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Maikov Apollon Nikolaevich

( One of the greatest poets of the period poslepushkinskogo)

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Biography Maikov Apollon Nikolaevich
photo Maikov Apollon Nikolaevich
Born May 23, 1821, Mr.. Initial development is due to their VA. Solonitsyn and IA. Goncharov, taught him Russian literature. Poetry began writing 15 years. Entering in 1837. Petersburg University in the Faculty of Law, Maikov dreamed of becoming a painter, but also rave reviews Pletnev and Nikitenko for his first poetic experiments, due to the weakness of vision, prompted him to devote himself to literature. In 1842, Mr.. Maikov undertook a journey abroad, nearly a year living in Italy, then in Paris, where together with his brother, Valerian Nikolaevich, attended lectures at the Sorbonne and College de France; on the return journey became close friends with Hanka in Prague. The result of this visit were, on the one hand, "Sketches of Rome" (St. Petersburg, 1847), on the other - PhD thesis on the Old Slavonic Law. Served Maikov first in the Ministry of Finance, was then librarian of the Rumyantsev Museum before transferring him to Moscow, was chairman of the committee of foreign censorship. Died March 8, 1897, Mr.. - Poetry Maikova different steady, contemplative mood, thoughtfulness figure, the precision and clarity of form, but not paint, and a relatively weak lyricism. The latter, besides the natural qualities of talent, due in part to the fact that the poet too carefully worked on finishing the details, sometimes to the detriment of the original inspiration. Verse Maikova in the best of his works is strong and expressive, but in general no different sonority. At the main content Poetry Maikova determined, on the one hand, drevneellinskim aesthetic outlook, with a clearly dominant epicurean character, on the other - the traditions of Russian-Byzantine politics. Subjects of both kinds, although internally in no way connected to each other, equally dear to the poet. As a secondary motive, more noticeable in the first half of the literary activity Maikova, you can specify the peaceful impression Russian rural nature, which he often echoed by his passion for fishing. Maikov immediately acquired the literary name of the poem in anthological kind ", . of which the clarity and completeness of the images are given: "The Dream", . "Memoirs", . Echo and silence ", . "My child, . No, indeed blessed days ", . "Poetry", above all praise of its kind "Emboss",
. One of the "Epicurean song begins with a rare Maikova lyrical outburst:" Mirta Cypris give me! \ What I garlands color? " But then in the second stanza moves gracefully in his usual tone: "Mirta green vine, . \ Elder, . married, . gratifying \ drink under the pergola thick, . \ Indoor grape vine ",
. Characteristically for poetry Maikova poem "After visiting the Vatican Museum". Sculptural impressions of the museum resemble a poet other similar experiences from early childhood, strongly influenced the nature of his work: "Even in infancy he loved to wander my mind \ the dusty chambers of marbles Potemkin. \ ... \ Antika dusty living seemed to me, . \ ... \ I, . vlastvuya my infant mind, . \ They were born with it, . a fairy tale a clever nurse, . \ In the plastic beauty of mythical legends ... \ now, . I'm here now, . in light of their homeland, . \ Where are the gods among men, . having received their image, . lived, . \ And the gaze of his face exposed immortal,
. \ As a distant pilgrim, . among the relics of their, . \ In the articles I was ... "In the excellent poem," Roses "(Department of" Fantasy ") takes an instant impression of the poet of the modern ball in his native ancient world:" ... Ah, . you're to blame, . \ O, . Paestum Rose, . Classic roses! .. "There is remarkable poem" Improvisation "- the only, . in which the plastic poetry Maikova very successful part of the alien to her area of musical sensations: "But sinking again yasneyut sounds ... \ And in the songs of passionate invades jet \ A mournful sound, . pleading, . full meal ..,
. \ He grows, everything grows, and the river flows too ... \ Oh sweet hymn to love in a reminiscence \ Far trills ... but the stone foot \ unrelenting goes, is suffering - \ And every step of his thunder at me ... \ One of a cry in the wilderness of boundless \ sounds, calling to him ... alas Hope not! ... \ He sings ... and among the thunders in his response \ Only a plaintive melody made his way lullaby ". From "Camey" issued "Anacreon", . "Anacreon a sculptor", . "Alcibiades", . Pretoria, and especially the characteristic expression of good-natured and innocent epicurean "youth": "And drink failed! \ Little to the table - and drunk, . \ What and how you care! \ Wise drinking with self-consciousness, . \ And in the light and smell \ Otsenyaet he wine,
. \ He is quietly losing sobriety, \ Thoughts brilliance and playfulness gives, \ contemplating his soul, \ And, owning a passion, anger, \ Staretz nice, pleasant virgins, \ I - pleased with itself ". From "The Message" the first to YA.P. Polonsky, aptly characterizes this poet's very thoughtful and form a message to the P.A. Pletnev ( "For a bunch of eagles, the twelfth year from the heavens descended to us a flock of swans"). With its simple sense of elegance and issued some spring poems Maikova. In the section "Miss Mary. Neapolitan album "really dominated landscape wit rather the relative merits. In "Responses of history" can be considered a true gem "Emshan". Verse stories and pictures from medieval history ( "Claremont Cathedral", . "Savonarola", . "At the Cathedral of Constance", . "Confession Queen" and others), . who became the most popular of the works Maikova, . commendable particularly for a humane spirit, . which they are imbued,
. The main work of the entire poetic life Maikova is a historical tragedy, in final form called "Two Worlds". The first of its germ, . forgotten, . apparently, . the author himself (as he had not been mentioned, . when he speaks about the genesis of his works), . we find in the poems (1845) "Ancient Rome" (in the department of "Sketches of Rome"), . at the end of which directly scheduled topic of "three deaths" and "Death of Lucius",
. "You're the spirit of the powerful, proven in battle, \ I was looking for oblivion ... worthy thee. \ No, . ancient pride in his heart did not consume, . \ The old man taught his sons a cup of poison: \ "As long as the young - ivy and grapes \ ... \ In the end exhausted all, . that can give us peace! \ I, . After drinking all the vials of bliss and enjoyment, . \ To his way of living worthy of crown, . \ In the struggle with the death Try spirit forces, . - \ I, . gathered around his friends, . they opened a vein, . \ Teach universe, . both should die ",
. In 1852, Mr.. on this subject was written by a dramatic sketch, "Three Deaths", complete with "Death of Lucius (1863), and, finally, only in 1881. 6 years after the initial sketch appeared in the final form of "Two Worlds". The work, over which for so long worked for an intelligent and gifted writer, can not be deprived of the major advantages. The idea of pagan Rome is clearly understood and expressed by the poet: "Rome is all together, \ As in the human mind, the world \ The laws also gave the world to countersign. \ And in another place: \ unity reigned in the world. \ Center - Caesar. From it were \ rays to all corners of the earth, . \ And where were, . there appeared \ Trade, . toga, . circus court, . \ And the eternal run \ In the deserts of the Roman road! "Hero of the tragedy lived by faith in Rome and with it dies, . defending it against the impending Christianity, then, . what he believes, . survive all historical accident: "On, . Rome heteras, . clown and mime - \ It is disgusting, . he will fall!.,
. But no, \ After that bears the name of Rome, \ There is something higher!.. Testament \ Results, . that lived for centuries! \ It thought, . ascended me \ And the people and the gods! \ It Prometheus fire \ enduring flame! \ ... \ My mind, . before which all \ reveal the secret of life! \ ... \ Rome, . like sky, . strong set of \ Oblegshy land, . and Peoples, . \ All these thousands of tribes \ Or outdated, . il familiar \ Only in robbery, . multilingual \ tongue and gave the law! "In addition to this basic idea, . Imperial Rome doubly clear roads and poet, . both adjacent to the two worlds of his poetry - to the wonderful world of classical antiquity, . one hand, . and to the world of the Byzantine state - with another: and as elegant epicure, . and as a Russian official, a patriot is here Maikov native elements,
. Unfortunately, the idea of the first Rome - Byzantium - not aware of a poet with such depth and clarity of the idea of the first Rome. He loves the Byzantine-Russian way of life in its historical reality and takes for granted his perfect dignity, not noticing there are no internal contradictions. This belief is so strong that it brings to Maikova apotheosis of Ivan the Terrible, whose greatness if not understood and which "will come another day". We can not, of course, be suspected of sympathy with the humane poet atrocities of Ivan IV, but they did not stop his glory, and in the end he was prepared even to consider them only for the "spike underground Boyar slander and malice alien". At the end of his "Savonarola", . saying, . that the Florentine prophet has always been on the lips of Christ, . Maikov not without reason, asks: "Christ!" He realized it you? " With much more justification can, . sure, . approve, . that the pious founder oprichnina "did not understand Christ" but the poet, this time completely forgotten, . what religion was his hero, . - Otherwise he would agree, . that the representative of the Christian kingdom, . does not understand Christ, . alien and hostile to its spirit, . a phenomenon, . anyway, . abnormal, . not worthy of apotheosis,
. The poem "At the tomb of Ivan the Terrible" makes obvious the fact (attested most supportive to our poet critics, . eg insurance), . that in "two worlds" the Christian world, . despite all the efforts of talented and skilled author, . shows much weaker than the pagan world,
. Even such a bright personality, . as Paul, . presented features of infidels and at the end of the tragedy Decius passes had heard the preaching of Paul, . consisting of all the apocalyptic imagery and "Apology", . that does not correspond to the actual method and style of preaching Pavlova,
. In the "two worlds", . of the great works of Maikova deserve attention: "Wanderer", . excellent reproduction of concepts and language of extreme Russian sectarians, "Princess", . several excellent places, . In general, however, this poem is different, and stretched out the complicated and lastly, . "Bringilda", . which initially gives the impression of magnificent sculptural group, . But this impression is further weakened by verbosity actors,
. Mike - a great translator (for example, Heine), it belongs to poetic transcription "Lay". In general, poetry Maikova remain one of the major and interesting phenomena of Russian Literature. Vl. Soloviev.
In the first printing of the poem Maikova ( "Dream" and "Scene Nights") appeared in the "Odessa's Almanac" for 1840, followed with a number of poems in the "Library for Reading" and "Notes of the Fatherland", and in 1842, Mr.. "Poems Ap. Maikova "came out in book form (St. Petersburg). Concerning the Eastern War Maikov wrote several poems, then emerged as a special book, entitled: "1854" (St. Petersburg, 1855). In 1858, Mr.. "Poems Ap. Maikova "issued a graph GA. Kushelev-Bezborodko, in 1879. - Prince VP. Meshchersky. "The Complete Works of AN. Maikova "(St. Petersburg, 1884, 9 th revised and enlarged edition, edited by PV. Bykov, St. Petersburg, 1914 [Annex to the "Cornfield"]). Biographical materials: H. Barsukov "Memories of Maikova" ( "Russian Review, 1897, V; separately, St. Petersburg, 1898); H. Barsukov "Life and Works Pogodina; M. Zlatkovsky Mike. Biographical Sketch "(St. Petersburg, 1888, 2 nd edition, St. Petersburg, 1898); In. Kulchynsky "Memories of Maikova" ( "Historical Journal", 1911, V); A. Nikitenko, Dnevnik, C. Umanets "From the memoirs of Maikova" ( "Historical Journal, 1897, V); E. Stackenschneider "From the notes" ( "Russian Messenger", 1901, V - VIII); D. Languages "Life and Works Maikova" ( "Russian Messenger", 1897, V - XII; separately, Moscow, 1898). Critical articles about Maikov: S. Eichenwald "Silhouettes of Russian Writers (Issue II); N. Ammon "On the anniversary of the death Maikova" ( "Journal of the Ministry of National Education", 1898, IV); AND. Ann ( "Russian School", 1898, Book II); F. Batiushkov "Critical Essays" (St. Petersburg, 1900); M. Borodkin, writing poetry Maikova "(St. Petersburg, 1900); In. Belinsky "Works", edited by C. Vengerov (Vol. VI - VII); In. Goltsev "The painter and art critic" (Moscow, 1898) and A. Grigoriev's works; H. Dob "Works"; A. Druzhinin, "Works" (Vol. VII); F. Zelinsky "From the world of ideas" (Volume I); D. Merezhkovsky "Eternal Companions" (3rd edition, St. Petersburg, 1908, and "Works"); About. Miller ( "Russian Thought", 1888, V - VI); N. Michael's "Works"; H. Nekrasov, "Contemporary" (1855, III); Pisarev "Works"; In. Pokrovsky "Collected papers" (Moscow, 1904, 2 nd edition, Moscow, 1911); M. Sukhomlinov "Features of poetic creativity Maikova, Explained by himself" ( "Russian Antiquities", 1899, Book VIII); N. Strakhov "Notes on Pushkin and other poets" (Kiev, 1897); H. Chernyshevski "Works".


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Maikov Apollon Nikolaevich, photo, biography
Maikov Apollon Nikolaevich, photo, biography Maikov Apollon Nikolaevich  One of the greatest poets of the period poslepushkinskogo, photo, biography
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