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Merezhkovsky Dmitry

( Famous poet, novelist, critic and essayist)

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Biography Merezhkovsky Dmitry
Born in 1866. His father held a prominent place in the Palace Office. He graduated from the course to the historical-philological faculty of St. Petersburg University. He is married to the famous poet-modernist Z.N. Gippius (XIII, 577). With 15 years placed the poems in various publications. The first collection of his poems appeared in 1888. Much Merezhkovsky, beginning its work, translated from Greek and Latin, in the Journal of Europe "(1890) published a number of his translations of the tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides. Separate out a prose translation of "Daphnis and Chloe", Long (1896). Translations tragedians graceful, . but, . early Merezhkovsky advocates and as criticism: the "Northern Messenger end of 1880, . "Russian Review", . "Work" and other publications were printed in his sketches on Pushkin, . Dostoevsky, . Goncharov, . Maikova, . Korolenko, . Pliny, . Calderone, . Cervantes, . Ibsen, . French neoromantikov and pr,
. Some of them included in the collection: "Eternal Companions" (from 1897. 4 ed.). In 1893, Mr.. published his book "On the causes of the decline of modern Russian literature". The largest of the critical works Merezhkovsky (originally printed in the body of new literary and artistic currents "World of Art") - a study on "Tolstoy and Dostoevsky" (2 volumes, with 1901. 3 ed.). Among other critics, journalistic works out separately: "Gogol and the Devil" (from 1906. 2 nd Ed.), M.Yu.. Lermontov, the poet supermanism "(1909 and 1911), the book" Two secrets of Russian Poetry. In "Northern Messenger 1895. Merezhkovsky debuted at the field of the historical novel "Les Miserables", constituting the first part of the trilogy "Christ and Antichrist". The second part - "Resurrected Gods. Leonardo da Vinci "- appeared in 1902, the third -" The Antichrist. Peter and Alex "- in 1905. In 1913, Mr.. published separately (published in Russian Thought ") 2-volume novel," Alexander I ". In the early 1900-ies Merezhkovsky, discard strip Nietzscheanism, becoming one of the leaders of the so-called "God-seeking" and "neohristianstva" and together with H. Gippius, Rozanov, Minsk, Filosofova etc.. founds the "religious and philosophical assembly" and their body - "New Way". In connection with this rebuilt outlook, and has received striking expression in the study of Tolstoy and Dostoevsky, Merezhkovsky wrote a number of separate articles on religious issues. Since the mid 1900-ies Merezhkovsky wrote many satirical articles publicist in "Speeches" and others. newspapers, and in recent years is a permanent member of the Russian Word. Religious and journalistic articles Merezhkovsky collected in the books: "The Coming Ham" (1906), "Still Waters Run Deep" (1908), "not peace but a sword" (1908), "Patient Russia" (1910), "It will be. Diary "(1915). In Paris Merezhkovsky, together with W. Gippius DV. Filosofova, published the book "Le Tsar et la Revolution" (1907). Cooperation with them is to write a drama in the life of the revolutionaries: "poppy" (1908). Drama Merezhkovsky "Paul I" (1908) brought the prosecution, but the court acquitted the author and the book was released from arrest. The first collection of essays published by the partnership Merezhkovsky M.O. Wolf (1911 - 13) at 17 tons, the second - DI. Sytin in 1914. 24 m. (from the bibliography compiled by O.YA. Larin). Merezhkovsky novels and a book about Tolstoy and Dostoevsky, translated into many languages and established his loud renown in Western Europe. - Distinctive features of the various activities Merezhkovsky - the predominance of head concoction over direct feeling. With an extensive literary education, and diligently followed the European literary movement, Merezhkovsky nearly always inspired by the mood of the book -. Least of all Merezhkovsky interesting as a poet. Verse of his elegant, but the imagery and animation in it is small, and, in general, his poetry does not warm the reader. He often falls into a stilted and bombast. On the content of his poetry Merezhkovsky first of all closely related to Nadson. Not being a "civil" poet in the narrow sense of the word, he is willing to develop such motives, as the supreme value of love for neighbor ( "Sakya Muni"), praised the willingness to suffer for their beliefs ( "Habakkuk"), and t. n. At one of the works of the first period of Merezhkovsky - poem "Faith" - dropped his biggest success as a poet, live pictures of the spiritual life of young people early 1880 concluded with a call to work for the benefit of society. Since the late 1880 Merezhkovsky captures the wave of symbolism and Nietzscheanism. Mysticism or at least romantic in the clear to dry Writers temperament Merezhkovsky absolutely not, why, and "characters" to pass into bathos and lifeless allegory. - Broadly conceived "trilogy" Merezhkovsky, is meant to portray the struggle of Christ and the Antichrist in world history. Extremely artificial conception, there is little visible in the first novel, vividly acted on the form, when the trilogy was completed. If it was still possible to see the struggle of Christ and the Antichrist in the person of Julian the Apostate, the purely external nature of this comparison is applied to the Renaissance, when the rebirth of ancient art allegedly "resurrected gods" of antiquity. In the third part of the trilogy comparison rests solely on the fact that the dissenters saw Antichrist in Petra. Most design comparison of Christ and the Antichrist is not tenable, with the concept of Christ is connected something infinitely great and eternal, with the concept of the Antichrist - only superstition. The same can be said about other leitmotifs trilogy - borrowed from Nietzsche's thought, . that the psychology of transitional periods contributes to the birth of strong characters, . approaching the type of "super-man": the presentation of the "transitional" era of conflict with the idea of continuity of world history and the gradual historical evolution,
. Especially evident artificiality of this idea applied to Peter, the science of history is firmly established view that Peter's reform was only a spectacular conclusion long before they began the assimilation of European culture. In purely artistic terms above other first novel. It has a lot of bias, the psychology of Julian the Apostate, the largest full of contradictions, but some of the details worked out perfectly sometimes. Taking a trip to Greece, thoroughly acquainted with ancient and new literature on Julian, the author entered into the spirit of Hellenism, and managed to convey not only the external life of antiquity, but its very essence. In "Resurrection gods" Merezhkovsky with a special passion is given to the side Nietzscheanism, which replaces the morality of worship of force and puts the art of "beyond good and evil". Merezhkovsky throughout the novel emphasizes the complete moral indifference of the great artist, . contributing the same enthusiasm and in the construction of the temple, . and plan a special type of brothels, . a concoction of various useful inventions, . and the device "the ear of the tyrant Dionysius", . by which investigators can listen quietly,
. The second part of the trilogy, as the third - not quite fiction, not less than half take extracts from original documents, diaries and t. n. Even less can be ranked both the novel to the true history. Thanks, however, though tendentious, but a bright idea, backed by colorful quotes, "The Resurrection of the Gods" - one of the most interesting books on the Renaissance, it is recognized even in rich Western European literature. In the third part of the trilogy Peter "the Great" largely fades away, and at the forefront Peter more "Terrible" than "Terrible" Ivan the. Before us are pictures of wild debauchery, drunkenness, ugliest, most flagrant foul in the whole of the Asiatic main role played by the great planter of "Europeanism". Merezhkovsky concentrated in one focus all brutal in Petra. New series of historical fact Merezhkovsky started drama "Paul I" and a great novel, "Alexander I". Personality of Paul and the tragedy of his death highlighted the author alone, without derogating from the personality of the Emperor. Alexander era developed a rather superficial, and Decembrists movement - even lightly. In an effort to find in the Decembrists "human, all too human", author conceal them, then certainly heroic, which they had. - In critical work of his Merezhkovsky upholds the same principles, which are kept in creative activity. In his first articles, . example, . of Korolenko, . still feel the jet Populism early 80-ies, . almost disappear in the book "On the causes of the decline of modern literature", . in later articles, . giving way to not only indifference to the old ideals, . even some despicable to them,
. In the 1890's morality Nietzsche's "super-men" so fascinated Merezhkovsky that he was ready to include the desire for moral ideal among the petty-bourgeois conventions and templates. In the book "On the causes of the decline of modern Russian literature" not a few well-aimed features, . but the overall trend is unclear, the author has not hesitated quite definitely put a hidden thesis of his Etudes - healing power, and the utilitarian school of Russian criticism, . but his own article is very biased,
. Thus, absorbed preparatory work for the second novel of a trilogy, he was brilliant, but extremely paradoxical sketch of Pushkin found in the Russian national poet "Florentine" mood. In the period of fascination with religious issues Merezhkovsky approached disassembled works primarily with the theological point of view. This special point of view is not prevented, however, the study Merezhkovsky of Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky to become one of the most original events of Russian criticism. The artist himself, Merezhkovsky subtly examines the essence of the artistic manner of Tolstoy, which it describes as seer of the flesh, as opposed to the clairvoyant spirit - Dostoevsky. Possessing remarkable skill mix your own description skillfully chosen quotes, Merezhkovsky made from his research one of the most fascinating of Russian books. As in the study of Tolstoy and Dostoevsky, and in other articles Merezhkovsky attempts to justify a new religious world view are as follows. Merezhkovsky comes from the old theory of dualism. A man consists of spirit and flesh. Paganism asserted the flesh at the expense of spirit ", and the reason that it collapsed. Christian church has put forward the ascetic ideal of "spirit at the expense of the flesh". In fact, Christ asserts equivalence, ravnosvyatost Spirit and the Flesh "and" The Church is the coming of the Holy Church of the flesh and the Holy Spirit ". Next to the "historic" and has "who came" Christianity should be the turn for "the apocalyptic Christ". In humanity now denote the desire for this "second Christ". Officially, the "historical" Christianity Merezhkovsky called "positive", t. e. reassured ostyvshim. It was erected before mankind solid "wall" defined, petrified truths and beliefs, it does not give one's fancy and lively sense. In particular "historical" Christianity, bowing to the ascetic ideal, subjected to persecution peculiar carnal love. For the "apocalyptic" aspirations Merezhkovsky question of sex is primarily "our new issue", he says, not only about the "Holy Flesh", but also about the "sacred sensuality". This rather sudden shift from the religious aspirations of lust confused and very Merezhkovsky. In response to religious critics charge he is ready to admit that in its relation to "historical Christianity" is "the danger of heresy, which can be called, as opposed to asceticism, heresy astartizma, t. e. mixing and blasphemous desecration of the spirit of flesh ". Incomparably more valuable than the other side of the religious quest Merezhkovsky. The second of his "two major issues, two of doubt" - "more effective than the contemplative question of the unconscious of the historical subordination of Christianity to the pagan Imperium Romanum": the relation of church and state. Being in the early 1900-ies in the "religious-philosophical" assembly, Merezhkovsky harshly criticized our whole church system, with its police methods plantation piety. This criticism, coming from the circle of people who claimed that they were not atheists and positivists, and seekers of religion, at one time made a strong impression. As a publicist, Merezhkovsky too unstable in their likes and dislikes, to have a serious impact. He has spoken and as an apologist of the autocracy, and as a defender of ideas diametrically opposed. It is not always stable Merezhkovsky and as a practical leader, in 1912. made a very unfavorable impression of the publication of his strangely affectionate correspondence with A.S. Suvorin. - An extensive literature on Merezhkovsky cm. in the bibliography A.G. Fomina in II T. "Literature of the twentieth century." Ed. SA. Vengerov (Moscow, ed., "World"). S. Vengerov.


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