Merzlyakov Alexei Fyodorovich( Famous critic and poet)
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Biography Merzlyakov Alexei Fyodorovich
(1778 - 1830). Born into a poor family of merchants. He studied at the Perm People's College, where he attracted the attention of "Ode to the conclusion of peace with the Swedes, which has reached the Empress Catherine II. Him at government expense identified in the Moscow university gymnasium. As a student, he became close to Zhukovsky and was a member of Friendly Literary Society, set out to "clean taste, to develop and define the notion of all that gracefully, that excellent". Indebted to the advice he Dmitrieva. The first poems appeared in the experiments Merzlyakova journal Podshivalova: "A pleasant and useful pastime" (1796). The young poet imitated Lomonosov Derzhavin Karamzin. In the "dawn" Merzlyakov put ode: "incomprehensible", clearly designed to compete with an ode Derzhavina "God". It printed "The Song of Moses in the passage of the Red Sea", which had a special success, and translate "Ars Poetica" ( "Science Poems"), Horace. In 1804, Mr.. Merzlyakov received a master's degree and the department of Russia's eloquence and poetry, which had been held at Moscow University until his death. In early 1812. Merzlyakov opened a series of public lectures, picking up the color of the literary and aristocratic society. Interrupted by Napoleon's invasion, the lectures were resumed in 1816, Mr.. and provided analysis of the most popular works of contemporary Russian literature. In general Merzlyakov was the most prominent representative of the university philology during the first third of the XIX century. When joining the department he had not found in Russian literature of the domination of any one particular and public school. Authority Sumarokova seemed unshakable, Lomonosov's name as a poet - a sacred. "Rossiada" Kheraskov considered the last word of Russian epic genius, on the other hand, the audience engrossed ballads Zhukovsky, and with it penetrated the misty images of German Romanticism. A little later, in the most mature period Merzlyakova professors, began to appear early works of Pushkin. Natural, highly developed artistic taste prevented Merzlyakov withdraw into classical scholasticism. He first divided the teaching of Russian literature from the ancient literature and informed the Department of Russian literature of independent significance. Before Merzljakov analysis of samples of domestic speech occurred on the basis of Latin rhetorics. Merzlyakov introduced in the teaching of personal critical talent, highlighted the national content of Russian works, and the old leadership was replaced by new. But the reform did not go further. In Merzljakov did not have enough courage and energy to finally break with the tradition of pedantry. He laid the foundation of his teaching of writing German aesthetics Eschenburg. He had compiled "a brief tracing of the theory of belles-lettres" and "Short rhetoric", a translation or paraphrase ideas Eschenburg, but the translator is often inserted in the text of such thoughts, . are far from conducive to the original: "The works of Fine Arts, . - Wrote, . example, . Merzlyakov, . - As a matter of feeling and taste, . not subject to strict rules and can not, . seems, . have a permanent system or science of fine ",
. A much more important than any rules - the criticism of taste. This duality of ideas and techniques through all the activities Merzlyakova. In theory it is, for example, according to Horace, he shared all the poetry of two kinds - the epic and dramatic, and lyrical poetry included in the category of epic. More originality and historical significance are critical articles Merzlyakova, . appearing in the Proceedings of the Society of Lovers Russia Letters ", . in the Journal of Europe "Kachenovsky and in the magazine" Amphion ", . which produced Merzlyakov with F.F,
. Ivanov and SV. Smirnov. Occurring here reviews of the most important writers of Russian literature often characterized by high critical acumen and artistic flair. Article: "Discourse on Russia's literature in its present condition" ( "Proceedings", . 1812, . I) describes the activities Merzlyakov Trediakovsky, . Sumarokova, . University, . Derzhavina, . Kheraskov, . Ozerov, . Krylov, . quite apart from theoretical piitik,
. Value "Telemahidy" Trediakovsky he tries to identify the historical point of view: about Sumarokova and Ozerov reads a sharp rebuke to imitate the French, . "mental slavery" of Russian writers, at the University expresses censure predilection for solemn odes, . because "people only entertaining for the people", with the same terms praised Derzhavin for use of commonplace, . popular expressions,
. In the "News of Europe" Merzlyakov published a lengthy essay analyzes Sumarokov Ozerov's tragedy, "Miller" Ablesimova (1817, part 91 - 94), in "Proceedings" - an article about Derzhavin (1820, XVIII) and "Letter from Siberia" (1818, XI). These articles should be considered the most complete reflection of the critical talent Merzlyakova. In discrediting the works Sumarokov, more precise and reasonable definition of poetic merit Lomonosov and artistic talent Derzhavina Merzlyakov was a predecessor of Nadezhdin and Belinsky. He lacked, however, the integrity and consistency of guidelines. "That's where the system", he told his audience, pointing to the heart and reducing the criticism, thus, to experience that in addition had to put up with constant rumors of Professor of "rules". Hence the contradictions and confusion of ideas on that and pointed contemporary Merzlyakov Venevitinov. The young critic noted yet another, . perhaps the more significant, . Merzlyakov lack of aesthetics: the professor had not followed the development of their science, . over time, even just left the study of its, . his lectures turned into improvisation, . in the analysis of works of Lomonosov or Derzhavina, . accidentally caught sight of the disclosure of the book at the Department,
. Emerging phenomena in the field of literature Merzlyakova caught by surprise: he or subjected them to court with a narrow scholastic point of view, or showed confusion of critical thinking. For example, in "Letters from Siberia", he attacked the ballads and the "spirit of the Germanic poets on this basis:" What is the spirit which breaks all the rules piitiki, mix together all kinds, comedy with tragedy, songs of satire, a ballad with a one and pr. and so forth? "The appearance of Pushkin Merzlyakova plunged into confusion. Witnesses said that reading "Prisoner of the Caucasus", Merzlyakov cried: "He felt that it was fine, but could not realize in this Beauty and - silent".
Duality and unfinished note Merzlyakova and as a poet. Practicing the ceremonial genre University and Derzhavina Merzlyakov is patriotic and religious feelings by the most exquisite rhetorical figures, and in "high style". Rather extensive in Merzlyakova Department poems on academic celebration, here is compensated by the bombastic form of ecstatic faith of the author in science. Much more poetic dignity have Merzlyakov songs and ballads, many of them set to music. Sometimes sentimental tone hurts the depth of feelings; conditional exclamations, formulaic turnovers are frequent - but some songs resemble Merzlyakova best Koltsovskaya songs. Such, for example, "I did not think about anything in the world to grieve," "black-browed, black-eyed fellow brave," "Waiting" ( "I feel disgusted sweet girl waiting for a friend"), the famous "Solitude" ( "Among the Spreading Vale). In poems for children affected humane nature of the author, special vividness different "chorus of small children Natasha". Merzlyakov many translated. The best of his translations - "Eclogite" Virgil and Teokrita. Articles and lectures Merzlyakova still not issued. Poetry published by the Society for lovers of Russian literature in Moscow in 1867, in two parts, with annotations MN. Longinov. Biography Merzljakov - in the "biographical dictionary of professors and teachers of Moscow University (Moscow, 1855, h. II); information about it in the book M. Dmitriev "Trifles from a stock of my memory" (2 nd ed., Moscow, 1869). Assessment Merzlyakova as a theorist and critic, cm. in IM. Belorussova "The beginnings of Russian literary criticism" (No.. 2 nd, 1888). - Wed. P.N. Sakulin Prince VF. Odoyevski "(t. I, h. 1, p. 49 - 56). New archival material - from VM. Istrin, articles about the literary society of friends and younger Turgenev circle ( "Journal of the Ministry of National Education, 1910," 8, and 1913,? 3); "Archive Turgenev brothers" (No.. 2 nd, 1911).
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