Andrew Jackson( President of the United States in 1829-37 gg.)
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Biography Andrew Jackson
. In the political consciousness of Americans symbolizes Andrew Jackson first President, . which was not originally from pacesetters elite East Coast, . aolitsetvoryal themselves - especially in the eyes of his political opponents - tipneobrazovannyh, . roughest ibezrassudno brave people from the west on the other side of the Appalachians,
. Future seventh president of the United States was born March 15, 1767 north of Columbia, South Carolina, in the area Veksho border region, contested in North and South Carolina. His father, Andrew Jackson, a Scottish-Irish Protestant origin, two years before his birth moved with his wife Elizabeth Hachinson and two sons in South Carolina and bought land in the far untapped frontier region. Shortly before the birth of his youngest son's father died. As little Andrew had become a priest, . it, . Unlike his brothers, . had the privilege to get in time to elementary school, . some years later was interrupted by the war for independence, . where he soon died of his elder brother,
. In fourteen years, Andrew and his brother Robert joined the battle in the area, which was threatened by British troops, and captured. At the same time, both brothers received serious head injury, from which Robert died a few months later. In the spring of 1781, Andrew released, but a few weeks later his mother died. Then he decided to go to Salisbury, North Carolina, that in one of the most prestigious offices to learn from a lawyer. In spite of the dissolute life, a few years later he received admission to the court and in the twenty-one year decided to purposefully seek their own happiness more in the west in Nashvill, in an almost uninhabited area of Tennessee.
Striving for success and influence, he married in 1791 and entered into one of the first families of Tennessee. Both believed that Rachel Danielson legally divorced from her first husband. As it turned out, it was a mistake, and the wedding had to be repeated in early 1794. Career of Jackson as an increasingly respected and wealthy lawyer, planter and a public figure is, however, not harm. In 1796 he was elected to the Tennessee constitutional convention, and after the adoption of the state in the Union sent the first member of Tennessee in Washington in Congress, where he returned to 1797godu as one of two senators from Tennessee. But he could not get a mandate and resigned to accept appointment as a judge in the Supreme Court of Tennessee, where he stayed from 1798 to 1804. But a few years he began looking for new field. In 1802 he was appointed commander of the militia of Tennessee and was promoted to Major General. No matter how he aspired to the post, but the personal feuds, duels, and disagreements with Thomas Jefferson, it seemed, made him for some time away from public life.
. Jackson got his chance in 1813, during the war against England during the uprising Indian Creek in the neighboring territory of Mississippi
. The governor of Tennessee ordered the militia under the leadership of Jackson to crush the rebellion, which succeeded in March 27, 1814 at the Battle of Horsisho Bend. Several months later, Jackson decided the fate of the Indians draconian peace treaty, which the cries had to give large areas, thus opened to white settlement large areas of Georgia and Alabama today. In his campaign against the union with the British Indian Jackson penetrated far to the south and through the Pensacola reached, . Finally, . New Orleans, . where 8 January 1815 as a major-general United States army inflicted a crushing defeat British airborne units,
. Even if this, . from the American point of view, colorless, . War of 1812 against Great Britain in international law was already over 24 December 1814 in the distant Ghent in Belgium, . what no one at the time in the United States did not know, . Jackson then this victory has built his reputation as savior of the fatherland. ",
. Hard and decisive military action, . because of which his admirers assigned him the name "Old Hickory" re-emerged, . when in December 1817, the Federal Government has instructed him to speak out against the Indians, Seminole, ,
. Jackson immediately took to Florida, won the capital of Pensacola, took the area under control and ordered the hanging of two Britons for allegedly cooperating with the rebellious Indians. That he not only created considerable diplomatic complications, and acquired by numerous political enemies in Washington, accused him of abuse of power and helped usher in the political consequences. Jackson was exonerated, but the government has taken almost nothing to protect him, and one of the most prominent members of Congress, Henry Clay publicly called him a "dangerous". Jackson did not forget this treachery. While the conclusion of the so-called Overland treaty with Spain in 1819, . seemed, . indirectly justified its actions, . Spain was, . however, . ready to concede a certain amount of Florida to the United States and to recognize the American claim to the expansion to the Pacific Ocean.,
. Due to this dispute Jackson's political career has become more precise contours
. In 1821 he was appointed military governor of Florida, and from 1823 to 1825 again was a member of the Senate in Washington, which gave him the opportunity to underpin its claim to the presidency. Election 1824 seemed the perfect moment for this. Virginia, which provided until all the presidents, with the exception of John Adams, was unable to provide a credible successor to James Monroe, so that in this vacuum of Jackson for many was the most appropriate person. But the country's political elite was not going without a fight to give a popular national hero from the west. After John Calhoun declared his candidacy, Tennessee named Jackson, in that put Henry Clay of Kentucky, and Massachusetts - John Quincy Adams. The faction of Republicans, representing the minority in Congress, put, finally, another opponent Jackson - William Crawford of Georgia. In this controversial situation Calhoun took his statement back to run for vice president under Jackson or Adams.
. Political fragmentation was an expression of fundamental changes, . besetting the country, . when the old republican ideals of the revolutionary time lost unifying force, and only began to form a new party system to a changing, . democratic legally,
. Jackson, a representative of a new America, opposed by three representatives of passing time. But the decisive factor for the election was not spray on this side, but only its combination with the political tension between the South and West. Although Jackson could concentrate on a majority of votes, . However, none of the candidates in the election board has reached an absolute majority, . so that the House of Representatives had to choose candidate, . occupied the top three,
. Given the political rivalry between Jackson and Clay, . one hand, . and a political agreement on many issues between Adams and Clay, . On the other hand, . was not unexpected that, . that adhesive, . ranked fourth, . not least because of unpromising position Crawford, . put its political weight on the scales in favor of Adams, . especially, . that he had promised for this prestigious post of foreign minister.,
. Jackson felt cheated in their hopes of victory and rebuked Clay - because of the frustration and their understanding of democracy, which does not take into account the political realities - in public in the sales transaction with Adams
. But Jackson did not give, . and because of growing opposition to the policy of Adams, . aimed at expanding the infrastructure, . New York Senator Martin Van Buren managed to put together a coalition of Republicans beyond the northern and southern states, . including Vice-President Calhoun as a "democratic republican" or "Democrat", . led by Andrew Jackson,
. With such a confluence of political circumstances, Jackson challenged Adams in the presidential elections in 1828. This confrontation, which became part of American history as the dirtiest election campaigns has led to the extraordinary politicization of the population. Some newspaper people who supported Adams and Clay, had expressed doubts about the reputation of Jackson's wife Rachel, with whom he lived since 1790, although officially she was divorced from her first husband only in 1793. Jackson barely restrained by the fact that he once grabbed a dueling pistol, which he has repeatedly - once with fatal - to defend the honor of his wife.
. 13th anniversary of his victory at the Battle of New Orleans, Jackson used to visit the scene, this trip in the annals of the American election campaign as one of first visits with election campaign
. Participation in elections is extremely improved, especially the process of democratization in the meantime almost all states overcame the last obstacle to the introduction of general suffrage for white men. The result was surprising in many respects. At the election came in three times more Americans than in 1824, and Jackson could more clearly than Adam, to increase the proportion of votes from 41 to 56%. In the election board, . whose members now, . mostly, . appointed by the people's choice, . not as before - the parliaments of individual states, . Jackson's victory was even more explicit: he received 178 votes compared to 83, . cast for Adams, . for which there were only the states of New England, . NJ, . Delaware and parts of New York and Maryland,
. For the first time since 1800 the president, acting, lost in the re. However, Jackson had to pay dearly for the victory. Shortly before moving to Washington, his wife, who feared that move because of the carry-over during the election campaign of humiliation, died suddenly. In her death, Jackson blamed his political opponents, but blamed himself for the fact that because of his ambition Rachel shouldered the burden of public scandals.
. Jackson praised his success as a victory for democracy and the people, and generations of historians and politicians, especially in the first half of XX century, with the happy talk about this time as the era of the little man, the era of the common man
. Recently, by contrast, emphasizes the revolutionary nature of the watershed of the time. Based on the "transportation revolution" beginning of the XIX century, with its feverish construction of roads, . channels, . Finally, . Railways, . which has mastered the enormous newly acquired area for settlement and trade and laid the foundation for industrialization, . today talking about the overall "market revolution", . transforming the entire economic, . social and political fabric of time,
. Not the expression "equitable society", . as it may seem from the perspective of the European observer, . especially Tocqueville, . but rather makes his way the capitalist market forces, . influenced the growing city as, . as the orientation of agriculture on the world market, . and their inclusion in national trade and tariff policies, . within the conventional framework of financial markets, . characterize these decades.,
. But along with the winners of this development, businessmen, entrepreneurs, speculators and large landowners were also the victims of the capitalist expansionist assault: Indians, negros, workers and women
. Although suffrage, . especially in the North, . been widely democratized to the victory of Jackson, . but it is as little government took the women to public life, . as, . example, . New democratic trends could support the economic rights of workers and, . especially, . Britain made attempts to establish and legalize trade unions,
. Jackson also was the first American president that has used troops against striking workers.
These are the same and statesmen, that with the introduction of the office of Jackson March 4, 1829 ceremony came to Washington. They were neither poor nor socially declassed Rather embodied the type of people promising time of change, people subject to their own devices, the type that Jackson represented to a greater extent than anyone else. It was the social type, which was part of a policy on "the principle of production", which infuriated opponents of Jackson's more morally than politically. Of course, Jackson does not belong to the thought that by updating the composition, rotation, as he termed it, to contribute to his followers in advance but the service and the acquisition of influence. That did the presidents before him. However, opponents and victims of this seemed, . that it occurs suddenly and dramatically, . although, . according to their belief, . Jackson would thus counteract the primarily political corruption, . he saw her in action since 1824 in Washington,,
. He also is valid for two terms as president has replaced approximately 10% of officials in positions subordinate to the federal government. Induced polarization of the election campaign the political life of Jackson's assumption of office has found new food in the face of moral claims and actions of Jackson to the scam Peggy Eaton, . in which he made the task of high politics that, . to the young wife of his longtime trustee and newly made Minister of War John Eaton, . which were distributed in Washington society, the scandalous rumors, . treated with proper respect,
. That, . that Van Buren in this situation, took the side of Eaton, . retained the respect and friendship of Jackson, . but also deepened the political divide between Jackson and his Vice-President Calhoun, . whose wife went on a demonstrative social boycott Peggy, . Eaton.,
. Was Jackson, at least initially, diffident president, as presented in several recent assessments of his presidency, it seems doubtful
. Of course, he is clearly more attention devoted to meetings in private with the trustees that his opponents called "kitchen cabinet" than the formal meetings of the Cabinet. But he has never been a lack of political commitment and political will to implement. Thus, already in his first message to Congress, he urged members of Parliament to the strongest democratic reforms, to give their political power and sovereignty of the will of the people. However, in this respect implies the popular election of senators were erected in the principle of the Constitution only more than 80 years later.
. Jackson has achieved greater success in the most controversial events of his presidency, the so-called banking war
. Overcoming tremendous resistance, . Alexander Hamilton has brought to life in 1791, First Bank of the United States, . his place in 1816 came the Second Bank of the United States as the guardian of the currency and the only depositary bank for all the money the government, . which, . although it was organized on the basis of a private law company, . but was responsible for federal income tax,
. Although this bank with its central office, . located in Philadelphia, . and two dozen branches, . scattered throughout the country, . in 1822 successfully managed Nicholas Biddle, . came from one of the most respected families of Philadelphia, . doubt about his legal and constitutional legitimacy was never fully slackened,
. Since Jackson during the economic crisis in 1819 witnessed, . both credit and interest policy bank has ruined many debt-ridden farmers in the West, . he became an opponent of this "monster", . privileges which the alleged benefits only the rich, . threatening the freedom and welfare of the people.,
. Henry Clay, in collaboration with Biddle clever chess progress made in the election campaign in early 1832 on the extension of the concession bank, which ended only in 1836
. Or Jackson yield and thereby lose its political credibility, or he would be foolish enough to reject the extension of the concession and will appear, thanks to this, economic fool. However decided Jackson, Clay as a sensible, conscientious and far-sighted policies will benefit to inherit the post of president.
. Jackson was not difficult to discern the political game Clay and he was ready to turn their weapons against itself
. After both houses of Congress approved the extension of the concession Bank, Jackson sent him back to Congress July 10, 1832 bill with his veto. Contents substantiate immediately awakened many memories of the radical Republican wealth of ideas of the Revolution. Thus, Jackson saw the bank coming from a great danger to the freedom of the country and its citizens, as is exactly a quarter of bank shares were in foreign hands. He felt not only a new threat to Britain, but also expressed the traditional Republican aversion to international trade and capital, which were "unpatriotic" by their nature and are incompatible with the proper republican beliefs. In its purely constitutional and legal reasoning Jackson not only denied the question the constitutionality of laws, . but also used the beliefs of Jefferson, . that Congress, . executive and the Supreme Court "every man for himself" must be guided by their own understanding of the Constitution,
. In this case the Supreme Court should not be allowed to control Congress and the executive power, "if they are acting in their legislative capacity."
The greatest impression left behind a radical-democratic passages of his veto. The rich and powerful too often abused by governments governmental activities for their own selfish purposes. Man-made institutions can not produce equality of talents, education and welfare. "But if the laws are the reason, . that this natural and equitable distribution of added artificial distinction, . providing titles, . benefits and exclusive privileges, . making the rich richer and the powerful more powerful, . a simple members of society, . farmers, . artisans and workers, . who have neither the time, . nor the means to, . to achieve for themselves the same benefits, . have the right to complain about the fairness of their government. ",
. Never before has the American president not to formulate Republican, . radical-democratic potential of the American Revolution as a moral duty of the government stronger, . than this phase of fracture, . where the old republican virtues increasingly gave way to new and since then defined by the American myth,
. An outraged cry of his opponents remained without consequences: Congress could not gather a majority of two-thirds majority vote to reject the veto Jackson, . and political influence has shifted in favor of the President, . which is intended to strongly benefit from this in the coming crisis soon canceled,
24 November 1832 convention of South Carolina announced the lifting of all tariffs and laws forbade all citizens of the state under threat of fines to obey them. If the federal government wants to insist on the duties by force of arms, then South Carolina will come from the union. Jackson is not going to prevent softening of financial authorities, as well as to give themselves to be intimidated slave owners, led by the resigned Vice President Calhoun. Although up to that, Mr. Jackson advocated full rights of individual states and against activist federal policy in the spirit of Clay to improve infrastructure, . stimulated Union, . He did not doubt his conviction, . that freedom and the Union interdependent,
. So "assume one state government to repeal the law of the United States was incompatible with the existence of the Union, . apparent contradiction of the letter of the Constitution, . not justified its spirit, , . which it was founded, . and destructive to the great goal, . for which it was created ",
. Only the sovereign people can decide whether to dissolve the Union, and not a small number of voters of a single state. This is nothing like treason. When it became clear that no other state does not follow the example of South Carolina, indignant Jackson reassured. January 16, 1833 he appealed to Congress to request the law which would allow him to enforce the duty of the laws in South Carolina, if necessary with the use of military violence. Both houses met the requirements of a majority of votes, but also decided to offer a new South Carolina law duty to lower interest rates as a compromise solution. March 2, 1833 Jackson signed both the law and the government and parliament of South Carolina silently accepted the compromise.
. Attempts by the Office failed, and Jackson, 4 March 1833 re-entered the office of President, after a popular election was held with approximately the same number of votes against Clay as against Adams in 1828
. The results of the election board were more ambiguous: Jackson received 219 votes to 49, . cast for Clay, . and thus further improved its position in the Middle Atlantic states and New England as compared with the year 1828, . but otherwise, . than four years ago, . lost to Clay in his home state of Kentucky and the Governor in South Carolina.,
. Elections have brought something new
. New Democrats, as they themselves are now called, had a convention to nominate candidates, who unanimously nominated Jackson for a second term and the necessary two-thirds majority vote appointed Martin Van Burena Vice President. Because of this democratic sanction Van Buren was approved as a presumed political heir Jackson despite oppositely directed efforts Calhoun.
. Endowed with a new mandate Jackson continued his policy against the Bank of the United States withholding budget money
. But in other matters has continued the policy begun in the first period of his tenure as president. Due to the increasing conflicts between whites and Indians in Georgia in 1827, Cherokee had declared themselves an independent nation on the basis of written republican constitution. But when their territory was found gold, the conflict became violent forms, and Georgia has announced that the Indian region are exclusively subject to the laws of the State. In search of support Cherokee appealed to the president and sought the protection of federal troops. Referring to the fact that it is a purely internal problems of state, Jackson refused to help, but if the Indians will leave Georgia and dwell on one of the areas west of the Mississippi Union, they could live there in peace under the protection of government. Accordingly, the Congress issued May 28, 1830 Indian Removal Act, . which provided money for the relocation of the "five civilized tribes" (cries, . Cherokee, . Seminole, . choktoi and chikasoi), . if they agree to leave their place of residence in the south-eastern United States and settled in an equal amount of territory west of the Mississippi in today's Oklahoma, . to live there in the future without interference and without interference,
. The Union shall bear the costs for transportation, meals during the journey and all other related expenses.
Some Indian tribes have adopted the proposal without a fight, while others persistently refused. Teal, who borrowed more than the rest of the American political and social institutions, went to court and reached the Supreme Court. In the process of "Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, in 1830 they lost the case because the court awarded them the status of" domestic dependent nations "who did not give them the right to accuse the state before the Supreme Court. But two years later in the process of "Uorkester v. Georgia, the same court declared the proliferation of laws to the territory of Georgia Cherokee unconstitutional and invalid and ordered the release of two missionaries, Georgia, . arrested for violation of these laws.,
. The study comes from the fact that several decades later, allegedly spread a statement from Jackson's arrogant disregard for the verdict of the higher judiciary, which in reality has never been imposed
. However, Jackson was in the unenviable position. The charge that he was due to pressure on Georgia, prompted the state to make concessions to underestimate the two aspects. On the one hand, . in these months the crisis canceled in South Carolina is nearing its climax, . which was essential for the alliance and in which Jackson was by all means to avoid strengthening the position of South Carolina, . pribiraya hands on a neighboring state,
. Although Georgia in 1828 and 1832 almost voted for Jackson, . position of its supporters in the state were not shaken, . as evidenced by the election of 1836 and 1840 years, . when George majority voted against the Democratic candidate for the candidate of the Whigs.,
. Second, often overlooked in the literature, point concerns the general attitude of Jackson to the Supreme Court and its function within the American constitutional system
. In his veto against legislation to extend the concession for the Bank of the United States in the summer of 1832 Jackson clearly showed that not taking the claims of the Supreme Court to be the sole protector of the constitution and the constitutionality of laws. Like Jefferson, he aspired to the same duties for the executive branch and Congress to act as a guarantor of the Constitution. In this function he could act against Georgia only to the extent to which its policy did not give a reason for the threat or the more destruction Union.
Jackson helped that in the case of Georgia, he could play for a while. The Court after its decision until January 1833. Previously, the question of the Constitution, with the continued refusal to submit to the Georgia court would not have been so acute. When it became clear that South Carolina did not receive support from other southern states, Georgia, January 14, 1833 to obey a court order and release the arrested. Two days later, on 16 January, Jackson appealed to Congress to request the law, which was to authorize the federal government to pursue its policy in South Carolina, if necessary by force of arms. The conflict with Georgia had been allowed, but strained relations with the Supreme Court hanging in the air. The fact that it has not deteriorated at all, due to the fact that Jackson by the end of his presidency, has appointed six new federal judges, among them, finally, the Chief Justice Roger Thain as the successor of John Marshall.
. Jackson, despite certain delays until the end of his presidency, stubbornly continued relocation of Indians from the American south-east
. In the case of the Cherokee, this policy is increasingly becoming the victim of bureaucratic negligence, false white and the inability of their own chiefs. That finally began in May 1838 and entered history as "the train of tears" is a very dark chapter of American policy towards the Indians.
This, however, did not affect the universal respect for Jackson. When the age of 70, that is older than any other president, he is 3 March 1837 resigned from the presidency, he could be convinced that is the most popular American of his time. Even if he did not convince all his enemies, then we could see up his eight-year presidency. The democratic opening of the country to strengthen, at least in the North, a new two-party system was established on a democratic basis throughout the country. Threatening the collapse of the Union was successfully prevented, and adopted a political heir Jackson. Two new states (Arkansas and Michigan) were accepted into the union, and the independence of Texas from Mexico opened the possibility of further peaceful progress of the United States in the south-west. Constitutional institutions of the country have proved themselves in the transition from the traditional elite east coast to the new political and social fundamentals, strong, and thus passed the first serious test.
. All this largely was due to Jackson
. He not only prevented the constitution has become a mirage, but also indicated a new direction of American politics, centered on the interior, expansive development and individual. Sense of purpose, combined with the apparent proportion of moralistic self-righteousness, . focus on success and material basis is characterized by its much more, . than the weighted self-examination, . rational detachment, . intellectual breadth and the propensity to education and spiritual perfection,
. In this regard, . especially from the European point of view, . Jackson can be seen not only as an exemplary American President, . moreover, . its value, . even greatness is particularly apparent in the, . he, . leaving at the time this American fractures his indelible imprint, . was thus the right man at the right time at right place,
. No other American president before and after it was unable to cope with this task so convincingly. It is in American studies is growing relatively new belief in the fundamental importance of the time for all of American history, so increased understanding of the importance of political thought and action Jackson.
. Sam Jackson with keen interest could see the maturing fruits of his labor, but with the distance of his plantation Hermitage under Nashvill, consists of 500 hectares
. Although he personally has been badly hit during the economic crisis in 1837, . He strongly, . unsuccessfully, . seek re-election of his friend, . trustee and a successor Van Burena, . with whom he had before the elections in 1844, differences have arisen over the issue of the Texas,
. But Jackson was happier when in 1844 he was elected president of his student, James H. Polk, besides the defeat in his long-time enemy, Henry Clay. For Jackson, this victory is suited to the purpose for which he has actively promoted the last years of his life - the annexation of Texas, to a common resolution of both houses of Congress held March 1, 1845. Three months later, on June 8, 1845, Jackson died at the age of 78 and was buried, according to his wishes, in the garden next to the Hermitage with his wife Rachel.