Macarius (Mikhail Bulgakov)( Metropolitan of Moscow)
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Biography Macarius (Mikhail Bulgakov)
(1816 - 1882), a famous church historian and theologian. At the end of the Kiev Theological Academy, where he taught Russian history, civil and ecclesiastical. In 1842, Mr.. Makarios moved to the St. Petersburg Academy on the faculty of theology. His lectures came out in 1847, Mr.. entitled "Introduction to Orthodox theology" and brought the author a doctorate. In 1849, Mr.. appeared the first volume of "Dogmatic Theology", to five volumes (now re-issued in two large volumes). Both works still serve as guides in seminaries. In the abbreviated form "Guide for the Study of Christian Orthodox dogmatic theology" heretofore issued, by definition, the Holy Synod, as a textbook. It has been translated into Greek and used in schools in the East, as almost symbolic book of the Orthodox Church. From 1846, Mr.. began publication "History of the Russian Church" in thirteen volumes - work that has the same importance to the theological life as a work of Solovyov for Russian history. Added to it is the "History of the Russian division, known as the Old Believers'. In 1850, Mr.. Makarios was appointed rector of the Academy and was elevated to the rank of bishop. In 1854, Mr.. Academy of Sciences has selected its academician. Macarius, edited the "Reading of Christ, placed in it, as well as in" Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences ", a lot of articles, read abstracts of the meetings compartment II Academy. Hard-working, educated, highly valued cultural stratum of society, Makarios soon made many enemies. In 1857, Mr.. gave him an honorary exile in Tambov. In 1859, Mr.. He was appointed in Kharkov, in 1868, Mr.. - The chair of the Lithuanian, and in 1879. Metropolitan of Moscow. Everywhere spiritual rabble treated with hostility. In Moscow, a newspaper baiting made his Metropolitan specialty, sling mud at all his speech, clearly hinted at his political views. Representatives of obscurantism were right in the sense that the scientist and noble hierarch could not belong to them going black. In all important cases, he went to meet society's demands and move forward. Not without reason, some researchers believe that Makarios indebted to the pre-reform religious schools, the past is certainly better than the present. Established in the early XIX. with the participation of such figures, . as Speransky, . Golitsyn, . arranged and managed by the famous Commission of Religious Schools, . the school has not yet been disfigured reforms Protasov, . roused from their pets a serious attitude to everything around, . had their requests to the free discussion of life and spirit,
. In the sixties Makarios, Archbishop already participated in the work on the reform of theological school and ardently defended the need to provide it free of development in accordance with the requirements of time. His views on the formulation of the case in the middle and lower school, the church awakened hatred of reactionaries. Academic Statute 1869, which until now mourn, as the irretrievable past, the best representatives of theological science, came to life only through the talented and persistent protection of its principles Macarius. It is called "Makarevsky charter". In the seventies, Makarios chaired the committee to reform the ecclesiastical court and conducted business in the direction of useful changes. But this resistance was very strong, and everything remained as before. - There may be no marked traits of the high nobility, Decorating memory Macarius. On its relation to the elbows to the enemy, academician E.E. Golubinskaya, cm. Volume XIV, page 64. Even more characteristic of his attitude to the Bishop Alexis (п-.пг. Lavrov). Lavrov was a stubborn opponent of any plans for Macarius of transformation of the court and issued an anonymous book, "Alleged reform of the ecclesiastical court, against the Makarios - action," not quite correct with regard to the chairman of the committee ". Fate brought the adversaries in Moscow, where Makarios was the Metropolitan, and Alexis vicar. Makarios not made the slightest movement to get rid of cooperation Alexis, and even expressed his pleasure at the fact that it can use the help. - At the beginning of his literary career-trained for Makarios has pledged to make savings from the sale of his works. These savings, he bequeathed to the Academy of Sciences, the Synod and spiritual academies. Annual interest on the amount of 5000 rubles transferred alternately from the academy in the Synod for awarding scientific works. Amounts rejected by academies, go to the same subject. Makarios was also an outstanding preacher. - See. GI. Titov, Moscow, Metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomna "(Volumes I - II, Kiev, 1895 - 1903); his" Moscow Metropolitan M. Bulgakov. For 25 years from the date of death "(" Theological Journal, 1907, July); Professor VF. Kiparisov "Metropolitan of Moscow Macarius, as a preacher" ( "Theological Journal, 1893). A.