Garrison, Benjamin( President of the United States in 1889-93 gg.)
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Biography Garrison, Benjamin
Benjamin Harrison, grandson of the ninth U.S. President William Henry Harrison, can be called the most insignificant president "Golden Age". He was born August 20, 1833, grew up in rural Ohio, and was, like Cleveland, raised in the Presbyterian faith. However, unlike his predecessor, he as president, adhered strictly to the rules of their religion. Forced to choose between the rank of priest and jurisprudence, decided to become a lawyer and moved to Indianapolis, Indiana. He remained faithful to the church as a deacon and a preacher in a Sunday school and, along with the legal work contributed to the Republican Party, while the Civil War strongly changed his life. In July 1862 an officer joined the army and through his leadership qualities promoted in the short term to Brigadier General. Military successes have made him an interesting candidate for the Republican governor of Indiana. Garrison repeatedly refused the post, but agreed that he had been elected in 1881 in the State Senate.
Harrison did not have big ambitions, he lost re-election in 1887, but around him were some influential politicians and financiers, who raised him to presidential candidate. Do not attract attention the past Harrison, a complete absence of political scandals and moral purity made it a perfect compromise candidate for the election of 1888.
. The Republican Party had a good candidate, but chose the wrong president
. Harrison had little political experience, but was convinced of their competence. How deeply religious man, in his election, he could see only the work of God. His tenure was held without a boom, the policy was weak and without direction. Harrison could not and did not want to work the party leader. Instead of dealing with political problems, to understand themselves in this time only as the principal chief of the country's Human Resources. In the first 18 months of his presidency was occupied exclusively for posts in 1700 government officials, up to the postmaster. He completely ignored the most important to this criterion in the selection, the political benefit of destination, and attached more importance to the competence and integrity, and thus offended the entire party. Perhaps the most fraught with consequences of the decision was the appointment of thirty New Yorker Theodore Roosevelt in the public service in the federal commission. At this service, Roosevelt established his federally-political career.
The first reaction of the party was a shock, then the rejection. In the next four years could hardly talk about the policies of President. He was not worth mentioning political program, nor the desire to enter into a conflict with Congress. The President would be a loner, he lacked the appeal, he was cool and reserved, so it was impossible to establish personal contacts with him. In an annual message to the nation on the status Harrison included suggestions. Congress with surprising regularity ignored them. After he threw the most powerful weapon, the power of patronage, and opposed the use of the right to veto on it already did not expect any resistance activities of the legislature.
. With his wife, Carolyn Scott, her grandfather, his own children and grandchildren president almost imperceptibly lived in the White House, where the rhythm of life is determined by family piety
. Even the choice of cabinet members for Harrison was the most important criterion for membership in the Presbyterian Church. With the exception of James Blaine, . which, after prolonged pressure and political maneuvering again became Minister of Foreign Affairs and wanted to establish itself as a kind of Prime Minister, . in the next election to make, . Finally, . higher fasting, . none of the political celebrities do not get any chance,
. 51 th Congress (1888-90), in which Republicans held sway, was given complete freedom. It carried the main points of the Republican election program, the president had no objections. Harrison knew the constitution in the sense that the legislature has the most powerful position in government. The President felt it his duty to the Republican program, and Congress exercised its. The result was the federal budget, which is the first time exceeded one billion dollars, and the legislature has the nickname "The billion-dollar Congress". Under the leadership of William McKinley House of Representatives issued a duty law, which rates jumped to an unexpected height. Nevertheless, on the initiative of Blaine was introduced the principle of reciprocity, which authorizes the President to enter into agreements with other countries on the mutual duties of executive orders and monitor their implementation. So the chances were provided with U.S. markets, primarily in Latin America.
. Silver bloc within the Republican Party demanded the removal of restrictions on silver, and representatives of the Republican Party from the East only considered the gold exchange standard
. Harrison is not clearly outlined its position in Congress, so that both sides did not know where and with whom the president. It is without the participation of the President in July 1890 the Sherman Act on the value of silver became law. If the president vetoed, then the law would be defeated by. However, after he had doubts with mild to approve the law, the Treasury was required every month to buy 4.5 million ounces of silver, t. e. almost all American products. As a result, the gold reserves of the federal government has severely declined. Unfortunately, the price of silver fell, the ratio of its value to gold has sharply deteriorated, and consequently changed the value of the dollar. But the expected economic effect is not allowed. Act has brought great loss trade union, which had to compensate for the next administration.
. The Law on Pensions for veterans of the Civil War, which immediately increased to two-thirds pension Union, helped to further reduce the surplus in the federal cash
. In the history of the United States it was at that time the most expensive law. From the excess in Cleveland soon, leaving only the deficit. The extraordinary unanimity prevailed in Congress on the limitations of trusts. The progressive monopolization of the economy, most Americans worried, regardless of their regional origin and political orientation. Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, which is valid today, was adopted almost unanimously. But Harrison has not implemented the provisions contained therein. The initiative came mainly from local prosecutors, the president did not file a single case. In Congressional elections in 1891 the Republicans lost their majority in the House of Representatives. Since the Senate is still dominated by the Republican Party, both chambers were neutralized. In such circumstances it was impossible to take no for an important bill.
Foreign policy Harrison wore a comic-opera character. Blaine sought to Pan-American Union, which will open the U.S. Hispanic market and provide a chance to compete with Britain. And in other areas of foreign policy administration Harrison has not created anything significant. There were problems with some European countries, including with Germany, which prevented the flooding of their own markets from cheap U.S. pork supposedly hygienic reasons. Conflicts with Canada and Great Britain, associated with hunting seals, swelled further. The most important event of foreign relations was a deep crisis with Chile (after the U.S. government intervened in the internal affairs of the country, and two American sailors were killed there in October 1891). At the protest in Washington and the government claim for damages Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs responded insulting note. The crisis has increased to the threat of war in January 1892, prevented only by the assignment of the Chilean Government. All this history has proved the world rude foreign policy Blaine and Harrison, but, nevertheless, showed that America has taken the lead in the Western Hemisphere. Nationalist manifestations among the American population have been a harbinger of a national drunk that gripped America six years later during the war with Spain.
. Abandon the policy of patronage and the reluctance to lead the Party Garrison contributed significantly to the growing divergence of factions within the party
. The leader of the Republicans in the House of Representatives Thomas in. Reid and other leading politicians of the Party made every effort to prevent his nomination in 1892. But they had no candidate from the opposition, as Blaine was forced to give up for health. With the support of delegates from southern states of Harrison without much effort had been nominated, but when two weeks before the election in 1892 of tuberculosis his wife died, lost all inclination to that. Harrison lost to Cleveland, which succeeded brilliantly secondary recovery. He was rewarded more than 380 000 votes and 277 to 145 votes in the election board. And then in politics, was a speaker and a member of the arbitration commission in the border conflict between Britain and Venezuela. March 13, 1901, almost forgotten by all, died of pneumonia.