Miller Orest Fedorovich( Famous historian of Russian literature)
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Biography Miller Orest Fedorovich
Born August 4, 1833, Mr.. in Gapsale, in a German family and was baptized by Lutheran rite, named Oscar. Three years became an orphan and was taken on the upbringing of his wife's uncle, a Russian by origin. Received an excellent education at home. Under the influence of Plato Archimandrite (later Metropolitan of Kiev), Miller, 15 years old, quite consciously joined the Orthodox. He graduated from the course of History and Philology of St. Petersburg University. Even earlier, wrote a poem "On the death of Zhukovsky (in the" Northern Bee, 1852), a patriotic drama "The feat of the mother," a historical drama in verse "Conradin". His "Historical Essays on Poetry," printed in the Journal of the Ministry of National Education, "included in his famous thesis:" On the moral element in poetry on the basis of historical data "(St. Petersburg, 1858). Scientific dignity thesis is very small. The very choice of task - to survey a small study of the leading ideas of literature of all time, led to the superficiality and bias. The material is taken not from primary sources, and their guides and manuals, for the most part - from the book of Hegelian Rosenkranz: "Die Poesie und ihre Geschicgte". Following the method of Rosenkranz, Miller handed appraisal pre-Christian literature with a Christian perspective, no hesitation, for example, declaring Greek mythology and literature immoral. The scientific shortcomings of the book, mainly, its wrong attitude toward epos were given AA. Kotlyarevskii in the "Athenaeum". Miller's name has become a byword, after an unusually harsh reviews Dobrolubova in "Contemporary" ( "Works", t. II). Resentment Dobrolubova book Miller instituted the preaching of ascetic self-denial and suppression of his personality. This sermon in the mouth of Miller's was an expression of his truly noble nature, but Dobroliubov did not know Miller personally and judged only weak thesis, rhetorically inflated style which cover a sincere enthusiasm of the author. The criticism seemed that he was dealing with a careerist, hypocritically speak of self-denial, that under this flag to servile worship of authority. Given the vast distribution of works Dobrolubova and almost complete ignorance of the writings of Miller, yutivshimisya uncommon in most editions, all before the mid 70's, had the idea of Miller only for this review. Neither the magazine did not take objection to Miller's review. When he was in 1859, Mr.. offered to read in Hall 2 nd High School public lecture to mark the anniversary of Schiller, he put the condition that the entrance fees was not his name. Only 5 years later, educational authorities reluctantly agreed to approve his assistant professor of St. Petersburg University. In the early 60-s range of activities has changed dramatically Miller. Coming in while the meeting of folk songs and Kireevskoe Rybnikova were new to him revelation. He devoted himself to the study of folk literature, all popular was his sacred. In the 60-ies dominated mythological interpretation of folk art, in every detail epics and songs were seen profound sacred symbolism. Miller brought the enthusiasm of the mythological school to the last extremity; huge his doctoral thesis: "Elijah of Murom and heroism Kiev" (St. Petersburg, . 1870), . Despite a host of labor, . it invested, . a huge and assembled here for the first time comparative material, . currently no scientific value has no,
. The injury and the desire to show the author's didactic side of the epic epic. Mythological interpretation of the epic threw birth epics to the distant, prehistoric antiquity, this did not prevent Miller from epic to give an interpretation of domestic, to recognize his mouthpiece of Russian folk ideals. Same Ilya of Murom, whose battle with his son supposedly means that "God gromovnik, producing, t. e. creating clouds, he kills them, by logical leap is, however, Miller's embodiment of the depth of understanding of the Russian people the essence of Christianity as the religion of caring for others and the truth. Theses preceded textbook: "The experience of the historical overview of Russian literature" (2 nd ed., St. Petersburg, 1865), brought to the Mongol period, with a separate anthologies thereto (2 nd ed., St. Petersburg, 1866). For all its mythological extremes, "Experience" has done a great service, first introduced in the teaching of a detailed acquaintance with the folk literature. In the late 70-ies Miller vigorously argued with VV. Stasov on the possible origin of the epic. The study of folk literature has made Miller supporter Slavophilism, in its original idealistic form, free from the treasury of patriotism. If Miller with delight belonged to ancient Russia, it was because he saw in her domination of community spirit, "narodosovetie" and the triumph of a truly Christian principles. He is praying about the reforms of Alexander II, citing his veneration formula addresses the Old Believers: "In your old novelty of our heard '. In view of the old Slavophilism and his love for freedom and Miller became very prominent in his work on Slavic Committee. Energetic member of the board, . 70-ies, even the assistant chairman, . Miller, little suited to the general nature of the society, it suffered, . because he was a popular speaker, . attracted to the general meeting of a large audience, . and, moreover, an unusual public, . indifferent or even hostile to the general direction of committee, . but responsive to the genuine appeal of Miller's brothers come to the aid of the oppressed kins,
. Speeches and articles by its Slavic matter collected in the book: "Slavs and Europe" (St. Petersburg, 1877). The main thesis of her: "Community and equality - that is, Slavic truth". True to this motto, Miller has never turned in Slavophilism Russophilia and the Polish question radically at variance with Katkov: his defense of "real interests" of Russia Miller, was "a gross materialism". Destination Moscow Gazette has always been deeply unsympathetic to Miller, he never knocked on the door Katkovskiy publications, although there are very willing to print his articles. The desire to differentiate Slavophilism from Katkov was the cause of the heavy blow, overtaken Miller shortly before his death. When Katkov, in the summer of 1887, died, Miller, in one of the first lecture of the fall semester 1887, Mr.. sharply outlined Katkova desire "to bring Russia out of the way the release of its popular and social forces". The emergence of the lecture in the "Russian Courier" (1887,? 267) led to the resignation of Miller, who was about the same time subjected to systematic persecution "Citizen". - With the release in 1870. doctorate purely scientific activity of Miller almost finished and goes no further reviews and small notes. In the 70's and 80's of the Miller, mainly devotes his literary works of the critical nature of the work. Among their most famous are "Russian writers Gogol, after" an original composition of the read in 1874. public lectures (5 ed.). Critical talent, Miller did not have, he wrote dull and pale, and, most importantly, he had no independent perspective on the parsed writers, and in every sketch he submitted the same to some imperious authority. The leaders he had a fear that Apollon Grigoriev, then Dob. He examines our luminaries, completely leaving aside their direct-literary merits and considering only the social content and significance of their works. Most of all, he admires (in later editions) before Dostoevsky. He wrote many more scattered in different journals sketches on Alexei Tolstoy, Maikova, Polonsky, Garshin, Nadson, Merezhkovsky, Minsk, Shcheglov, etc., and the book: "Gleb Yves. Assumption. Experience an explanatory statement of his works "(St. Petersburg, 1889). The best part of the spiritual heritage of Miller - the memory of him as the professor and dedicated friend of the university youth. Occupying the chair (up to 1870. as assistant professor), he came upon it one of the most prominent representatives of the type of professors and teachers of the truth, headed by Granovsky. Not strike in a dry and narrow specialization, in his lectures, he was able to combine rich content with the desire to hold in the minds of listeners start of the true humanity and the sound of love for the motherland and the people. Rate it were anything but commonplace. He first began to dwell with particular detail on folk literature, first introduced in their courses and schismatic literature, which to him a professor of literature entirely ignored. From the phenomena of ancient spiritual life he was particularly advocated such episodes, such as the struggle between the severity of the formalists-the followers of Joseph Volotsky and delves into the heart of Christian doctrine Zavolzhsky elders ". Lecturer, he was brilliant, although in high style, listen to it often met students from all faculties. Practical activities for the benefit of Miller's students is quite uncommon and aloof. The main figure and founder of the welfare society for students of St. Petersburg University, he devoted himself to it with complete disregard for their own interests. The door of his apartment during the day was open to all who need it, and he never got angry, from whatever the urgent work of his or tearing, and always with the same kindness of heart would listen to asylum. He helped in every way: and troubles in various institutions, and priiskivaniem lessons, and pristraivaniem manuscripts in the editorial, and writing letters of recommendation, and most of all - money. He firmly held to the rules: it is better to give ten unworthy than to deny one worthy. Kindness of it was generally known, it is widely used and abused, often it is completely exhausted their modest, but for a lonely man still not small money. In these cases, having no actual ability to help, he suffered deeply. The story, as in one of these minutes, lack of money, he gave a completely unfamiliar to the applicant for a student pledge his professorial coat. Miller died of a heart attack June 1, 1889, Mr.. The most thorough biography of Miller was written B.B. Glinski (St. Petersburg, 1890; and attached to the 1 st edition. "Russian Writers") list of his works compiled IA. Shlyapkin (St. Petersburg, 1889). S. Vengerov.