Nicholas Lossky Onufrievich( Philosophy)
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Biography Nicholas Lossky Onufrievich
(born 1870), professor of philosophy at the Petrograd University for Women and assistant professor in the department of philosophy at the University of Petrograd. In epistemology Lossky - Representative intuitionism, in which is based on an original theory of the mind. In every act of consciousness is, at least three parties: the conscious entity, is sensitive to the content (any segment of the world) and the ratio of coordination between the subject and content. On the basis of this coordination, . thanks to the attention of the subject, . any segment even the outside world becomes the object of contemplation, . intuition and in the original, . that is, enters himself in the horizon of consciousness of the subject, in other words, . contemplated a segment of the external world becomes immanent consciousness of the subject, . although it remains a transcendent subject of consciousness,
. Thus the subject is able to observe not only their individual mental states, . but the true trans-subjective world, . not only mental, . and material processes, . not only the real (spatio-temporal), . but the ideal being (supratemporal and sverhprostranstvennoe),
. To the knowledge of the subject is required, except an act of attention, even the act of comparing it with other objects that release from the world that should be connected with the subject. This yields the proposition. Acts of knowledge form a subjective, individual-psychological, and that to which they are directed (object and its connection with some sort of party or the other of the world) - the objective side of the judgments. Based on the distinction of subjective and objective side of judgments, as well as the distinction between the concepts of "immanent mind" and "immanent subject of consciousness", Lossky fights against psychologism in epistemology and logic. ц+lцLments judgments is a system consisting of three elements: the subject of judgments, the predicate judgments and attitudes necessary implication of the predicate of the subject, that is, the relations established between them and the consequences. Systemness objective of judgments is nothing, as contemplated knowing the existing system of the world. To make things even, and the real world, ie the world of space-time material and mental events were systemic and therefore knowable, it is necessary that they were bound by relations. But the relationship, forms of order and t. n. - Not events, not processes that occur over time; it - the idea (in Plato's sense), according to which events occur. Consequently, the real world events based on the ideal foundation. Ideal being attached to the world the character of order, meaningfulness, that is reasonable in all possible meanings of the owl. When the object comes into horizons of consciousness of any individual and becomes knowable, that is expressed in a proposition, it is the perfect time the subject played the role of logical forms which determine systemic judgments, conclusions and Science. So, intuitionism Lossky was an attempt of reconciliation of empiricism and rationalism, he also raises the problem of synthesis of positive science and metaphysics. In contrast, Bergson, intuitionism Lossky sees in meditation, that is, in thinking, aimed at the purely ideal being, not removal from life, but on the contrary, the penetration into the deepest foundations of its. A perfect being, he understands how supratemporal world not only in Plato but in the sense plotinovskom. In psychology Lossky - a supporter of voluntarism (XI, 601 ff.). His metaphysical worldview Lossky calls the organic ideal-realism, it is organic because it considers the world as well as organisms and t. forth, as whole, form the basis of the implementation and development of its parts, but are not the product of the summation. Major works of Lossky: "The basic teaching of psychology in terms of voluntarism" (2 nd edition, 1910, in German edition. A. Barth, 1905), "Justification intuitionism" (2 nd edition, 1908; in German edition. M. Niemeyer, 1908), "Collection of elementary exercises in logic" (2 nd ed., 1911), "Introduction to Philosophy. CH. I. "Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge" (1911), "intuitive philosophy of Bergson (2 nd ed., 1914). Many articles published them in "questions of philosophy and psychology", in "New Ways", in "Logos", the collection in honor of the LM. Lopatin and P.F. ц-цгц¦цёц=ц¦ц¦ц=, in The Encyclopedia of Philosophy "(t. I), in 3-m collection of "New Ideas in Philosophy" (1912), in this Vocabulary, and other publications.