CLEVELAND Grover( President of the United States in 1885-89 gg.)
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Biography CLEVELAND Grover
Grover Cleveland was born March 18, 1837 in Kalduelle New Jersey, was the fifth child of a pastor, elder and grew up in New York. In 1855 he became a pupil in a law office in Buffalo, where he was at the same time and auxiliary workers. Hard work has gained extensive knowledge of law and already at 22 years became a lawyer. Lack of intellectual brilliance and spontaneity compensated thorough study of cases. The lack of eloquence before the court replaced the careful preparation of its argument and a brilliant memory. He became a solid and respected lawyer with a large income. For a long time, "Big Steve" remained complacent provincial and inveterate bachelor, which limited free time with friends over a whiskey and poker, hunting and fishing. He rarely left his small town, do not read any novels or poetry, and had a poor opinion about music and other cultural achievements.
In Cleveland, little is left of the devout Presbyterian family, but his life and political work is determined by the immutable principles of. First and foremost he was a staunch advocate of individualism and the enemy is too strong government. Admired prosperous industrialists and bankers, and little thought about the fate of the poor. Its limited intellectual capacity, lack of abstract thinking and professional success preclude any self-doubt. Once acquired knowledge remained unchallenged, any criticism or opposition seemed inappropriate and stupid. His inner simplicity and iron working discipline contributed a great political success, but he always lost sight of social realities and because of that lost the approval of voters.
. Cleveland's political career began with the post of mayor of Buffalo, which he achieved with the help of anti-corruption campaign
. His motto: "Public service - public responsibility" became a leitmotif of further political career. Reputation as an honest advocate of reform, . which reveals the facts of corruption and mismanagement, and thus saves taxpayers money, . A year later made him the candidate of the Democratic Party in the coming gubernatorial election in New York,
. Victory at the elections he won with the same program as in Buffalo: honesty, economy and the use of proven business principles in government. And here he was able to convince, because it was not afraid to speak out against the corrupt rule of Temeni Hall, the headquarters of the Democratic Party in New York. Soon, he won national recognition, and therefore put forward his candidacy for presidential elections in 1884. Cleveland was represented by a large number of voters in New York, had a good relationship with other regional party organizations and fit into the general atmosphere of reform. In the short time he started as a political "no" to a candidate for the top government post.
Pre-election fight in 1884 became his ordeal. It was the dirtiest in American history. While Democrats tried to present the Republican candidate James Blaine, a model of corrupt Party bosses, Republicans questioned the morality of Cleveland. Ten years ago, he admitted paternity of the child, whom he, after a mentally ill mother, gave the adoptive parents. Since paternity has not been established unequivocally, that he believed that had served its purpose. Republican strategists Cleveland's election campaign was accused of sexual debauchery, and that he escaped from the mother and child victims of his perverted lust for pleasure, and threw them in the lurch. Reflecting these charges, Cleveland showed all his political skill. In response to the attacks, he went on the attack, acknowledged paternity, described the circumstances and soon stripped of its sensational nature of the issue. Among the public voice arose to forgive his sexual escapades as a valid characteristic of the man of sin and emphasized his unselfishness, responsible action in relation to the mother and child. Portrait of an honest, hard-working trustee of public interest was supplemented by features simple, nebezgreshnogo person responsible for the consequences of their sins. Cleveland won the election with a tiny advantage in the 0,2 per cent of the vote, but with a more appropriate by a majority in the election board. For the first time since the Civil War president was re-elected as a Democrat. Reconciliation between the republican and democratic North-South, it seemed, made a decisive step forward.
. The main themes of his first presidency was monetary policy, tariffs reform and continuation of reforms in government and public service, for which he undertook with his tried and tested principles
. In contrast, Arthur's is open daily from morning till night and often slept in four or five hours. He, as before in the practice of law, became entangled in the details, too immersed in the material, even the smallest of projects with labor laws and the distribution of tasks. From this suffering and secular life in the White House. Cleveland hated techniques, because they stole his precious time, and do not attach any importance to the presentation of its unattractive appearance. "Uncle Dzhambou" as he called nephews, still weighed more than 280 pounds.
After two years of his presidency, he suddenly got married at the age of 49 years at its 21-year-old Frances Folsom Trust. Despite all the vicious rumors of an unequal marriage, he was happy. Young first lady performs representational duties with great tact and charm. But Cleveland was not going to save splendor of his predecessor. The White House, he meticulously observed the thrift, . pay out of pocket for hay for their horses, . ordered to pour naphthalene presidential yacht, . personally tested monthly expenses, . remaining true to the concept of responsibility of his position,
. He made all efforts to contain the distribution of income opportunities and eliminate the influence of local political celebrities in the Office. But was forced to abandon attempts at radical reform. To support his party and later he admitted that many of the vacant posts of public service were, as always, busy democratic, though not necessarily qualified, candidates.
. Despite the hostility to big government, he found the president's role is too weak and tried to reduce the disparity between the executive and Congress
. In principle, conflict with the Senate made to the law of tenure, which gave Congress the right of control over the dismissals of officials the President, was canceled in March 1887. Cleveland showed more self-initiative to achieve political goals. During his time as president, he vetoed 304 times, t. e. more than all his predecessors put together. He no longer waited for the bills Congress will be on his desk, and he demanded that the legislature, new laws. This active position was not far from the practice of modern presidents regularly take the initiative in their hands in the legislation.
Two large financial and political issues of his presidency were the silver standard and the question of fees. Powerfully expanding economy has suffered from an acute shortage of money, so along with the gold dollar was introduced, silver, valued at 20 per cent below. Consequence of this was private hoarding of gold dollars and a constant drain on the gold reserve of Union. As a measure against the erosion currency Cleveland demanded the abolition of the silver dollar, but failed in Congress. Powerful forces, especially in the rural South and Midwest United States, wanted an inflationary monetary policy through the full permission of the silver dollar, to eliminate the chronic shortage of money and overlong in the farm. They are accused of Cleveland that he, on the one hand, resisting any devaluation of the dollar, but on the other - does not offer an alternative monetary policy that could counteract the ongoing crisis in the agrarian sector.
. On the issue of protective tariffs, Cleveland tried to persuade Congress to reduce tariffs
. The fees were a significant source of revenue for the federal government. At the same time they provide most of the U.S. defense industry from cheaper foreign competition. Cleveland was against high taxes for three reasons. First, the Government has received too much money, the federal budget - that is unthinkable today - pushed in front of a clear surplus, resulting in economic turnover lost the last major investment capital. Secondly, Cleveland saw Fees "hidden, unfair and unnecessary tax" of U.S. consumers in favor of industry. Also Cleveland indignant profits that industry receives from the high tariffs. Since domestic products were sold below the price of imports, the entrepreneurs about the amount of duty tariff was put in his pocket. These excessive profits, as well as increasing due to lack of competition, the monopoly position of some concerns, were a direct result of government action. Here there was a clear violation of the principles of justice Cleveland. But he strongly demanded in times of personal appeals to Congress, lowering of protectionist tariffs on finished products and the partial lifting of protectionist tariffs on raw materials.
. Cleveland made the issue the main theme of duties of his election campaign in 1888
. The Democratic Party would demand duty Reforms to win voters with low incomes and dependent on cheap raw materials industries. Republicans held the same without compromise protectionism and fueling fear of flooding the market with cheap imported products from the following unemployment and economic collapse. Their candidate Benjamin Harrison, in contrast to Cleveland a skillful speaker, has promised higher tariffs to protect industries and jobs, a sound currency and a better supply for a large group of voters, veterans of the Civil War. He himself was strongly supported by industry and banks, while he reproached Cleveland that he has in mind only the monetary interests of the banks in London and on Wall Street.
. Cleveland had nothing to counter the emotional and nationalistic campaign, Republicans
. He considered below dignity to actively intervene in the election campaign and believes he can refuse to support the local party machines. To his great surprise, he was defeated and disappointed engaged in personal life. Strangely, he was rewarded for a 0.7 per cent of the vote, but Harrison has overtaken him in the election board, receiving 233 votes to 168 against, as well as won the most populous states.
. After disappointment in 1888 Cleveland initially decided to concentrate fully on their financial interests
. With the support of the various financiers, he successfully worked on Wall Street. But Garrison daily strengthened his conviction that he is far more suitable for the presidency.
. Finally he decided to run to save the nation from the Republican mismanagement and corruption, as well as from the silver currency
. He certainly learned from the mistakes of the past elections, as this time speeches, letters and newspaper campaign thoroughly earned the support of various factions of the Party. Due to the concentrated stock of his election campaign he had in the first round of convention in Chicago in 1892 was elected a candidate. Cleveland took the nomination as a personal redemption. To complete the triumph, was finally ready to lead the election campaign. He limited himself to a few speeches, but he wrote numerous open letters. Deftly avoiding the topic of silver, of which the party there were different opinions, and the foreground set the fee rate. Attacked tariff McKinley as class legislation, but could also distance themselves from radical opponents of any protectionism as a moderate reformer. In relation to the southern states did not conceal his dislike for the law that would provide the suffrage of the black population. In New York, has made a cautious reconciliation with the local party organization (vehicle).
Cleveland won a brilliant victory, but his second term was less successful than was expected. He was overshadowed by the biggest economic crisis of early American history. In the period from 1893 to 1897. closed 600 banks and more than 15 000 enterprises have gone bankrupt. Unemployment has risen to 20%. Particularly affected South and West. As a result of rapidly falling prices of agricultural products, farmers are becoming increasingly go into debt and many lost their property.
Causes of depression were not only in the U.S. economy. International financial market was shaken by a number of bankruptcies, the consequences of which decentralized organized by the U.S. banking system could not absorb. Sverhpredlozhenie agricultural products dropped into the abyss of sales prices of American farmers, already working on the border of profitability. The industry has developed in some areas of high-powered. However, as the main factor of economic crisis in the United States regarded the monetary policy of the Federal Government. While president of the blame for the decline of shifting to permanent reduction of gold reserves, and demanded repeal of the Sherman Act of silver, the defenders of the farming population demanded greater concentration of silver as a monetary basis. They accused the bankers of Wall Street and their imaginary ally Grover Cleveland in the fact that those of self-interest pursued restrictive monetary policies with artificially inflated credit and low prices. Meanwhile, gold reserves had fallen to 65 million, significantly below the $ 100 million, which financial experts have regarded as the minimum amount. High payout opposed to reducing tariffs revenues, as the new extremely high tariffs on imports of crushed. Cleveland continued to insist firmly on the stabilization of the gold reserve and to repeal the Sherman Act.
. Before Congress met on Aug. 7, 1893 for an extraordinary session, Cleveland operated on for cancer, an operation carried out on a yacht near New York City in strict secrecy
. In Cleveland, was removed a large portion of the sky and replaced with a rubber prosthesis. He tried to hide the pain and severity of illness, as he feared that the ailing president could cause a crisis of confidence on Wall Street. Only in 1917 the public learned about the disease. Less than twenty days after the operation, as Cleveland came back to Washington and re-joined the fight against the silver standard. President initially subjected to pressure targeted members and senators, delaying the distribution of protected positions in the respective districts or states. In this way, Cleveland was able to do what no one expected: completely abolished the law. However, their persistence and threats in Congress, he created for himself many enemies, who he later complicated the conflict on duty tariff. Contrary to all expectations of the desired compensation of gold reserves did not come. Cleveland ordered to subscribe to three state loan, . but only one loan, . bargain with the private bank Morgan, . magnate ensured high profits and for which Cleveland branded as a lackey of Wall Street, . picked up a gold reserve in 1896 over the magic limit of 100 million dollars,
. But the federal government had total debt of $ 262 million dollars.
Despite all efforts, depression lasted. To put the economy back on its feet, Cleveland wanted to make a second major goal of his administration, the reform of customs tariffs. True, there were theorists who argued that the tariff reduction is necessary to develop new markets for exports and thereby reduce overproduction in their own country. But Cleveland, as before, stood at the forefront of domestic considerations, especially the value of the price consumers. He demanded the abolition of customs duties on raw materials and careful reduction of protective duties on finished products. But failed because of regional economic interests that prevailed in the Senate. His weapon, the right of appointment, blunted at the Battle of silver. And without him, the statement in defense of consumer rights of citizens sounded convincing because of its close connection with the financial world of New York. After standing customs reform, which brought only a slight reduction in tariffs. On the one hand, Cleveland had underestimated the impact of economic lobbies in the Senate, on the other hand, too much energy spent on the issue of silver. The suppression of strikes in Pulmane in 1894 revealed how little he understood the real situation of workers and in case of doubt has applied the power of the federal government in the interests of owners of capital. Sympathy for the President to the interests of the working population has found its border, where touched ownership entrepreneurs. Then he had to intervene, because one of the most important tasks of the Federal Government considers the protection of property and thereby create conditions for further growth and enhancement of the welfare. After, . as the parent union of railway companies called on the Federal Government to end strike, . General Counsel Richard Some, . former to this for a long time advocate for rail, . has a federally-injunction limits the rail link between the states,
. Some did so in cooperation with the railway companies deliberately to provoke the strikers to violence. Despite a sharp protest from the governor of Illinois in Chicago, Cleveland used federal troops against striking workers and sympathizers of the unemployed. In the subsequent riots killed seven people, 70 union leaders were arrested and prosecuted.
Foreign policy played a minor role for the president. There appeared the first calls for great-power politics, but Cleveland did not believe that government should take care of the economic expansion of the United States and the development of new markets. He was against annexation, or colonies, and only wished that other nations respect the sovereignty of the United States. Some events during his presidency, however, already pointed out the foreign policy areas and pockets of conflict of interest for future administrations.
. Even during the first Cleveland administration in different ways there were clashes with the Canadian neighbor because of the right to fish and hunt for seals
. A major international conflict erupted over the sovereignty of Samoa in the South Pacific. Empire of Germany sought domination in this region, which would prevent the United Kingdom and the United States. Once in front of Samoa has deployed military ships of all parties, it was very close to crisis. But shortly before the elections agreed on a joint protectorate, which existed until 1899. Another critical point was Hawaii, where the American consul in 1893, illegally the revolt of white, mostly American planters, against the reigning king. Cleveland pulled away from the coup and dismissed the desired annexation. But the decision gave the Congress, which refused to include the islands in the Union, but recognized the sovereignty of the Government putschists. Thus, the possibility of receiving a group of islands remained open.
Administration of Cleveland took little interest in Latin America, and then almost exclusively in connection with trade. But during the second administration occurred the most significant foreign policy events of those years, the crisis in Venezuela in 1895-96 gg. In which Cleveland in the first and last time energetically pursued a clear political goal. Venezuela and the United Kingdom argued for a boundary with British Guiana to the Orinoco River. The situation became especially critical when there were discovered deposits of gold, and both the government broke off diplomatic relations. Cleveland feared war between the two countries, which could lead to an expansion of British colonial possessions in Latin America and weaken the "Monroe Doctrine". July 20, 1895 the President called on Britain to take the award with American involvement. He substantiated his claim that "the United States today is almost independent on the continent, and that their will is law". We can not tolerate the undermining of the position of the European force. Prime Minister, Lord Seylsberi was clearly angered audacity of Americans, and answered only four months. He lectured Cleveland, that the "Monroe Doctrine" in any case is not part of international law. This offended the official after the president, and he convened the Congress, which sparked strong nationalist reaction among the American public, which demanded even the war against Great Britain. In London, did not want to get involved in yet another unnecessary conflict with the United States over a field in the jungles along with the current clashes with European powers and other difficulties in the Empire. Therefore, in November 1896 was signed the arbitration agreement with the United States.
. Cleveland attributed primarily the fact that he is such a policy would allegedly push forward the expansion of American economic interests in Latin America
. However, there is no evidence that his foreign policy went beyond the principle of protection "Monroe Doctrine" and pursued any definite purpose. Politics Cleveland was an expression of ideological nationalism and was not part of a great-great concept. His policy, he merely reminded people of the "Monroe Doctrine" and created a reasoned basis for future expansionist intentions in Latin America.
. Despite the successful attack against the British, the Cleveland base within the party diminished
. He again lost contact with the party, because, on the one hand waiting for a blind loyalty to the president, but on the other - considered below the dignity of their office to seek support through political compromise, and considering the circumstances. The growing animosity in Congress made him even more stubborn and lonely. While he considered himself the last bearer of true democrats, the party is no longer supported him.
. Dissatisfaction with the party leaders was reflected in the nomination of William Jennings Bryan, who represented the antithesis of Cleveland
. He was energetic, gifted orator, slender and healthy, incorruptible and a hero of the "little man" from the West. Question of gold and silver standard, he presented as a struggle between the cold, selfish interests of the rich, ruling in the government, and the mass of honest working Americans who crucified on a cross of gold. But this nomination meant the final defeat and the end of the old Democratic Party. Republican William McKinley won the election and could rely on the Republican majority in Kongreese. Democratic Party, split into regional factions and led by brilliant but controversial candidate, went into a political dead end and lost all chances for the majority. He lived with his family in Princeton, where as the trustee of the University has maintained close contact with Woodrow Wilson, the future president. But as chairman of the union organization of insurance companies, primarily as a publicist Cleveland continued to participate in public life. When he died June 24, 1908 in Princeton, it was again highly respected people.