Novgorodtsev Pavel Ivanovich( The well-known lawyer and philosopher)
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Biography Novgorodtsev Pavel Ivanovich
Pestel Novgorodtsev was born in 1866. G. Bahmut. After Bakhmut gymnasium with a gold medal, he entered in 1884. Moscow University on the natural history department of physics and mathematics faculty, but in the same year moved to the Faculty of Law. After it, he was left at the university to prepare for a professorship in the Department of encyclopedia and philosophy of law with the content of the sums of the Ministry of.
In the late 80-ies. Novgorodtsev made friends with the social-liberal circle in the. Vernadsky and C. Oldenburg (Priyutinskoe Brotherhood ") and participated in several of its social initiatives. After passing the MA examination, he was sent abroad. Devoting himself to the study of philosophy and law, he spent years of research trips to various European centers.
Since 1896. Novgorodtsev lectured at Moscow University as privat-docent. In 1897. He defended his thesis for master's degree on "The Historical School of lawyers, its origin and destiny". In 1902, Mr.. He defended his thesis at St. Petersburg University for a doctorate degree from the State Law on "Kant and Hegel in their exercise of the right and the State". In 1903, Mr.. He was appointed extraordinary professor, and in 1904. - Full professor at Moscow University.
In 1901 - 1902 he. together with representatives of the "critical areas" in Russian Marxism, he became one of the compilers and editor of the book "Problems of Idealism" (1902), . ushered the synthetic liberal-socialist, idealist direction "in the Russian liberation movement,
Since 1904. Novgorodtsev was a member of the Council of the Union of Liberation "at the end of 1905. joined the Constitutional Democratic Party, and in March the same year was co-opted into its Central Committee. In 1906, Mr.. He was elected to the State Duma from I Ekaterinoslav Province. In connection with the impossibility of combining teaching and parliamentary work, he left the department, but continued to remain in the Moscow University as privat-docent. After the dissolution of the Duma, he signed the "Vyborg Manifesto" of civil disobedience in protest against the dissolution, for which imprisoned. As a result, he has not received approval in the position of full professor and remained assistant professor of the University. Due to disagreement with the policy of the Ministry of Education, along with other professors, he left the university in 1911.
Then Novgorodtsev focused its activities on the Moscow Commercial Institute, where he was the first director and head of the department of public law. The Institute began its existence with a modest commercial rates in 1906. With exceptional energy Novgorodtseva in 1912. courses have already been approved by the Government as an institution of higher learning, more than 6 thousand. listeners. He remained a permanent director of the institute until 1918.
During the First World War Novgorodtsev was an active member of the All-Russia Union of Cities and Moscow authorized the Special Meeting on fuel.
After the February Revolution, he was again elected as a professor at Moscow University, was a founding member "of the League of Russian culture, its Interim Committee in Moscow. Elected again in the Central Committee of the Kadet party, Novgorodtsev definitely took the right position, considering it necessary to establish a military dictatorship to prevent public disaster. In 1918, Mr.. he became one of the founders and the leader of a number of anti-Bolshevik underground organizations in Moscow. Then he took part in the compilation "From the depths". Good luck to escape arrest in May, he went into hiding and soon left Moscow.
Until 1920. He lived in southern Russia and is not engaged in teaching. For fear of harming the family, who remained in Soviet Russia, he renounced his occupation of official positions, and from public appearances, although secretly participated in the drafting of bills of special meetings with the Commander in Chief Gen VSYUR AI. Denikin. In 1919, Mr.. He participated in conferences of the Cadet Party in Ekaterinodar and Kharkov. In 1920, Mr.. He was elected full professor of the University of the Tauride. He taught there only a few weeks after the end of winter semester 1920. left for a trip abroad. However, after the fall of the Crimea and the evacuation of the army general P.N. Wrangel he was unable to return to Simferopol.
Some time Novgorodtsev lived in Berlin, worked in the newspaper Rul ', participated in the local cadet group. Along with several other Russian professors, he was invited to Prague, where he headed the legal-economic courses, which in the spring of 1922. were converted to the Russian Law School.
According to his vocation Novgorodtsev was a philosopher of law and a historian of political doctrines. The Department of the Moscow University he got inheritance BN. Chicherin. Talent Novgorodtseva unlike Chicherina manifested in the ability to subtly infiltrate the Present. He felt the pulse of life and could not detach the theory of "the tree of life". Since its first scientific presentations discovered these abilities. His first thesis on the "historical school" of lawyers focused on purely academic subjects. However, he chose the issue associated with the most severe life problems, then agitating lawyers, philosophers of law and gosudarstvovedov. While in legal science began with a "crisis of positivism and sociology". In western European countries in the field of philosophy has been distributed philosophical idealism. In legal science felt the presence of philosophical awakening aspirations. All these new developments in his work caught the young scientist. In his first book into two distinct ideas, which played a major role in the history of thought of the Russian intelligentsia: the idea of philosophical idealism and the idea of the revival of natural law. This success has put Novgorodtseva the ranks of the ideological leaders of Russian intellectuals thought. The philosophy of law, he understood as the science of social ideals. All of his major scientific works were devoted to this issue in its various aspects.
Work Novgorodtseva can be divided into two groups: purely historical, and examining the ideals of his society. In his lectures, published in different times in various publications, he recounts the history of political doctrines.
Another group of his works was devoted to the study of political and social ideals of the time. Most Novgorodtseva interested in the problem of law and the problem of socialism and anarchism. The first topic was devoted to the work of "The crisis of modern legal consciousness," and the second - "On the social ideals". In the first paper were raised sharp questions modern democratic state. Novgorodtsev not belong to democracy in the negative, but shows a relative of her political knowledge. He believed that "democracy is not a universal panacea for all social ills, but one of the ways the political system, which has its own advantages and disadvantages". The most important and significant problem he thought the struggle against absolute social ideals, the discovery of relativity. The basic idea in his work "On the social ideal was expressed in the formula:" the collapse of the idea of earthly paradise "or" replace the idea of starting the final perfection of the infinite perfection '. "This change, - said Novgorodtsev - removing the stamp from the time of absolutism historical ideals, while at the same time, draws the mind to the true laws and objectives of the historical development. From this perspective, the author investigated and contemporary socialism.
Habitual during science activities violated the tumultuous events of those years. Novgorodtsev not finished the second volume of the manuscript "On the social ideals," which was devoted to the study of the theory of anarchism and socialism. The manuscript for a long time was removed from the author. During this period, in the views Novgorodtseva there has been a turn towards religion. From his point of view, particularly significant was the fact that the issue is approved it in thinking about the "idea of the collapse of the earthly paradise". In the Russian religious philosophy, he found confirmation of this idea, basically, the Slavophiles, Khomyakova and Dostoevsky. In connection with the problem of religious communion and the church, this idea arose in a new light. In this direction he was going to formulate the final conclusions of the second volume of essays "On the social ideals". He believed that in this work he had to say the most important and significant that they have not been told.
Recent work Novgorodtseva were written on the most pressing and topical political issues. The author gave this work the nature of objective scientific. Novgorodtsev was a brilliant stylist, and also possessed the gift of excellent presentation. All this taken together has provided his writings a great success. Since 1917. first volume of "On the social ideals" was released in three editions.
From the very beginning of his scientific activity around Novgorodtseva united people, who learned from him and lived with him overall scientific life. His influence on the young Russian philosophers and lawyers has been hugely. The views of the scientist had a great influence on the Russian liberal intelligentsia. He was one of the few theorists of Russian Liberalism. Must establish the fact that the socio-political program of Russian liberalism was deeply reflected and justified in the works Novgorodtseva.
No less remarkable is that Novgorodtsev had a special administrative gift that he displayed throughout his academic and social activities. Commercial Institute, which he led, was one of the best higher educational institutions of Russia. Upon arrival in Prague Novgorodtsev immediately engaged in creative organizational work. The entire complex academic organization in Prague, supposedly, was the result of his energy and his plans.
Favorite child Novgorodtseva became Russian Law Faculty in Prague. Here are his words, . spoken at the opening RYUF in 1922: "Among the uncertain circumstances, . face of the unknown future, we begin to deal, . which primarily requires a solid, . calm and confident leadership, . tremendous effort and great faith in Russia: In setting up our Faculty, . We firmly believe, . approaching time, . when Russia with the spontaneous and irresistible force will address the legal principles of, . when, . exhausted and long-suffering, . she comes to the need to build their state and social being in the strict and precise principles of law: We want, . that our young people, . These future builders of Russia, . firmly grasp the idea, . that among the thousands of ways, . destroyed and abandoned in a ruined Russia, . it must first be restored to such an important and necessary way, . as a way right, . peaceful development path on the principles of freedom, . law and justice ",
He wanted to RYUF was only higher education institution, dismissing himself from any propaganda purposes. Novgorodtsev spoke on this subject: "Russian law faculty should not be any school counter-revolution, no school, he will be only a school of science".
Novgorodtsev was very demanding and strict Dean. He earned the love and respect on the part of colleagues, and from students. He had a gift to bring people. He has created among teachers and students the spirit of solidarity and loyalty to the Faculty.
Many of the plans he did not have time to implement. February 5, 1924, Mr.. was considered his application for temporary release from duties because of illness Dean. And on 23 April 1924. Pestel Novgorodtsev died.