Martin Van Buren( President of the United States in 1837-41 gg.)
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Biography Martin Van Buren
. Jackson's successor was in many ways the complete opposite of "Old Hickory", . stocky, . courteous and friendly, . while carefully maneuvering, . not temperamental daredevil, . more people, . who seduces him to underestimate, . "Little Magician", . This was one of his not very flattering nicknames,
His ancestors were originally from the Netherlands and in 1631 settled in the upper valley of the Hudson River near today's Albany. Here in Kinderhuke, New York, December 5, 1782 was born Martin Van Buren. His father, Abraham Van Buren, a respected farmer and innkeeper, he made his humble status, and his mother Mary Howes was one of the famous family of Dutch origin, too. Martin was the third of five children and eldest son of Abraham and Mary Van Buren.
. Receiving school education, which in the end of XVIII century, could offer little Kinderhuk, but in which, however, were the basis in Latin, fourteen-Martin Van Buren entered the office, to learn to be a lawyer
. When in 1803 he received a permit to work in court, then not only managed to lay the foundations for long-term successful career as a lawyer, but to become widely known in local politics as a staunch supporter of the Jeffersonian Republicans.
. Politics has become in the end the main content of his life, the more so in 1819 from tuberculosis died of his young love Hannah Howes, a distant relative of his mother, whom he married in 1807, and he remained a widower
. In 1812, he defeated the Federalists in the election of deputies to the Senate in New York and in subsequent years played an increasingly significant role in the politics of his native state. So, along with other Republicans, he created the so-called "Albany Regency, a political group that for years defined the policy of the State of New York. At the constitutional convention of New York in 1821 he successfully argued for the democratization of the political system of their state. In the same year, defeated the former deputy in the legislature of New York in the election of one of two senators in Washington.
. In Washington, Van Buren increasingly manifested itself as an opponent of President Adams and was soon forced to join Andrew Jackson
. For the election of Jackson, he created in 1828 by a coalition of North and South, while, despite only just past his re-election of a senator, declined to mandate that a candidate for governor of New York. The meaning of this political progress was in, . towed to his election at the same time to deliver votes for Jackson in New York, . Already two months later, . March 1829, . Van Buren resigned his new post and assumed the post of foreign minister in the government of Jackson,
. As the most loyal and reliable employee of Jackson, in 1831 he resigned to give the president the opportunity to undertake the necessary transformation of his cabinet. After that, Jackson appointed him ambassador to Britain, but the Senate on party-political reasons, did not consent. If some opponents had hoped to put a premature end to this career Van Burena, . long ago became a professional politician, . then they soon found, . that Jackson holds tight for Van Burena, . a convention for the nomination of the Democrats chose him in 1832, the necessary majority of 2 / 3 of a candidate for vice-president and thus succeeded Calhoun,
. According to Jackson's request to Van Buren was his political successor, the Democratic convention in May 1835 unanimously chose him as a presidential candidate and put forward by Richard M. Johnson, a Kentucky candidate for vice president.
. Party-political opponents of Jackson and Van Burena together while the Whigs, . but were unable to reach unanimity on the overall candidate, . so that in 1836, . along with William Henry Harrison of Ohio, . the fight to take Hugh Lawson White of Tennessee, and Daniel Webster of Massachusetts and, . additionally, . more Willie P,
. Manga as an independent Democrat from South Carolina. The fragmentation of the votes of the West and South Van Buren victory eased. True, he was able to write in their asset 765 000 votes, T. e. almost 10% more than the Jackson four years ago, but in reality the results of elections in most states showed only a slight gap, and at the end of the share of votes Wang Burena was 50,8%. As a result of the election board was clearly better. In contrast, in 1832 the Democrats of Rhode Island and Connecticut won, . and Nц¦o Jersey, . of Maryland, . Indiana, . Ohio, . Tennessee and Georgia lost, . so that the Van Buren received 170 of 294 votes, . while Harrison as his major opposition candidate, with 36, . 6% of the votes received only 73 places,
. Hope many Whigs that they can prevent the majority of the electoral board, as in 1824, to a vote in the House of Representatives, failed.
. Notwithstanding the approval of that and later times, that assumption Van Burena office began a third term presidency, Jackson, Van Buren, in many ways represented a new beginning
. This was the first president, for which the War of Independence and the Revolution were inherited history, but not actually lived through them. Therefore he was able to develop another, less emotional attitude to the UK and to promote a new assessment of the political parties as the foundation of a democratic system. More than any other president before and after him, Van Buren believed in the importance and function of a modern political party in the democratic party state whose formation he has also contributed more than all his predecessors. As one of permanent merit should be considered that he created the orderly competition of parties and brought it into line with the constitutional institutions of the country.
The rest of his presidency was held under an unlucky star. The booming trade and monetary development during the presidency of Jackson, . favorable to economic and financial speculation and the creation of banks, . who grew up around both of the ground, . standing on feet of clay, . Jackson and policies in this area was not conducive to either reduce, . no stimulation of confidence,
. The economic crisis in 1837 (the panic in 1837) did not arise by chance. Two months later, after Wang Burena office collapsed first banks in New York, they were followed by others throughout the country. The crisis touched the state - the legacy of Jackson's policies, . as under threat, . if not disappeared altogether, . public money, . scattered across multiple depository banks, . and Wang Burena presidency was characterized by, inter alia, a sustained political efforts to establish an independent deposit system within the public financial management.,
. Economy and society also suffered from the worst economic crisis of the XIX century
. In New York, came to the food riots, mass unemployment rose, prices fell. More than any other single event, this economic crisis that lasted until the forties, was to blame for the fact that all the efforts of Van Burena taken for re-election in 1848, were in vain.
. At the same time his government has had successes, such as in foreign policy
. Thus, in winter 1837-38 he. on the Niagara River and in the winter 1838-39 he. the north-eastern border with Menom serious incidents occurred in Britain, each of which could easily become a pretext for a new US-British War. He succeeded in this way not only to avert war, . but also pave the way for the treaty Webster and Eshbartona in 1842, . which sixty years after independence was finally, . in accordance with international law, . aligned north-eastern border of the United States in a disputed border area MENOM-New Brunswick,
. Ban Buren could not enjoy the fruits of this success
. How strongly in elections in 1840 the Democrats were in favor of Van Burena, unanimously Whigs stood at this time for William Henry Harrison. Van Buren because apparently increased participation in elections has received half as many votes as four years ago, but its share of votes dropped to 46.8%, while Harrison has reached 52,9%. As a result of the election board was even more pronounced. For Van Burena voted seven states with a total of 60 votes. Harrison received nearly four times more. Not the last time, because of this resistance. It took 24 years before the next time and under completely different circumstances, the president, who is in office, declared his candidacy for re-election.
. However, despite the defeat, Van Buren retired from politics without the bitterness and anger
. On a farm in New York will prepare your return in a few years in the active policy. To this end, in 1842 undertook a long trip to the United States, after which he was everywhere considered a solid candidate for the democratic presidential election in 1844. The fact that these hopes were dashed, though, was to blame, not least Calhoun, but above all he Van Buren. To prevent the victory of Van Burena, Calhoun for the decisive phase before the elections set in motion the question of the annexation of Texas, who persistently engaged. He was aware that Van Buren in recent years is clearly sympathetic to the opponents of slavery and therefore be against the extension of the slave states by accession Texas. Accordingly, Van Buren uniquely addressed by the convention to nominate candidates. The consequence of this basic position was that of Van Buren in the seven rounds could not overcome nominated by him in 1832, the barrier two-thirds majority, but was clear favorite of delegates from the north-eastern and north-western states. In this situation, stepped forward James K. Polk, hold on to it in the shade, as a compromise candidate who managed to convince the convention unanimously to support it.
. Van Buren again retired to his estate, . but the debate about the policy of the regiment and a growing split in the Democratic Party in New York between the radical opponents of slavery, and conservative politicians, . who for the sake of party unity were prepared to accept the spread of slavery, . have left the old party politics aside,
. Becoming increasingly opposed to slavery, . he finally was ready to sacrifice the unity of the Party and, . due to the split of the existing two-party system of the new antislavery party, . Free Soil Party, . put forward its candidature for the election of 1848.,
. For the first time the question of slavery became a significant theme of the election struggle, and was seething conflict between North and South affect the results of the election. Van Buren received a remarkable 10% of votes, however, given the 200 voters in the two later the border states of Delaware and Maryland, a single vote in the South. In the State of New York and Massachusetts, its share of votes amounted to 29%, and he was able to push the Democratic candidate and supporter of slavery Lewis Cass for third place. Indirectly Van Buren reached thus their goal and prevent the victory Cass, so that Zachary Taylor was chosen 47% of the votes and 163 electoral board members against 127 who voted for Cashier.
. This was the last major speech of Van Burena in national politics
. Despite all this, he was not going to abandon the idea of unity of the Union and again made peace with the Democratic Party. In his old age has taken from 1853 to 1855 a great trip to Europe and began to write his biography, which has never been finished, but so far the most detailed biography of former U.S. President. In it he reiterated his faith in political parties and the modern party state. When large quantities of Democrats and Whigs in the late 50-ies of the XIX century differed on the issue of slavery, almost eighty Van Buren could not register it only from afar, not being able to intervene very. In the midst of civil war, July 24, 1862, Van Buren died of asthma, which in recent years increasingly exacerbated, in his estate in Lindenvald Kinderhuke.