In the capital, had been recaptured some of its agitators; in contact with him were accused prominent boyars, but then things went. December 11, 1610, Mr.. The thief was killed while hunting Tartar Urusov, mstivshim for the execution of the king Kasimov. - A special monograph on Dimitri II no; cm. general works on the history of the Troubles, especially the "Essays on the history of the Troubles, SF. Platonov, and Pierling "La Russie et le S. Siege "(t. III, 1901; Russian - very loose translation under the title "The Pretender Dimitri, Moscow, 1912)


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