REGIMENT James( President of the United States in 1845-49 gg.)
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Biography REGIMENT James
James Knox Polk was born November 2, 1795 in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, and was the eldest of ten children. In the eleven years he moved with his family in Tennessee. Because of a weak constitution, formal education was at first impossible. At the age of twenty-one regiment passed entrance exams to the University of North Carolina, who graduated with honors in 1818. Returning back to Tennessee, first worked in the office of counsel in Nashvill, in 1820 to be eligible to work lawyer and opened his practice. Since he was a staunch supporter of Andrew Jackson and the Democratic Party and struck with his eloquence, even opponents, then soon it became known as "Napoleon improvisation". In 1824 he married Sarah Childres, which all my life with knowledge and happy to support him in his political career, marriage was childless. The year before he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies of Tennessee, which included until 1825. The regiment was a lot of acquaintances, but a small circle of friends. One of his closest friends and patrons was Andrew Jackson, whose regiment is deeply respected and thanks to the influence of which has access to the national policy. Since 1825, he represented Tennessee in the House of Representatives, where in 1835 moved into the speakers and took over the leadership of the democratic faction.
From 1839 to 1841 the regiment continued to accumulate political experience as governor of Tennessee, but after two lost gubernatorial elections (1841 and 1843) returned to Washington. At the party convention, the Democrats in 1844 in Baltimore, he put forward a candidate for the presidency, after the previous favorite, Martin Van Buren, Lewis Cass and James Buchanan have blocked each other. In the face Shelves delegates came to the biggest common denominator, and the regiment was due to this first "candidate - a dark horse", t. e. was chosen as a relatively unknown compromise candidate for the presidency.
Only in the south of the U.S. regiment, also had slaves, enjoyed a high degree of popularity. The Democrats of those places have seen it on the law firm supporter of Andrew Jackson, and were confident that he will advocate for lower taxes, against the power of banks and other principles of democracy, Jackson. Deep commitment to the shelf to the personality and politics of Jackson earned him the nickname "The young hazel.
Whig openly laughed at the choice of Democrats and created a propaganda slogan: "Who is James H. Polk?. Polk, however, was a skillful strategist election campaign and used various regional special interests in their favor. As the Democratic Party was split on the question of annexation of Texas, he tried to convince voters in the north that the accession of the territory in their interest. Together with Senator Robert Walker of Mississippi, Polk argues in favor of annexation, . that caused the north of deeply rooted fear of violent conflict in the southern states, . before the war between slaves and slaveholders, . which could then spread to North,
. Only the expansion of American state territory, according to shelf, could eliminate possible conflicts. However, the arguments in favor of the annexation of Texas he was not connected with the expansion of slavery. In Texas, saw more military shield from the south-west, and that seemed more important to its interests, opening the way for the United States in the Pacific.
Even more important, than Texas, California, seemed Regiment, which was in the possession of Mexico. In California port cities, especially in San Francisco, he saw the key to trade with Asia and the trade routes to the east. This desire for more territory and new markets, he foresaw in the economically depressed 40-ies phase of prosperity of the next decade.
. To buy for themselves democratic voters in the north, which were to raise the fees, the regiment has made clear its readiness to compromise with regard to possible protectionist tariffs.
. With ever-increasing immigration and immigrants have become a political factor
. While the Whigs torn apart as a result of unsuccessful placement of personnel within their presidential campaign, the regiment and his party managed to increase this group of voters for himself.
. It is much better than the conservative Whigs, was aware that public opinion was in favor of territorial expansion
. Thus, the campaign platform Democrats, for example, strongly reminiscent of the terriorialnom claim to the whole of Oregon, not only to the area south of 49 б¦ latitude, which corresponded to the interests of the expansionists north. Unequivocal Support Regiment thought about the American mission in line with expansionist mood of the country and, . thus, . He defeated his opponent from the Whig Henry Clay, . who underestimated this trend, . majority vote of the election board in 170 to 105 votes,
. With high turnout in 78.9% overall result showed a rather small gap. The regiment received 1 338 464 (49.6%) of the votes, slightly more than the opposition candidate, who recorded in their asset 1 300 097 (48.1%) and won for himself 15 states, Clay -11. His own Tennessee regiment lost because of the 113 votes cast for the Whigs. In many states, the party went head to head, indicating the stability of grown "two-party system". For the first time since 1824 the president was elected with less than 50% of votes. It first did not seem to be mandated to fully implement the plans shelf.
Even the choice of his ministers Polk showed a subtle flair to the political and administrative competence. Along with James Buchanan as minister of foreign affairs in Cabinet included, among others, William L. Mercy (War Minister), Robert Walker (Finance Minister) and the historian George Bancroft (Navy). They supported the Party and the democratic principles of the regiment, but did not affect critically the policies of the executive power, which basically he formulated and implemented. Although the regiment during the election campaign promised to run the northern Democrats to increase taxes, but being in office, has reduced the fee tariff law on tariffs Walker (1846)
. Also, the Democrats and the West had withdrawn from the party when he vetoed a bill providing federal funds to improve infrastructure there the
. This objection Western Democrats interpreted as a clear signal that the regiment is primarily represents the interests of the southern states and strongly influenced by the party representatives of the southerners.
. Considerably heavier than disputes over duty rates and internal expansion of the country, were divided over the issue of expansion to the South and West
. The regiment, as a typical representative democracy, Jackson, saw in the territorial expansion of the United States to demographically reasonable distribution of the population, as well as a chance to preserve the original agrarian and democratic nature of U.S.. Also, more easily could have been prevented dangerous, in his view, the growth of the neutralist government of the Federal Government.
. The fact, . that Polk serious about implementing its expansionist plans, . demonstrates his speech when entering the office March 4, 1845, . in which he reiterated the claim in Oregon, and stressed, . that the accession of Texas is a matter solely of two autonomous states, . namely the U.S. and Texas, . but not Mexico,
. Since the majority in the Senate and the House of Representatives consisted of Democrats, who saw his election and the election of the president as an authority on the policy of expansion, the regiment could count in this regard to cooperation with Congress. For several days after his inauguration there was published a joint resolution for the annexation of Texas. In late March, the Mexican government has responded to this, to break off diplomatic relations with the United States.
. December 2, 1845 in his annual message to Congress, Polk reiterated the validity of "Monroe Doctrine" and warned against transferring the European principle of balance of power in North America
. This called the "Doctrine shelf" point of view was formulated taking into account the situation in the north-west. Question of the division of a large area of Oregon, . which included today's individual Oregon, . Washington, . Idaho, . of Montana and Wyoming, . as well as almost half of Canada's British Columbia, . was postponed for the next two decades, for the first time, access to this area remains equally open to Americans, . and for the British,
. By and large the interest of the American public to these territories in the 20 th and 30 th years was relatively small. In the subsequent decade, this has changed dramatically thanks to the enthusiastic reports of missionaries, who described the fertility of the land and called it real "Oregon fever".
. A requirement of the Oregon Polk prudently addressed this mood in the political channels
. He knew that this was tantamount to a declaration of war against Britain, which, in fact, wanted to avoid. In April 1846 he obtained from Congress terminated the contract, the joint British-American management Oregon. Kingdom vsta la a choice: to enter into negotiations or to declare war on the United States. Since the British government is mired in internal and external political constraints and, moreover, was not too interested in these areas, it had decided to negotiate. Several months later, it had in the contract of Oregon, the President's proposal to recognize the American shelf region of Oregon south of 49 degrees north latitude, which was more fertile and more geographically.
. For the regiment's territorial expansion to the south and south-west was much more important
. In dekabre1845 year Texas was included in the Union, as 28 of the state, which led to the severance of diplomatic relations between the U.S. and Mexico. The political climate has worsened, when Texas has announced a new US-Mexican border further south lies the Rio Grande. In January 1846 the regiment sent to the Rio Grande army under the command of General Zachary Taylor; to this provocation, the Mexicans responded only months later when they finally attacked U.S. troops. In response, Congress in May, a majority accepted the proposal of the President to declare war on Mexico. Although the war was mainly supported by the public, in the U.S. north-east have accepted it rather restrained, especially the Whigs and the opponents of slavery, who feared that the conquered regions will enter the Union as slave state. Even the older southern states have seen in the acquisition of further territory danger of exacerbating the conflict between North and South. States of the Mississippi Valley were still strong supporters of the armed settlement. First, the war with Mexico, provoked a wave of national enthusiasm, but when it became clear that the Mexicans have a fierce resistance and the war will last longer than would be expected, the popularity Regiment began to fall.
. President had the chance to join two other U.S. territories that had belonged to Mexico: New Mexico and California
. In the summer of 1846 he sent a small army to the south-west, which, without significant resistance took the Santa Fe and declared the whole area of New Mexico U.S. sovereign territory. A small part of the troops then went to California, where under the leadership of the American pioneer and a free hand of John Charles Fremont uprising broke out American settlers, supported by the Navy, U.S.. Autumn of 1846, settlers. proclaimed the independence of the Republic with the capital of Sonoma, California.
. Although New Mexico, California and Texas required by U.S. regions were actually in the hands of Americans, Mexico declared itself to be unprepared to recognize these realities in the peace treaty and formally cede these areas
. So the war continued until the beginning of 1848, while Mexico after the conquest of its capital, finally, was forced to accept the conclusion of peace. In the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of February 1848 it refused to California and New Mexico and recognized the Rio Grande River border with the U.S. Texas. The United States pledged, for its part, to pay compensation in the amount of $ 15 million and assume debt of U.S. creditors against Mexico in the amount two-thirds of a million dollars.
. "The obvious purpose" white North Americans to the conquest and development of the continent reached a climax when the Democratic administration Shelves
. Between 1845 and 1848 the young nation as a land for settlements has been added to the huge area of today's states of Arizona, California, Nevada, Texas and Utah and parts of New Mexico, Colorado and Wyoming. Thus, the territory of the United States during his term as president shelf has been increased by two thirds.
It is interesting that Polk, the slave owner himself, did not link the territorial expansion with an automatic extension of slavery. At the same time he lacked the political vision to recognize the growing areas of the acquisition of danger of a split alliance on the slave and free from the slavery regions. The debate about slavery in new territories he considered secondary. Missouri Compromise in 1820 with his position that in the future north 36 б¦ 30 'N latitude - with the exception of Missouri - are not permitted slavery, Polk considered reasonable and sufficient at all times the decision.
. Debate on the inclusion of Texas as a slave state in the union, however, has already demonstrated the relevance of the conflict between North and South
. Politicians from the southern states were in the Congress for the inclusion of Texas, because they wanted to strengthen the "southern influence" and to increase the area of cultivation of cotton. Members of the northern states arguing against integration of another slave state and the consequent shift of power in Congress.
. The fundamental question about the status of the new territories arose again, when the democratic member of Congress, David Wilmot of Pennsylvania in 1846 after the outbreak of war with Mexico, proposed to prohibit slavery in all the conquered territories
. This so-called reservation Wilmot passed in the House of Representatives, . in which the Whigs with the election in 1846 had a majority - a young MP from the Whigs named Abraham Lincoln, too, voted for, . but it was rejected by the majority Democrats in the Senate,
. They represented the view that this is not the business of Congress to decide on the admission or prohibition of slavery in the territories and future states. The regiment joined this opinion and rejected the reservation Wilmot.
By the beginning of his presidency, Polk in 49 years was the youngest president of the United States. During his time as president, he showed the ability of the staff replacement and control posts, and in his attitude toward Congress has brought great benefit to many years of experience in the legislature. If his party, the Democrats were united, he yielded to Congress if he did not agree with the decision of the Congress, it is very cleverly able to explain its position. Otklonitelnoe its right to veto the president formally used twice and in both cases, Congress has not found two-thirds majority to reject it prior to this project were not adopted.
. In its four annual messages to Congress on the status of the nation and in the ten special appeals to the House of Representatives or the Senate Polk touched the vital interests of the nation, which Congress largely shared
. Although numerous and diverse objectives and views of splitting his own party and the Whigs skillfully formulated its policy, the regiment has been made in Congress, its main objectives. These included the successful resolution of trade dispute with Britain and the expansion of the U.S. armed forces, but in the first place the war with Mexico and the territorial expansion in the South and West.
. In its executive functions, he rejected Congressional desire to see the political motives and to the White House, acknowledged the new revolutionary French government and proclaimed the legitimacy of the "Monroe Doctrine"
. All these solutions have been recognized and accepted by subsequent presidents. The diary which he kept during his stay President, testifies to his integrity, extraordinary performance and his belief that politics should not serve regional interests, and the higher national goals. This view, he was able to convince many deputies and senators, and he can explain his strong position relative to Congress.
. The regiment was never a popular person, like other presidents before him, but his own form of executive power, he gave the specific contours of the presidential institution.
. Due to poor health Polk rejected the second nomination of his candidacy for President of Democrats
. But behind the scenes political parties have still a long time, it was agreed that it is not suitable for a second term as the north wing of the party was displeased with him because of his strong support for southern interests. Upon expiration of his presidency, Polk returned to Nashvill, Tennessee, where a few months later, on July 15, 1849, died at age 53. His foreign minister James Buchanan said of him that it was the most industrious man he ever knew, four years of his presidency, he bought "the old man's appearance".