Jacobo Arbenz GUZMAN( President of Guatemala in 1944-45 and 1951-54 years.)
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Biography Jacobo Arbenz GUZMAN
September 14, 1913 in the city of Quetzaltenango, homonymous Department. In 1944 he joined a group of military officers, leftist militants and overthrew the dictator Jorge Ubico. In 1949 he was appointed defense minister in the government of Juan JosöL AröLvalo.
. In March 1951, Arbenz Guzman became president of the country, supported by the army and leftist forces, including the Guatemalan Labor Party (Communist Party)
. He defeated the protege of the U.S. General MI. Fuentes. With the rise of the national movement of the new government not only to declare the reform, limiting the domination of the North American monopolies, but also taken the first steps to implement them.
. Adopted by the National Assembly in 1952, the agrarian reform law, which had to eliminate feudal property in the village and prepare the ground for the industrialization of Guatemala, was implemented fairly quickly
. Within two years, about 100 thousand families have become owners of land, . formerly owned by "United Fruit Company", . which not only controlled 95% of banana plantations, . but also owned railways and ports, . international telephone and telegraph lines in Guatemala even created their own police force.,
. Besides, . the government of President Arbenz did not allow North American monopoly in the development of the Guatemalan oil (a law on the protection of national resources of oil and coal), . refused to extend the concession "United Fruit Company" and argued for the restriction of Morgan company "Empresa electrica de Guatemala".,
. Arbenz refused to send soldiers to support the Americans in Korea and the U.S. rejected the proposed pact on military assistance, believing that the terms of the "aid" contrary to the interests of the peoples of South America
. When the government of Arbenz Guatemalans first began to use the broad democratic freedoms. Was reconstituted with the General Confederation of Workers of Guatemala, bringing together more than 100 thousand workers. There was the National Confederation of peasants, which came more than 200 thousand people.
"United Fruit Company" in the meantime decided by economic pressures complicate the situation in the country and undermine the Government's position. He aorganizovala with the support of the U.S. naval blockade of Guatemala. At the Guatemalan railways were frequent sabotage, on the border permanently organized provocations. But all attempts to put pressure on the government of Arbenz were unsuccessful. In difficult conditions, it continued the policy of the liberation of Guatemala from economic dependence, to conduct an independent foreign policy.
. CIA, headed by John Foster Dulles beginning refinement "operations Guatemala, directly led by the deputy CIA director for planning and head of covert operations, Frank Gardner Wisner
. Developed by the State Department and CIA plan included three main areas of action. The first involves a wide range of different kinds of diplomatic machinations and large-scale promotional campaign in order to handle the world public opinion and pressure on the Government of Guatemala. The second area covers all acts of armed aggression from the territory of neighboring States with Guatemala. Third provided for the operational activities related to the internal organization of the coup, timed to the beginning of an armed invasion.
. January 20, 1954 the government of Arbenz and exposed to the world the fact of the preparation of armed intervention by unveiling a 200 photographs and numerous messages exchanged by participants in the conspiracy
. By the time of the X Inter-American Conference in Caracas in March 1954, Arbenz already had irrefutable evidence linking him to the State Department and the CIA. Despite this 17 June, President Eisenhower was given orders to attack. At the head of the conspiracy was formally Colonel Carlos Castillo Armas.
On the night of June 18 Army Armas crossed the Honduran-Guatemalan border and invaded the territory of Guatemala through the territories belonging to "United Fruit Company". After a week in the premises of the U.S. Embassy has already discussed plans for the fate of President Arbenz. Initially intended to remove him physically, but then it was decided to keep him alive, unless he voluntarily relinquishes power.
June 25 resumed the bombing of the capital with the aircraft provided by the Americans Castillo Armas. In these circumstances, in an atmosphere of chaos erupts Arbenz refused the post of president, believing that this act will facilitate the resolution of the Guatemalan crisis, as in the same day, announced on the radio. He put forward two demands: to be respected in life and the freedom of all citizens and the army did not lay down their arms and would fight until the expulsion of the invaders. Empowering the commander of the armed forces Carlos Enrique Diaz Arbenz fled the country.
. Shortly thereafter, Diaz was overthrown by pro-American military led by Colonel Monson, who was himself at 4 months was replaced Castillo Armas.
. Sam Arbenz in 1957, traveled to Uruguay, then to Cuba, and finally to Mexico, where he died in Mexico City on January 27, 1971.