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Odoyevski Vladimir Feodorovich

( Famous Russian writer and public figure)

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Biography Odoyevski Vladimir Feodorovich
photo Odoyevski Vladimir Feodorovich
Born in Moscow, July 30, 1803, Mr.. After graduating from the course in the boarding school at Moscow University, . collaborated in the Journal of Europe "become acquainted with Griboyedov and Kuchelbecker, . published in 1824 - 1825 years almanac "Mnemosyne", later served in the ministry of foreign faiths and edited the Journal of the Ministry of Internal Affairs ",
. In 1846, Mr.. was appointed assistant director of the Imperial Public Library and Director of the Rumyantsev Museum. With the transfer in 1861. Museum in Moscow, was appointed a senator of the Moscow department of the Senate and was pervoprisutstvuyuschim 8-th Department. Died Feb. 27, 1869, Mr.. and was buried in the cemetery of Donskoy Monastery. The man most versatile and in-depth education, thoughtful and perceptive thinker, a talented and original writer, Odoyevski sensitively reacted to all the phenomena of contemporary scientific and social life. The search in all and above all the truth ( "Lying in art, . lies in science and lies in the life, . - He wrote in his declining years, . - Were always my enemies, . and my tormentors: everywhere I pursued them, . and everywhere they haunted me "), . respect for human dignity and spiritual freedom, . preaching forgiveness and active love for people, . enthusiastic devotion to science, . desire to fully penetrate into the body of spiritual and physical nature of the individual and the whole society - the characteristic features of his works and his modus operandi,
. They appear already in dispute with Bulgarin, . in letters to "Luzhnitskomu Elders, . the "Old Man", . where in a transparent and poisonous allegory exhibited miserable and negative aspects of performance and public life - and to permeate all of them written,
. Odoyevski - not only an entertaining narrator, or, in his own words storyteller, but also the scientific thinker, a popularizer of the moral and philosophical, economic and natural-historical exercise. The alert for discoveries in science and for new theories, he is in one form or another familiar with them their readers. His language - alive and figurative, sometimes too rich in similes and metaphors - in the transfer of complex and abstract concepts are very clear and the determinants. It is almost always hear Belinski noted by "a restless and passionate humor", and some pages are reminiscent of the brilliant oratory techniques. Foremost among the works owned Odoevskogo "Russian night" - a philosophical conversation between several young people, . which are woven, . to illustrate voiced their provisions, . stories and novels, . reflects the intimate thoughts, . Hope, . likes and dislikes of the author,
. So, . example, . stories: "The last suicide" and "City without a name" are, . a fantastic lining, . strictly and consistently driven to the end of the Malthusian Law of the increasing population in a geometric progression, . and works of nature - in an arithmetic, . all be derived from the findings, . and the theory of Bentham, . putting in the foundation of all human actions solely a useful beginning, . as a goal and as the driving force,
. Deprived inner content which is closed to the hypocritical convention social life found alive and vibrant in the assessment of "Dead Man's mockery and pathos in the pages of" Bala ", which describes the fear of death, had taken possession of the public gathered at the ball. Severely condemn the desire to over-specialization of knowledge, with the loss of consciousness of a common connection between them and harmony, is subject to "an improviser and a number of other stories. In "Russian Nights" in particular are given two stories, . "Foreman" and "Sebastian Bach": the first - because, . that in it the author, . fifty years before the appearance of "The Death of Ivan Ilyich", . affect the same - and the main idea, . and in the course of the story - the theme, . which subsequently, . sure, . with immeasurable talent, . developed LN,
. Tolstoy, the second - because here (as well as in the last quartets of Beethoven "), the author expressed his enthusiastic love of music," the greatest of the arts ". Serious study of its history and theory, he devoted a large extent their lives. Even in 1833, Mr.. He wrote "The experience of musical language", was busy then the question of the optimal structure of his favorite instrument - the body and even invented a special instrument, which he called enharmonic harpsichord. Give, after moving to Moscow, the study of ancient Russian music, Odoyevski read about her lectures at home, in 1868. issued Musical instrument, or the grounds of music for non-musicians, and opened the Moscow Conservatory speech "On the study of Russian music not only as art but as a science". Death found Odoevskogo for Intensified work on the device in a Moscow congress of archeologists (he was one of the founders of the Archaeological Society, . well as the Imperial Geographical Society), . during which students were Conservatory, . under his leadership, . fulfill the ancient Russian church chants,
. Among the novels and stories, not included in the "Russian Nights" are highlighted: a big novel "Salamander" - semi-historical, semi-fantastic story which inspired the author of the study of the history of alchemy and research YA.K. Grotto of Finnish legends and beliefs - and a series of complete irony of stories about social life ( "New Year", "Princess Mimi," "Princess Zizi"). Satirical tale ( "The dead body, . know who owned ", . "The gentleman Kovakole" and others), . some of whom are different dark color and, . because of the then dominant in the ruling circles of views, . great courage, . the transition from science fiction stories, . which feels a strong influence of Hoffmann, . a series of charming and witty, . moralizing ( "Soul of a woman", . "Igoshev", . "Neoboydenny house") children's tales, . equally alien to how to sentimentality, . or too early, . ruthless familiarize children with the horrors of life and its tribulations,
. Much of the recent stories was published in book form titled "Tales of Grandfather Irenaeus'. One of the most outstanding literary work parties Odoevskogo was taking care of educating the people, while extremely rare, and regarded by many as a strange freak. For many years, consisted Odoyevski editor of "Rural Review", published by the Ministry of Internal Affairs, together with his friend, A.P. Zabolotskii-Desyatovsky, . He published a book "Rural Reading", . under the title: "What the peasant Nahum children and insisted on the potatoes", . "What is a drawing of the earth and what is suitable" (History, . meaning and methods of surveying), written for popular reading series of "grandfather Gramotok Irenaeus" - on gas, . Railways, . Gunpowder, . epidemic of diseases, . about, . "What about human rights and that in him, and finally, . issued a "colorful tales Irenaeus Gamozeyki", . tongue admired connoisseur of Russian speech Dahl, . finding health, . that some of the invented Odoyevsky sayings and proverbs can be attributed to purely national origin,
. Odoyevski treasured title of the writer and proud of it. A friend of Pushkin and Duke Vyazemsky, . He kindly opened their doors to all comrades of the pen, . disdainfully refer only to Bulgarin and Senkovsky, . that he could not stand, . and put their skills in literature above all, . that was given to him by his noble birth and social position,
. "Honest literature - he wrote - as if examination vessel, avanpostnaya service among public deceit". He always stood on guard against any ambiguity and abominable literary devices, warned the authors of the dangers which threatened them in troubled times passionately stood up for them where he could, consistently cared about expanding the range of publications. It must have been to efforts of his resolution Fatherland Notes. While welcoming the relief censorship rules in 1865. (which he first wrote them in the preparation of detailed notes on censorship and its history with us), . Odoyevski spoken out against the takeover of the French Napoleonic system of warnings and advocated the abolition of the absolute interdiction of import to Russia hostile to her books,
. Until the fifties on his views on the attitude of Russia towards the West Odoyevski approached in many respects to the Slavophiles, . Although never systematically to them not overly, but already in the early 40-ies he had a high opinion of Peter, . a personal acquaintance with the "rotten West" during trips abroad, . since 1856,
. (In 1859, Mr.. He was a deputy of the Imperial Public Library at the anniversary of Schiller in Weimar, Germany), made him change his view on the meaning of European civilization. This was expressed with particular force in his notes and papers that make up an interesting collection of observations about the kinds of issues (it is stored in the Public Library). Signs of "our inborn disease" Odoyevski sees "the whole people of laziness of mind, of inconsistency and lack of exposure" and resents the fact our property, which he calls "rukavospustiem". The idealism of the people - he writes - is mostly in the form of tolerance towards other peoples and understanding of their. However, he fully believed in the Russian people and its rich potentialities: "and yet the Russian people - the first in Europe, not only for his ability, . who gave him the gift of nature, . but on feelings of love, . which miraculously it survived, . despite the lack of education, . despite the erroneous teaching of religious began, . only be issued for ritual, . rather than on internal improvements,
. If we are a Russian man went through a refurbishing and not forgotten the Christian love, therefore it will proc - but it is still ahead and not back ". Transformations of Alexander II, upgraded Russian life, met in Odoyevski enthusiastic sympathy. He offered to take in the new year with Russia on February 19 and always in a circle of friends were gathered to celebrate "the great first day of free labor," as he put it in a poem written after reading the manifesto of the abolition of serfdom. When in 1865. in the newspaper "News" was held under the pretext of streamlining our polity, . Draft talent nobility of such benefits, . that, . essentially, . would be the restoration of serfdom, . only in another form, . - Odoyevski wrote ardent protest, . which, . on behalf of many, . its signatories, . defined the tasks of the nobility: "1) that every effort of mind and soul to eliminate the remaining effects of serfdom, . now with God's help, destroyed, . but the former permanent source of disaster for Russia and a disgrace for all its nobility, and 2) to adopt a conscientious and zealous participation in the new zemstvos and a new trial, . and activities that inspire us that experience and knowledge of rural and Judicial Affairs, . without which the institution would remain fruitless, . due to lack of implementing and 3) does not provide themselves to escort some of their selfish class interests, . not seek enmity with other classes before the court and the law, . but together and collectively with all loyal subjects to work for the glory of the Emperor and the benefit of all of the fatherland and 4) taking advantage of higher education and greater prosperity, . use available funds for the dissemination of useful knowledge in all sections of the people, . to learn his successes of Arts and Sciences, . how it is possible for the nobility ",
. Complaint filed this in some quarters of Moscow fierce indignation against Odoevskogo, he was accused of betraying his own time, of betraying the interests of the nobility, in helping to end the "Vesti". Odoyevski, . indignantly refuted these allegations, . said: "My belief - not since yesterday, from an early age I expressed them by all available means to me: a pen - as far as it allowed then in print, . as well as in government relations, . orally speech - not only in private conversations, . but also in official committees, always and everywhere, I argued the need for abolishing serfdom and pointed to the pernicious influence of the oligarchy in Russia for more than 30 years of my public life, gave me a new argument in support of my belief,
. Uchivshis logic from an early age and older, I do not think it necessary to change my opinion in favor of any political party. I have never walked or under whose guise, do not impose my opinions, but admonished them to always publicly very attributive and talkative, but now it too late for me to relearn. The title of a Russian nobleman, . my long, . honest, . laborers Life, . not stained or intrigues, . nor intrigues, . or even ambition, . Finally, . if you like, . and my historic name - not only give me the right, . but imposes on me the duty not to remain in timid silence, . which could be taken as a sign of consent, . in, . which I believe the highest human origin and which is daily put into practice in my judicial post, . namely: absolute equality before the court and the law, . without distinction of rank and status "with extreme attention, watched over Odoyevski launched in 1866,
. prison reform and the introduction of work in prisons. Even in "Russian Nights", he pointed to the harmful side punitive correctional systems based on the absolute solitude and silence. Updated court found him hot champion. "Trial by jury - he wrote - is important because that leads to the realization of justice these people who were unaware of the need for this, he educates conscience. All, . that is beautiful and high in British law, . Courts, . Police, . manners - all this was evolved by a jury, . there is scope for everyone to be ever uncontrolled judge your neighbor, . but the judge publicly, . a critique of public opinion,
. Do not develop into a public truth, where the judge-clerk, who is able to wait for the decision to reward or punishment from the ministerial office ". Embarrassed by rumors about the possibility of, . influenced by signs of political turmoil, . change the fundamental principles of, . invested in the transformation of Alexander II, . Odoyevski, . Shortly before his death, . amounted to an official memorandum note to the emperor, . which, . pointing to a harmful influence on the moral development of young people to, . that she had seen and heard in private and public life in the pre-reform time, . under the rule of serfdom and bessudiya, . pleaded for the preservation and strengthening began, . underlying the reforms,
. The note was submitted to the emperor after the death of Odoevskogo, and Alexander II wrote to her: "I beg to thank me for the widow of a letter to her husband, whom I sincerely loved and respected". Prince Odoevsky belongs the initiative in the device orphanages, according to his thought is based in St. Petersburg hospital for coming, later received the name Maximilian, he was also the founder of the Elizabeth's Children's Hospital in St. Petersburg. In the implementation of all the ways they come to the aid of the suffering and the "small sim" Odoyevski is supported by the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna, a close circle of which he belonged. His main work and contribution in this regard was the formation in 1846, Mr.. Company visits to the poor in St. Petersburg. Broad and reasonably by the task of the society, . organization of its activities on the living, . practical basis, . extensive range of its members, . attracted Odoyevsky, . immediately launched a society from a number of other charities and established his enormous popularity among all segments of the population of the capital,
. Visit poor, . mandatory for each member at least once a month, . Three women's handicraft, . Children's "Bed" and the school with him, . shared flats for elderly women, . family apartments for the poor, . clinic for incoming, . dime-store commodities, . Timely, . reasonable personal assistance with money and things - these are funds, . who acted Society, . help, . the height of its activities, . not less than 15 thousand poor families,
. Thanks to the tireless and energetic work Odoevskogo absolutely refused all the time, the existence of society from all literary pursuits, public funds have reached 60 thousand annual income. Unusual activity of the society, . have come into direct contact with the mass of poor, . was, . however, . under the influence in 1848, . arouse suspicion - and it was attached to the Imperial Philanthropic Society, . greatly embarrassed by his actions, . depriving them of freedom from clerical correspondence, . and Records Society, . drawn up by Odoyevsky, . - Timely public, . maintains interest and sympathy for society,
. Ensuing military interdiction to participate in it deprived him of many active members of. Despite the efforts Odoevskogo save their favorite child from death, the Society was in 1855, Mr.. discontinue their activities, ensuring that, wherever possible, its pensioners and students. New Honorary Trustee, . Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich, . Wishing to honor the "selfless work of Prince Odoevsky", . entered into correspondence about ishodataystvovanii him prominent awards, . but in time learned that Odoyevski rejected her letter, . dignified,
. "I can not, . - He wrote, . - Rid yourself of thoughts, . what, . with a special award to me, . in my face would be tempting example of a person, . who took up the guise of unselfishness and akin to every Christian Charity, . then, . one way or another, . nevertheless reached the awards ..,
. Being in such a disgusting example of those rules, which I kept throughout my life, give me leave, joining in the sixth decade, not to change them ... ". Gave Odoyevski stake and Urban Affairs, when acting as a vowel total Duma in St. Petersburg and lively interest in the course of urban. When the Duma, . supplying homeowners philistine Diplomas, . got this back from one of them with a haughty statement, . what, . Coming from an old aristocratic family in Moscow and did not swell the ranks of the middle sort of people ", . he considers it impossible to accept the document sent to the Duma, . Odoyevski - a direct descendant of the first Norman Prince - immediately appealed to the Duma with a written request for the extradition of his humdrum letters,
. Last years of his Moscow leakage occurs among attentive and diligent study for his new court case. During the three years before his death, he again took up the pen, . that the hot line of the article: "displeasure", . complete unwavering faith in science and moral development of mankind and a broad perspective on the challenges to respond to poetry imbued with mournful gloom "Enough" by Turgenev,
. in 3 volumes. - See. A.P. Pyatkovsky Prince VF. Odoyevski (St. Petersburg, 1870, 3rd ed., 1901), "In memory of Prince VF. Odoyevski (Moscow, 1869); N.F. Sumtsov Prince VF. Odoyevski "(Kharkov, 1884)," Russian Archives "(1869 and 1874); VV. Stasov "Rumyantsev Museum" (1882); "Works" Belinsky (Volume IX); п-.п°. Skabichevsky "Works"; Panaev "Literary Reminiscences" (1862); Nekrasov's "Tales Odoevskogo; B. Lezin "Sketches from the life and correspondence in. Odoevskogo "(Kharkov University Izvestiya, 1905 - 1906), п-.пг. Koni "Sketches and Reminiscences"; Sakulin "From the history of Russian idealism. Prince Odoyevski (Moscow, 1913). п-.пг. Horses.
Odoyevski is one of the outstanding figures of our music. He owns a number of musical and music-critical and historical articles, . notes and brochures, . as well as several musical works (songs,, . piano and organ pieces, etc.) are remarkable for fidelity and subtlety of his judgments about the article "A Life for the Tsar" and "Ruslan and Ludmilla" by Glinka ( "Northern Bee", . 1836, . and "Library for Reading, . 1842),
. A number of articles devoted to them Russian folk singing and music ( "The native of the Great song" in the "sandal-walkers" Bessonova, . Issue 5; "old song" in the "Russian Archive" in 1863; church singing (the singing in the parish church "in the" Day "in 1864," On the question of ancient Russian singing ", . "The difference between the frets and the voice" in "Proceedings of the I Archaeological Congress in Moscow 1871 and t,
. etc.). Being engaged in the theory and history of our church singing, Odoyevski collected a lot of old church music manuscripts. A great lover of organ music in general and the music of Johann Sebastian Bach in particular, . Odoyevski built for himself a compact body cleaner (not tempered scale), . he named in honor of Bach's "Sebastyanon" and later donated them to the Moscow Conservatory,
. They were built as a piano, "natural", that is pure failure. Odoyevski not been deprived of talent and a composer: "Tatar song" from the "Fountain of Bakhchisarai Pushkin in" Mnemosyne "1824;" Le clocheteur des Trepasses ", a ballad, a lyric on the album 1832. Laskovsky and strive, "Lullaby" for piano (published in 1851. in "Albums with caricatures" Stepanova and then reissued with minor corrections MA. Balakirev). A number of pieces for organ and other musical manuscripts Odoevskogo are in the library of the Moscow Conservatory. - See. "Musical activities Prince Odoevsky" speech about. DV. Razumovsky ( "Trudy I Archaeological Congress in Moscow, 1871). S. Bulich.


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