Miliukov Pavel( The eminent historian and political figure)
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Biography Miliukov Pavel
Pavel Milyukov born 15 (27) January 1859, Mr.. in Moscow, the son of a poor architect, who came from the nobility, Nicholas Milyukova, and his wife Maria Arkadyevna, a descendant of the noble family Sultanov. He was the eldest of two children born in wedlock. His early education was engaged in mother. P.N. Miliukov recalled: "My father, busy with their own affairs, did not pay attention to the children and not engaged in our education. Guided us his mother: "
He was educated in the 1-st Moscow High School, located on Sivtsev Vrazhek. Even then, the scope of his interests lay in the humanitarian field: he was attracted by the ancient authors, classical music, he began to write poetry.
After high school, in the summer of 1877, together with P.D. Dolgorukov P.N. Miliukov volunteered to serve in the Russian-Turkish war of 1877 - 1978 he. as treasurer troop management, and then commissioner of the Moscow Ambulance Unit in the Caucasus.
In 1877, Mr.. he joined the Historical-Philological Faculty of Moscow University. In 1879, after the death of his father, the family Miliukovs was on the brink of ruin. To ensure a decent existence of the mother (the younger brother Alex to time with the family had not lived), he was forced to give private lessons.
The university and the first interest manifested P.N. Milyukova to political activity. He began to take part in student gatherings. In 1881, Mr.. for participation in one of them he was a few hours in the chamber Butyrskaya and was expelled from the university, which was able to return a year later.
While admission to the University P.N. Miliukov chose History and Philology, interest in history came only through the influence of prominent professors PG. Vinogradov and V.O. Kliuchevskoi, which appeared in his life as "the true light of learning and talent". Lectures and seminars V.O. Kliuchevskoi Miliukov injected him with a love for the history of his country, the study which he decided to do after graduating from university in 1882, Mr.. To this end, he remained with the department to work on master's thesis.
In 1892, Mr.. The thesis was presented to the defense, and in 1896. published under the title "Public Management Russia in the first quarter of the eighteenth century and the reforms of Peter the Great". Celebrity P.N. Miliukov brought the original view of the course changes: first, he suggested that the reforms of Peter I had a spontaneous process, prepared by the passage of time, rather than originally planned.
The work done by young researchers, university professors appreciated, almost without taking a decision on conferring P.N. Miliukov immediately doctoral degree. The man, who spoke against and win over the Academic Council, was V.O. Klyuchevsky. The teacher was unable to come to terms with the rapid success of the talented students that forever ruined their relationship.
In the late 80-ies. there was a change in personal life P.N. Milyukova: he married Anna Sergeyevna Smirnova, daughter of the rector of the Trinity-Sergius Academy SK. Smirnov, whom he met in the house V.O. Kliuchevskoi. Like her husband, all his life carried away playing the violin, Anna loved music: on reviews of others, she was a talented pianist. They had three children: in 1889, Mr.. - Son Nicholas, in 1895. - Son, Sergei, the youngest child in the family was the only daughter Natalia.
P.N. Miliukov two years he taught at the University of Moscow, but in 1895. was dismissed. Taking part in the reading of educational lectures in the province, one of them, he pointed to the need for the development of Russia's citizenship, because of what was exiled in Ryazan.
Link gave P.N. Miliukov opportunity in depth do archeology, and start writing his major historical work - "Essays on the History of Russian Culture". In it he pointed to a major role in shaping the state of Russian society, . arguing, . that Russia, . Despite its peculiarities, . was the European way of, . and also led his arguments regarding the adaptability of the Russian "national type" to be borrowed by public institutions,
In the spring of 1897, received an invitation from Sofia, P.N. Miliukov went to Bulgaria. Two years spent in Bulgaria and Macedonia, he was engaged in teaching. During this time he managed to learn the history and culture of the southern Slavs, so that later rightly considered the largest in Russia specialist on Balkan issues.
Returning to Russia in 1900, P.N. Milyukov on one of the public meetings expressed opposition to the Government of judgments because of which about six months in jail. Coming on the freedom summer of 1901, he earned the reputation as opposition leader, has received a proposal to edit a liberal publication "Liberation", which refused. But when the magazine started publishing, he began to work in it. For "Liberation", he wrote his first programmatic article - "From the Russian constitutionalists" (1902). Cooperation in the magazine lasted until 1905.
In 1903, Mr.. P.N. Miliukov went to the United States to lecture, and returned to his homeland in 1905 after learning about the revolution in Russia. Since April 1905. He was in Moscow. Gradually adjusted to their new political environment, he realized the need for social change. Implementation of change P.N. Miliukov thought possible only if the "peace agreement, the liberals and revolutionaries", which sought to implement the "Union of Unions, where he held the post of chairman in May - August 1905. His political views attracted the attention of the public and unite behind him a large number of supporters: since 1905 to. He gained a reputation as "incorrigible revolutionary". Associates have created a people's freedom party (Constitutional Democratic), in drafting the program of which he actively participated.
P.N. Miliukov went down in history as the permanent leader of the party, joining in March 1907. chairman of its Central Committee. He developed the tactical line of cadets at all stages of the party, was one of the best party publicists and speakers. In his views within the party he has always taken the middle ground. I.V. Hesse in his memoirs states that the policy of the Party "was essentially defines one man - P.N. Miliukov, and his influence was so strong that only thanks to him, the party did not reflect "the interests of a particular social group".
The reasons for the unconditional leadership P.N. Milyukova in the Constitutional Democratic Party, wrote to a member of the Party of the People's Freedom AV. Tyrkova-Williams: "The party was a lot of outstanding people. Miliukov rose above them, has become a leader first and foremost because the firm wanted to be a leader. It was rare for the Russian public figure focused ambition. For politics is a good feature ".
Its relevance to the Constitutional Democratic Party - almost fanatic: he was so engrossed in it that was interested in people only to the extent that they participate in a common effort. From communication he tried to make that better reflect public opinion or the "atmosphere" within his party. The coldness and indifference to the people became the main reason that P.N. Miliukov was and always remained a great theoretician of liberalism and a mediocre practical politician, unable to understand the aspirations of various segments of the population.
All the years of the State Duma P.N. Miliukov remained an ideological inspiration and the head of the Kadet faction, despite the fact that the composition of I and II of the Duma was not included because of the property qualification.
In the summer of 1906. P.N. Miliukov participated in the drafting "Vyborg Appeal '. On the morning of July 9, just after learning that prepares a manifesto for the dissolution of the Duma, P.N. Miliukov, without wasting a minute, got on his bicycle and about 7 o'clock in the morning toured the flat members of the Central Committee (Constitutional Democratic Party), inviting them to come immediately ". Party Central Committee as a whole went to Vyborg, where together with the deputies of the Duma, did not agree with the decision of the Government, participated in drafting the appeal to the population of passive resistance to the dissolution.
In 1906, Mr.. started to be published an official organ of the Constitutional Democratic Party - the newspaper "Speech", one of the editors of which was P.N. Miliukov. On its pages he published his many journalistic notes, and wrote editorials almost all the rooms, which cover various issues of domestic and foreign policy of Russia.
June 3, 1907, Mr.. II government dissolved the Duma, was issued a new electoral law. As a result of elections in the Duma III P.N. Miliukov finally came into its constituent. Despite the new conditions of work, the tactics of the Kadet faction was to ensure that more actively involved in government activities through participation in the Duma.
Driving around the country during the election campaign P.N. Miliukov met at the station with Nina (Antonina) Vasilievna Lavrova later became his second wife. Characteristic that, like the first wife of the leader of the Cadets, NV. Lavrov had a wonderful ear for music and played the piano.
In III Duma P.N. Miliukov became the chief expert on foreign policy issues of concern and in IV State Duma, and also spoke on various issues on behalf of the faction. Interestingly, in one of his speeches he used to AI. Guchkov, in his own words, "a pretty strong term," although it is a parliamentary "for what was called the leader Octobrists to a duel (which, incidentally, never took place).
In the first period of the IV of the Duma, which lasted from the day of its opening on Nov. 15, 1912, Mr.. before the First World War, the faction led by Cadet P.N. Milyukovs focus on matters of general political importance, as well as "critics of the government in the internal life of Russia, held in the form of queries".
On on 23 - March 25, 1914. Congress of the Constitutional Democratic Party P.N. Milyukovs was proposed tactics of isolation of the Government, which received the support of a majority of delegates. This is meant to legitimize open confrontation with the authorities of the Cadets, which was reflected in sharp form the statements of the party in the Duma and in the press.
The First World War, first made adjustments in the tactics of Cadets. P.N. Miliukov became a supporter of ideas to end the internal political struggle to victory, for which the opposition forces should support the Government. He viewed the war as an opportunity to strengthen the foreign policy influence of the state associated with the strengthening of positions in the Balkans and the inclusion in the Russia Empire of the straits of Bosporus and Dardanelles, has been dubbed the "Miliukov-Dardanelles"
. But the "holy alliance" with the government did not last long: the economic crisis in the country, the defeat of the army and internal political instability led to the fact that in the Duma, began to form a strong opposition to the Government in August 1915
. united in the Progressive Bloc. P.N. Miliukov was the organizer and one of the leaders of the block, believe that Russia can win the war only when replacing the existing government ministry, a credible country.
At the end of 1915. P.N. Miliukov experienced deep personal tragedy: during the retreat from Brest was killed by his second son, Sergei, who went to war as a volunteer in 1914.
1916. - The peak of the Progressive Bloc. This year, the head of the Russian government was BV. Sturmer, concentrated in his hands three key positions of the Cabinet of Ministers, a protege of the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna and G.E. Rasputin, and therefore very unpopular in the ranks of the opposition. It is natural that the resignation BV. Sturmer was one of the main tasks of the block. An important step towards its implementation has become famous Duma speech P.N. Miliukov from 1 November 1916, received in the historiography of the code name "Stupidity or treason?" based on a recurring refrain in her. Built his speech at the unknown in Russia, the information collected by them during trips abroad in the summer - in autumn 1916, P.N. Miliukov used them as evidence of incompetence and bad faith BV. Sturmer, mentioning in this regard, even the name of the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna. Through the use of unknown information in Russia it has become very popular in the country, which is why among immigrants already in the 20-ies., It is often perceived as "assault signal" to the revolution.
After the February Revolution P.N. Miliukov participated in the formation of the Provisional Government, which came as Minister of Foreign Affairs. After the abdication of Nicholas II, tried to achieve the conservation of the monarchy in Russia prior to the convening of the Constituent Assembly.
A minister's political career began sunset P.N. Milyukova: the war was unpopular, and he was 18 April 1917, Mr.. Allies sent a note in which he outlined his foreign policy doctrine: the war to a victorious end. This was a major drawback P.N. Milyukova-politics, . which cost him his career: convinced of the rightness of their views and strongly believes in the need to implement the policy guidelines of his party, . he calmly walked to set goals, . not paying attention to external influences, . the real situation in the country, . on the minds of the population,
. The manifestation of discontent and demonstrations in the capital after the note P.N. Milyukova caused resignation of the minister May 2, 1917, Mr..
Spring - autumn 1917. P.N. Miliukov participated in the political life of Russia as the Chairman of the Central Committee of the Constitutional Democratic Party, member of the permanent bureau of the State Conference and the Pre-Parliament. In August, 1917. the State Conference in Moscow, according to VA. Obolensky P.N. Miliukov "expressly made it clear that in the phase, which joined the revolution, the Provisional Government was doomed and that to save Russia from anarchy can only be a military dictatorship". Thus, he supported the proposal of General L.G. Kornilov. He then stepped up their appeals to the Russian public about the need to fight against Bolshevism.
Bolshevik revolution P.N. Miliukov not adopted and began to use their influence to combat the Soviet regime. He advocated an armed struggle, which sought to create a united front. Since October 1917. He went to Moscow to organize resistance to the Bolsheviks. In November, 1917. participated in a meeting of representatives of the Entente against Bolshevism. Departed in Novocherkassk, he joined a volunteer military organization, General M.V. Alekseeva. In January 1918. was part of "Don Civic Council, created under the Volunteer Army of General L.G. Kornilov, for whom he wrote the Declaration. He was elected to the Constituent Assembly from the city of Petrograd. Miliukov began talks with Germany's command of the need to finance the anti-Bolshevik movement. This step is a staunch supporter of the Entente made up his mind only because he saw in Germany, then the only real force capable of resisting the Bolsheviks. As the negotiations were not supported by the majority of the Cadets, he resigned as chairman of the Party Central Committee (he later acknowledged the negotiations in error).
Winter - spring 1918. participated in the organization that operated illegally in Moscow, "National Center", was a friend of its chairman.
At the same time P.N. Miliukov resumed his activities as a historian: in 1919. Kiev came "History of the Second Russian Revolution", reprinted in 1921. Sofia. In this paper the author proposed a deep analysis of the causes and significance of the revolution, 1917.
In November, 1918. P.N. Miliukov traveled to Western Europe, to urge the allies support anti-Bolshevik forces. For some time he lived in England, where the editor of the weekly "The New Russia", published in English-language Russian emigre Liberation Committee. Served in the press and journalism on behalf of the White movement. In 1920, Mr.. published in London book Bolshevism: an international danger ". However, the defeat of the White armies at the front and a conservative policy of white chiefs who failed to provide the White movement broad popular support, changed his views on ways to rid Russia of the Bolshevik. After the evacuation of troops, General P.N. Wrangel Island from the Crimea in November 1920. He acknowledged that "Russia can not be released against the wishes of the people".
In the same years P.N. Miliukov received from Soviet Russia, the tragic news of the death from dysentery daughter Natalia.
In 1920, Mr.. P.N. Miliukov moved to Paris, where he headed the Union of Russian Writers and Journalists in Paris and the board of professors in the Franco-Russian Institute.
Summing up the anti-Bolshevik struggle in the 1917 - 1920 gg., He developed a "new tactics", a thesis which was made in May 1920,. at a meeting of the Paris Committee of the Cadets. New tactics "against Soviet Russia, aimed at overcoming the internal Bolshevism rejected as a continuation of armed struggle inside Russia, and foreign intervention. Instead, include the recognition of the republican and federal system in Russia, the abolition of landlordism, the development of local self-government. P.N. Miliukov considered necessary in conjunction with the socialists to develop a comprehensive plan in the state and national issues in the sphere of state building. It was expected that this platform will support the democratic forces inside Russia and inspire them to fight against the Bolshevik regime.
P.N. Miliukov planned creation of the National Committee as a body bringing together close to the Cadets circles emigration. The basis of the coalition he believed an agreement with the SRs. Together with them he participated in a meeting of former members of the Constituent Assembly, and became a member of the Executive Commission Meeting.
Change outlook raised P.N. Milyukova in opposition to most of the Russian emigration and made enemies of many of the Cadets, who were his supporters in Russia. In June, 1921. He left the party and together with the MM. Vinaver formed Paris group of Democratic Party of People's Freedom (in 1924. was transformed into a "Republican-Democratic Association").
Monarchists, accusing P.N. Milyukova in starting the revolution in Russia and all its consequences, there have been several assassination attempts on him. Even in Paris, a city with a relatively liberal-minded emigre, he had to live on "polukonspirativnoy" flat and "poluskryvatsya" as they fear attacks. March 28, 1922, Mr.. in the building of the Berlin Philharmonic in P.N. Milyukova shot, but VD. Nabokov, a famous cadet, closed a former party leader, in his opinion, "one of the great Russian people", "a man of vast, almost inexhaustible knowledge", as a result he was killed.
Emigration P.N. Miliukov has written and published: out his work "Russia at the turn", "Immigration at a crossroads," began "Memories", was not yet completed.
In the period from April 27, 1921. to 11 June 1940. P.N. Miliukov editor of a newspaper published in Paris "Latest News". In many places it was given the news of Soviet Russia. Since 1921. P.N. Miliukov found signs of a revival in Russia and democratization, which, in his opinion, were contrary to the policy of the Soviet government.
Gradually, Russian nationalism and the fear of fascism forced P.N. Milyukova reconsider their views on some policy I.V. Stalin. Thus, in 30-ies. he was positively evaluate the foreign policy of the Bolsheviks for its imperial nature. For example, he approved of the war with Finland, arguing: "I feel sorry for the Finns, but I am for the Vyborg province".
In 1935. died A.S. Milyukova. In the same year P.N. Miliukov married NV. Lavrova.
In the Second World War P.N. Miliukov unequivocally sided with the Soviet Union, considering Germany as the aggressor. He truly enjoyed the victory of Stalingrad, estimating it as a turning point in favor of the USSR.
March 31, 1943, aged 84, P.N. Miliukov died in Aix-les-Bains, before reaching the victory, but until the last minutes of life while remaining true patriot of his native country. He was buried at a temporary site at the cemetery in Aix-les-Bains. Shortly after the war the only surviving children P.N. Milyukova, his eldest son, Nicholas, carried the coffin of his father in Paris, in the family vault in the cemetery Batilon, where previously buried A.S. Milyukova.
Miliukov P.N. History of the Second Russian Revolution. Vyp.1 - 3. Paris, 1921 - 1924.
Miliukov P. Emigration crossroads. Paris, 1926.
Miliukov P.N. Russia on the threshold: The Bolshevik period of the Russian Revolution. V.1 - 2. Paris, 1927.
Miliukov P.N. Essays on the History of Russian Culture. Paris, 1937.
Miliukov P.N. Memoirs (1859 - 1917). At 2 m. M., 1990.
Miliukov P.N. Living Pushkin. M., 1997.
Hesse I.V. Years of exile: The life record. Paris, 1979.
Obolensky VA. My life. My contemporaries. Paris, 1988.
Savic NV. Memoirs. SPb., 1993.
Tyrkova-Williams AV. On the Road to Freedom. London, 1990.
VV Shulgin. 1917 - 1919 / / Persons: Biographical Almanac. M., St. Petersburg., 1994. Part 5. P.121 - 328.