Miller, Gerhard Friedrich (Fedor Ivanovich)( historian and academician)
Comments for Miller, Gerhard Friedrich (Fedor Ivanovich)
Biography Miller, Gerhard Friedrich (Fedor Ivanovich)
Born October 18, 1705, Mr.. in Westphalia, the son of the rector of the school, attended the University of Leipzig. In 1725, Mr.. Miller went to Russia and established a student at the newly founded Academy of Sciences. Supported influential Schumacher, . Miller first years after his arrival he taught Latin, . history and geography of the academic school, . kept records of academic meetings and the Office, . published the "St. Petersburg Vedomosti, . the "Notes", . designed for a broader readership,
. In 1731, Mr.. Miller received the title of professor, but lost favor Schumacher, among them there was an irreconcilable enmity. Since 1732, Mr.. Miller began publishing a collection of articles relating to Russia: "Sammlung russ. Geschichte "(1732 - 1765, 9 tons). This was the first edition, thoroughly acquaint foreigners with the Russian land and its history. Meanwhile, filled with so-called "Second Kamchatka Expedition," in which on behalf of the Academy, took part and Miller. Not once on Kamchatka, Miller has traveled the main points of the western and eastern Siberia, within Bereza Ustkamenogorsk-Nerchinsk-Yakutsk (31362 mile route) and thoroughly rummaged through local archives, opening the way, Siberian Chronicle Remezov. The ten-year (1733 - 1743) stay in Siberia enriched Miller mass of valuable information on the ethnography of foreigners, local archeology and modern condition of the edge. Especially important was removed Miller, a huge collection of archival documents, he used only a tiny portion of them, but they were and still continue to serve until now an important tool for individual scientists and institutions for the entire. Princes MM. Shcherbatov, Golikov, Slovtsov, Novikov for "Ancient Russia Vivliofiki, Count Rumyantsev for" Assembly of the State Literacy and Contracts ", Archaeological and Ethnographic Commission, etc.. owe Miller. Miller returned to St. Petersburg in the midst of academic intrigue and, except for Schumacher, has amassed a another implacable enemy in Lomonosov. In 1748, Mr.. Miller received Russian citizenship and was appointed historiographer. In 1749, Mr.. Miller had a big trouble on the speech, prepared them for the commemorative meeting, the Academy: "The origin and name of the people of Russia". Some academics (Lomonosov, Krasheninnikov, Popov) found it "objectionable Russia". Miller charged that "throughout the speech, no cases did not show the glory of Russia's people, but only mentioned that more that can serve to shame". Intolerance, which was greeted with the theory of Scandinavian origin Normans - the founders of the Russian state, much is explained by the then political relations of Russia to Sweden. It already printed, was destroyed, but appeared in 1768, Mr.. in "Allgemeune historische Bibliothek", t. IV, under the title: "Origines Rossicae". In 1750, Mr.. academic squabbles echoed Miller's demotion it from academics in an associate and a decrease in salary from 1000 to 360 p. year. Soon, however, Miller was pardoned under the condition of pre-petition for forgiveness. Sam Miller, however, is not always turned out perfect in his relations with fellow members. In 1750, Mr.. he published the first volume of "Description of the Siberian kingdom" - the first correct scholarly work on Siberian history (Pypin). 2-nd t. was published only in excerpts printed in the "Sammlung russisch. Geschichte "and" Monthly Works ". Miller is very slow to work, and requested the Academy to continue its Academician Fischer, but "Sibirische Geschichte" last (St. Petersburg, 1768; Russian Trans. St. Petersburg, 1774) - no continuation, but only an abbreviated paraphrase of Miller's works (as printed, and still lingered in the manuscript). The work of Fisher Busching as mere plagiarism. - In 1754, the rank of the conference Secretary Academy, Miller conducted an extensive correspondence with foreign scholars, professors summoned to Moscow University. In 1755 - 1765 years, he edited the monthly edition, to use and entertaining the servants "- the first periodic help of an erudite literary publication in Russian. It was attended by all modern writers, enjoyed fame; Miller put himself there are many articles on Siberia. Of the actual historical works of Miller, . except for "Origines Rossicae", . important: "On the chronicler Nestor" ( "Monthly Works", . 1755), . "The news of the Zaporozhye Cossacks" (ibid., . 1760), . "About the beginning of Novgorod and the origin of the people of Russia" (ibid., . 1761, . and "Samml,
. russ. Gesch. ")" Experience of a new history of Russia "(ibid.). Although the "Nestor" Miller is only the repetition and development of the thoughts expressed earlier Tatishchev, but as the work of the last ( "History of Russia", t. I) appeared only in 1768, the provisions of Miller (author of the original record - Nestor, Nestor had predecessors, successors shown) had novelty value, actually with them begins the story of scientific acquaintance with the Russian chronicles. Frightened by the fate of his speech in 1749, Miller in 1761, Mr.. It is suggested that the founders of the Russian state were Roksolana, from the Baltic Sea. Later in the book "The peoples who inhabited since ancient times in Russia" (Busching's "Magazin", t. XV, Russian Trans., St. Petersburg, 1773), he pointed to the presence of the Norman element in the south. In "Experience a new history of Russia" the author would like to continue Tatishcheva, . Lomonosov, but did not like, . Miller conducted research on the Time of Troubles Godunov and defrocked - the darkest part of Russia's history ", . and he managed to bring an end to this labor,
. Miller participated in the drafting of Voltaire's "Histoire de l'empire de Russie sous Pierre le Grand", presentation materials, and their comments. In 1765, Mr.. Miller was appointed chief warden of the Moscow orphanage, leaving at the Academy of Sciences at the rank of historiography, and in a year defined by the head of the Moscow archive of foreign board (now the Moscow. main archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs). Stricken with paralysis (1772), Miller continued to work tirelessly until his death (October 11, 1783). The Moscow period of Miller's life was marked by the publication of these valuable monuments and works of Russian scientists, such as: Sudebnik Tsar Ivan the Terrible, Power book, "Letters of Peter the Great to Count B.P. Sheremetev "," The core of the history of Russia "(Mankeeva)," History of Russia "(Tatishcheva)," Geographical Dictionary (Polunin), "Description of Kamchatka" (Krasheninnikov). In the "work experience of a free collection of Russia" (IV, V) Miller, published a series of articles about the birth, upbringing, the accession and coronation of Peter the Great, the establishment of the first Guards regiments. Appointing Miller Archive foreign counterparts, Catherine asked him to form a "collection of Russian Diplomatique, like Dumont. The old man could not have done himself a lot, but he has prepared students, in his school have developed such an excellent scholar and archivist publisher, as NN. Bantysh-Kamensky. Upon the death of Miller has remained a collection of autographs and manuscripts (in the 258 portfolios), important for the study of history, ethnography, statistics, and industry in Russia and, in particular, Siberia. - Literature: "Beitrage zu der Lebensgeschichte denkwurdiger Personen" (Halle, 1785, t. III, 1 - 160; Miller biography compiled Bushing); Pekarsky "History of the Academy of Sciences" (t. I and II); "Literarischer Briefwechsel on J. D. Michaelis "(Leipzig, 1795, II, 511 - 536; correspondence for 1762 - 1763 years);" A. L. Schlozer's offentliches u. privates Leben, von ihm selbst beschrieben "(GцTttingen, 1802; Russian Trans. in Compendium 2 branches of the Academy of Sciences ", t. XIII); "Materials for biography Lomonosov" (collected Bilyarskim); Pekarsky Editor, employee and censorship in the Russian magazine 1755 - 1764 years "(" Notes of the Academy of Sciences ", t. XII); Milutin (in the "Contemporary", 1851, vols. XXV and XXVI, the contents of the Monthly Works "); Metropolitan Eugene" Dictionary of Russian secular writers "(t. II, 54 - 89); Starchevsky "Essay on the literature of Russian history to Karamzin; Kachenovsky" On the historical works and the merits of Miller's "(Studies of the Moscow University", 1839, No. 1, 2); Solovyov, GM-F. Miller "(" Contemporary ", 1854, t. XLVII,? 10); Koyalovich "History of Russian national consciousness"; Pypin "History of Russian Ethnography; Miliukov" Main Currents of Russian historical thought. "