John TAYLER( President of the United States in 1841-45 gg.)
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Biography John TAYLER
When April 4, 1841 died Mr. William. Harrison, the first time during these fifty years that have passed since the inauguration of George Washington, came a case where the powers and duties of the president without elections were postponed to the Vice-President. Although the constitution prescribes such order of succession, there was no unity on the question, what really imeetsyav mind in the relevant language of Article II, Section. 1. But Tyler from the outset can not be doubted that it will serve as manager of the President. Moreover, . he insisted, . that the death of his predecessor, made a full-fledged president with all constitutional rights and responsibilities in relation to other constitutional bodies and that there are no presidents first and second order, . whether, . whether it was them as a result of the election of the election or by the departure of President-elect,
Tenth president, who came from the aristocracy of planters of Virginia, was not the man with whom one could argue on this issue. His ancestors of English origin settled 200 years ago in Virginia near Williamsburg, . where his father, John Tyler, . planter and slave owner, . friends from Jefferson, . was from 1809 to 1811, the Governor, . then a judge in federal court in Virginia,
. Son of John Tyler was born here 29 March 1790 and was the sixth of eight children. About his mother, Mary Armsted Tyler, who died at the age of 36 years, very little is known. After studying at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, he studied at the lawyer. In 1809, graduated and received a permit to work in court. In 1813, Tyler married Letitia Christian, who came from a wealthy family of planters of Virginia and two years after her death in 1842 - by Julia Gardiner from the famous New York family, who was 30 years younger than him. From two marriages he had fourteen children.
. John Tyler in the twenty-one year political career began, . whether by his father's footsteps, . when in 1811 as a Republican and a supporter of Jefferson entered the Virginia House of Delegates, . in which he served until 1816, . and then again from 1823 to 1825 and from 1838 to 1840,
. In other years he was a member of the House of Representatives (1816-21) and Senate (1827-36) and was governor of Virginia (1825-27). In elections in 1836 was made by Tyler as a candidate for vice president in several states, along with Hugh L. White, in others - along with William Henry Harrison. Tyler defended the political line convinced southerner, . advocating for the rights of individual states and against any restrictions on slavery, . true, . he did not support the policy canceled in North Carolina, . but followed the principle of the right to secession and strongly warned against any attempt to hold the Union by force of arms,
. Thus he became in the end an uncompromising opponent of Jackson and joined the opposition Whigs and thus to a policy of Clay, an active federal policy whose first principle is constantly rejected.
. At the convention, the nomination of the Whigs in 1839, Tyler supported the candidacy of Clay, but once prevailed Harrison, Tyler was nominated as a candidate for vice-president to improve the chances of the Whigs in the South
. He was elected along with Harrison and March 4, 1841 entered the office, unable to exert any influence on the government, and soon returned to his estate in Williamsburg. Early on the morning of 5 April, he received the unexpected news of the death of the President, hastened to Washington, and April 6, 1841 gave the oath of office as the tenth president of the United States.
. Time to enter the state of affairs in Tyler was very little, . as due to the tense situation of the budget Garrison has appointed an emergency session of Congress at the end of May, . and Clay does not hide, . that will take the opportunity to, . politically to implement the restoration of the bank of the United States, . which collapsed five years ago as a result of the veto Jackson,
. Principles of the Whigs, which he uncompromisingly demanded follow meant more to him than the constitutional concerns the president, advocating for the rights of individual states and a more narrow interpretation of the Constitution.
. Clay has made to the existing law on the state in controlling the money was abolished, and Congress decided to establish a Bank of the United States Treasury in Washington and its affiliates in individual states
. The event was immediately halted veto Tyler. Because the Senate failed to gain two-thirds majority, . to reject the veto, . immediately and without regard to the proposal to postpone the meeting Tyler, . proposed amended draft law, . thus the question bank as a personal power struggle between Tyler and Clay,
. Even though Tyler and did not have the political dexterity of Clay, . there remains the question, . whether he could for the political credibility of the presidential institution for a long time to take the best solution, . than the second time a veto instead, . to yield extorsive attempts Clay,
. Such a position he would openly oppose the glossing over of the constitutional principle of separation of powers. In this way, "Its unfortunate accident," as he contemptuously called opponents, displays himself politically in the offside. When Clay on the next day again failed to muster the necessary majority to reject the veto, . then a day, . September 11, 1841, . all ministers, . except the Secretary of State Webster, . resigned, . Tyler as a traitor was formally expelled from the Whig.,
. Tyler managed just two days to draw up a new cabinet, in which he invited the famous politicians of the Whigs from the North and South
. The Senate can not destroy this new government, if you do not wish to bring to an extreme struggle with the president. But fate did not give him any longevity, no little success. True, . Minister of Foreign Affairs of Webster in 1842, after considerable preparatory work is in Van Buren, and despite the amateurish intervention Tyler, . contracted-Webster Eshbartona, . which not only settled a decades-long north-east of the border conflict between Menom and Nц¦o Brunswick, . but also found in the north-east of the boundary line from Lake Superior to Lake Forest, . which brought the United States - then, . true, . this was not yet known - possession of rich deposits of iron ore,
. When the next year he resigned Webster, took a new conversion cabinet. And in March 1844 it became necessary to the third, as the one just to take a military vessel in the tests cannon exploded and killed the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of the Navy. The fact that John Calhoun then entered the cabinet as Minister of Foreign Affairs, the signals that Tyler became close friends with the Democrats of the southern states and politically separated in an escalated conflict between the South and West.
. Turning to the Democrats, . clearly manifested in the transformation of the Cabinet in 1843, . was not in the least accelerated by, . that the election of the Congress in 1842, the Whigs almost dramatically lost, . thus dramatically changed the situation among the national parties in connection with the upcoming in 1844 presidential elections,
. Clay came out of the Senate to concentrate on its fourth and final attempt to reach the presidential chair. Before the Democrats all came together at Van Buren, Tyler could not leave the bold hope that they nominated him as their candidate.
However, "the president without a party" this hope remained futile. His government has suffered from too much stimulated by his political personality of positional battles. That, . that in 1842, Tyler could hardly escape the fate, . become the first American president, . which the House of Representatives formally filed official charges, . explained only by, . this time, . because already fully broken out of the struggle for his legacy, . elections in 1844 seemed Clay inappropriate.,
. Politically, the joint actions of the executive and legislative branches were impossible because of the growing opposition
. When Tyler in the last year of his tenure was made for the annexation of Texas and was not afraid to use the U.S. Navy, . at the same contract with Texas, . achieved by Calhoun, . encountered stiff resistance in the Senate, . Most saw it as a conspiracy of slave-owners to expand slavery in the United States,
. Tyler's attempt by a general resolution of Congress to be admitted in Texas collapsed after a few days due to massive resistance to the Senate and because of the lack of willingness of Congress to address this issue. With the election Shelf in November 1844, to Tyler, it seemed, a new situation, because, in his opinion, it was a clear decision of the people in favor of annexation. He again called on Congress to pass Texas in the union overall resolution of both Houses. After the vote, according to a strict party lines the Democrats "for", . Whigs and cons of taking, . and the corresponding intra-party minority Whig from the southern states voted with the Democrats, . and the Democrats from northern states with the Whigs, . Texas was adopted by March 1, 1845.,
. But Tyler's presidency was not destined to end this political victory
. March 3, . hours before the end of his presidency under the constitution, . Congress began their last debate the presidential veto, . against the relatively modest bill, . with hitherto unknown unanimity for the first time in American history, rejected the president's veto of the necessary majority of two thirds,
. While Tyler was almost not notice it, but long-standing disagreement between the legislative and executive power has reached a new, for the last of his presidency, the highest point.
. Tyler's Presidency was the most disappointed in American history, excepting only the one-month tenure Harrison
. In this assessment, nothing has changed until today. Foreign observers of the time thought he was even a sign of coming directly to the collapse and the collapse of the United States. However, . despite the lack of personal fitness Tyler, . can easily see, . that his presidency was in the constitutional-legal terms, the importance of, . strengthening the institution presidents to a hostile Congress, especially in the still outstanding issues of recognition and inheritance of P thereby preventing the note of the role of the institution of the presidency to the level of football between the party-political interests,
. Tyler in the role of an obedient puppet in the hands of Clay would have been for the constitutional and legal development of the United States more fatal than the enemy Tyler Clay. Even Tyler Clay personally lost in the struggle for power, the institution presidents emerged from this conflict soon tempered. This view is usually overlooked in traditional presentation.
His departure from office was a worthy and more brilliant than his political career, and he was sure that history ever recognizes him right. He returned to his plantation in Virginia in terms of a growing family, from which maintained contacts with the Democratic Party, but not actively interfering in politics. Instead, dedicated himself to his former college in Williamsburg, where he served as chancellor in the last years of his life.
. Only threatens civil war tore it out of a blissful rural life, . in February 1861 he, as chairman of one of the convents state, . created on the initiative of Virginia, . again returned to Washington, . to facilitate a final attempt to avert the impending war,
. When it became clearly visible to the futility of these efforts, he advised his home state to secede and offered his services to the Congress of the southern states. In November he was elected to the House of Representatives seceding States, but before he could embark on his post, he died on Jan. 18, 1862, shortly before the end of 72-th year of his life.