McKinley, William( President of the United States in 1897-1901 gg.)
Comments for McKinley, William
Biography McKinley, William
McKinley was born on January 29, 1843 in Niles, Ohio, and grew up in a simple but economically secure environment. At age 18 he went to the civil war, fought alongside Hayes, who later became president, and was honorably discharged with the rank of Major. After the war, worked as a lawyer and settled in Kenton, Ohio, where in 1871 he married Saxton, daughter of banker. He was a prosperous lawyer and began his political career with election of the local prosecutor.
McKinley had a very good instinct for the political mood of the electorate. Always trying to adjust to the will of the voters and to meet the political desires of the greatest number of them. This was especially important in such states as Ohio, with its many different regional and social interests. In private life he was more constraining-zhannym man, but as she showed great talent. He could simply explain complex economic relationship, did not seem pompous politician, a real representative of the people and radiated with dignity, kindness and understanding. His personal fate - depression ruined his 90-ies of the XIX century, it has lost two daughters, his wife was seriously ill - made him a man with the same concerns as many of its voters.
. McKinley seemed to have pursued no clear political program
. About him We have very few words that could point to a clear political line. He avoided the bound word, almost never wrote letters and rarely performed obeschaniya.Ego policy decisions were often opportunistic and sometimes taken contrary to reason. McKinley did not have enough of this loyalty, for which it is often resented political colleagues. A friend of Theodore Roosevelt, the party said about him, that he has now, instead of the spine eclair. However, just his opportunism made him a successful candidate for several posts.
In 1876, McKinley was first elected to Congress and remained so with a few interruptions until 1890. In Congress, he identified primarily as a supporter of the policy of high duties and became the economic and political speaker of the Republican Party. Called his name tariff McKinley in 1890 provided the desired protection of domestic industry and reduced its inhibitory trading high duties, with the financial and political point of view, dangerously high incomes Union. In subsequent years, McKinley became a devotee of the principle of reciprocity in foreign trade, . based on mutually lowering tariffs between the United States and other exporting nations, . that was one of the few solid elements in his political creed,
. In the financial policies of his position to the issue of silver was not as strong. First, he approved a law on the silver standard, and later paid more attention to currency stability. He has gone from disagreement on the issue of currency, concentrating on the issue of customs tariffs.
As governor of Ohio from 1891 to 1895. McKinley created a prerequisite for nomination as a candidate for president. Prior to that, he showed great sympathy for the unions. As a lawyer, deputy and governor defended striking workers and because of its tariff policy became protector of U.S. jobs. Improved its contacts with the bosses in the economy, especially with the entrepreneur Marcus A. Hannah. Industrialist from Cleveland wanted to make McKinley, president and still have a political influence. In a kind of political symbiosis Hanna tied his organizational ability and great skill in squeezing donations to political talent McKinley. Debts McKinley after the bankruptcy have made some industrialists, convinced that after this it will not work against their interests. The selection of Republican candidates in the presidential elections in 1896 McKinley was an ideal candidate, . who could gather voice in industry, . and among agricultural workers, . was found in different regions and promised a way out of economic need,
. After the silver faction within the party was excluded, he was promoted in the first round.
Hannah as campaign manager was easy to collect the generous donations from interested in the economy forces. McKinley favorably differed from his opponent, William Jennings Bryan, . candidate as the Democratic Party, . and populists, . which is feared as a dangerous revolutionary because of his fiery rhetoric, . uncompromising speech in defense of the inflationary policies of silver money and fight for the interests of farmers in the South and West against the elite East Coast,
. Only Morgan banker and industrialist, Rockefeller donated together half a million dollars that went into the manufacture and distribution of 200 million advertising publications. Externally McKinley different from the radical rhetoric of his opponent stressed solid behavior statesman. Speeches candidate who is not traveling the country and delivering speeches from the veranda of his house for a select few guests were carefully prepared and well presented in the press. McKinley was the first candidate who was filming for the movie. The result was a clear victory: more than 7 million votes for McKinley, against 6.4 million for Brian. In the election board of the advantage was even more pronounced: 271 voices to 176 voices.
Typical of the political style of McKinley was a new openness in the White House. After the closure of Cleveland, secluded behind the walls of the residence, McKinley once again invites the public and throughout the presidency, sought to close contacts with the public and the press. Behind this, on the one hand, this need for proximity to the voters, on the other hand, the hope of increasing power in relation to the Congress. Willingness McKinley to communicate with journalists, expressed in the regular press conferences and special equipment for the press room at the White House, served primarily in order to be able to influence your own image. However, McKinley continued to adhere to political tactics to avoid confrontation, and almost did not use his popularity in the fight against the Congress. From the outset, the president pushed for a new customs tariff, but was unable to prevent the establishment of the Senate of the highest tariffs in U.S. history. McKinley displayed here are a few leadership initiatives and little influence on the debate. Although he had feared that the slow economic recovery that has occurred in 1897, could be derailed by the tariff, but signed the bill because it allowed him at the same time to achieve mutual agreements.
. Just little he worked and the problem of the trusts, sharply criticized for monopoly control of much of the economy
. Closely associated with the bosses of the economy and dependent on their electoral support, McKinley has long rejected the anti-monopoly speech earlier years. He only spoke vaguely about the economic damage caused by the trusts. During his presidency, the Ministry of Justice paid little attention to prosecute violations of antitrust law. On the issue of silver program Republicans promised to introduce silver standard after the conclusion of the international monetary arrangements. McKinley, despite a sober mind, stuck to the promise, but was disappointed when the agreement was not held. The opening of large gold deposits in Alaska and South Africa contributed to easing the global financial markets and support economic recovery in the U.S.. This was eliminated causing heated debate topic in silver and gold standard.
. Influenced by the works of the naval theorist Alfred Thayer Mehena Congress funded the construction of a modern navy, which was supposed to provide security and protect the transoceanic trade. American imperialism supported by a deep tsiviliziruyuschim and religious consciousness of mission. One of his main goals was to expand into new markets, which would reduce the surplus production in agriculture and industry, and prevent unrest in the country. McKinley also was clearly for those arguments and essentially supported the aims of the imperialists.
. If the annexation of Hawaii in July 1898 could still be considered as part of expansion "clear purpose", the war against Spain and the Philippines clearly has moved beyond the former's foreign policy
. The domination of the Spanish Crown over Cuba and the long-term brutal repression of the Cuban people revolted much of the American public. In connection with the economic interests and the growing claims of Americans on the political and military dominance in the Caribbean, Cuba is increasingly becoming the object of national interests of the United States. Voters, heated sensational reports in the tabloid press, all strongly demanded the support of Cuban freedom fighters. President sympathized with this position, but was clearly against a military confrontation with Spain. He had been impressed warnings of American anti-imperialist and efforts to preserve peace by European powers. However, the explosion of the USS "Maine" quickly put an end to its attempts to mediate between Spain and Cuba.
To protect American citizens and their property, an American warship stood at anchor in the port of Havana. February 15, 1898 and the ship sank after an explosion, killing 266 American soldiers. When the investigation report of the American Navy blamed the crash on external influences, perhaps a torpedo or a mine, then the outrage of the American public turned against the Spaniards. (Investigations in 1976 concluded that the cause of the accident was a fire in a coal bunker "Maine.") McKinley wanted the investigation to gain time and soothe inflamed the minds. But as the wine of Spain was presumably obvious, that the president had nothing left but to demand the complete withdrawal of the Spaniards from Cuba, that was tantamount to war. Recent proposals by the Spaniards compromise came too late. After many meetings, McKinley decided to American intervention. April 19, 1898 Congress on behalf of the president declared war on Spain.
The question of why the president after so many efforts to preserve peace after all made up his mind on the war, strongly held as contemporaries and historians. Disappointed anti-imperialists and critically-minded historians have attributed to him that he had worked since the beginning of the war and only waited a favorable opportunity to carry out the imperialist policy. Especially the claim that he came to the decision on war by divine inspiration, caused great skepticism. But such a cautious and expectant attitude was fully consonant with its above-described political nature. Only when he realized that a clear majority of Americans favored military intervention, he ceased to resist the war. Then very simply convinced himself that the declaration of war, it was stated by God.
But the war is easier to declare than to win. The armed forces were not prepared and as soon as possible they should be increased from 28 000 to 250 000 people. There was a shortage of all: a summer form of tents, food, even weapons and ammunition. Almost no one in the volunteer army had no military training, headquarters and troops have also not been able to cope with the task. Numerous compounds were placed without any logistical support in the tropical hot Florida and with great difficulty brought to the Cuban theater of military operations. But there reigned a terrible mess. The war was brought to the sea, where the U.S. Navy has shown himself in better shape. Unlike the Army, he was in recent years, very well equipped and became militant and ideologically trained troops. The first major blow was the Spaniards in the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines. Admiral George Dewey's May 1, 1898 surprise attack on an unsuspecting Spanish Pacific fleet in Manila Bay and sank it without a loss for its part. Cuba began the chaotic invasion of American troops, while the navy blockaded the port of Santiago de Cuba. Battle of San Juan Hill, where Theodore Roosevelt had made politically extremely valuable achievements, not yet decided the outcome of the war. But when he was defeated by Spanish Atlantic fleet, the Spanish capitulation 10 August 1898 put an end to hostilities. "Great little war" (in the words of Minister of Foreign Affairs Heyya) cost the American side of the 379 victims - they must be added the 5000 victims of various tropical diseases.
. In the peace treaty concluded in Paris, was primarily determined by the fate of the Spanish colonies
. True, the United States in the so-called Teller Amendment to the declaration of war in advance of the annexation of Cuba refused. For this the Americans departed Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines. In the debate on ratification in the Senate, imperialist-minded politicians argued that the inhabitants of the conquered regions are incapable of self-government and must first be trained by the Americans for democracy and autonomy. Puerto Rico was an ideal support base for the protection of the planned fleet of the Panama Canal. Philippines considered a springboard for the vast Chinese market, where American entrepreneurs saw for themselves a great chance. And in any case would not tolerate the fact that this strategically important island group went to the other colonial powers. The Germans during the war have shown great interest in the ownership of the Philippines. Opponents of annexation argued their point of view, primarily fundamental ideological opposition to the colonial policy. It is contrary to its own revolutionary tradition and the principles of freedom of American democracy, it would deprive the Filipinos of their right to self-determination and, finally, would jeopardize the very democracy in America.
. At the peace negotiations McKinley on political, strategic and economic reasons, insisted on making the colonies of the Union
. In public debates and in Congress, he explained that first and foremost the responsibility for "our, little brown brothers". The victory of the American people are obliged to ensure that "educate the Filipinos, to raise them, bring them civilization and Christianity, and with the grace of God to give them the best, because Christ died, and for them, our brothers". Obviously, he did not realize that most Filipinos were Catholics and had long felt ready to self-government and independence. Philippine independence movement led by Emilio Aguinaldo in 1896 fought against the Spaniards and the Americans supported the war. After the decision McKinley to join a group of islands Filipinos continued their liberation struggle against the Americans, who responded brutal military force, particularly against the civilian population. To suppress the uprising in 1902 were involved in 125 000 American soldiers, 4 000 of them died. Freedom Fighters mourned the 20 000 dead.
. Even if McKinley and was convinced that America's mission to be a civilization is in the foreground there was still value the Philippines for U.S. economic interests in Asia, which heightened the desire to make the administration of colonial domination of America
. Now the United States, at least, opened the door to the Chinese market, for which they compete with European powers and Japan. Minister of Foreign Affairs of the John Hay made in 1899, Powers concerned to agree on the principles of "open-door policy": equal, free access to the Chinese market and maintaining the territorial integrity of the Chinese empire. A year later, in connection with the suppression of the Boxer Rebellion, which, above all, the Russian looked like a great opportunity to colonization of the Chinese empire, Hay reiterated his appeal to the powers and prevented competition for the division of the country. Along with the results of the Spanish-American War "open-door policy" was a permanent testament to the administration's foreign McKinley. She became a central economic principle in American foreign policy throughout the XX century.
. After the sensational military victories, . land acquisition, . international prestige and national confidence, . besides in an atmosphere of ease as a result of general economic recovery, . nomination of a new president in elections in 1900 was no doubt,
. There were conflicting views of who should be a candidate for vice president on the side of Mount McKinley. From the political struggle emerged the winner of New York Governor Theodore Roosevelt. Many experienced Republicans were shocked by the nomination of "that damned cowboy". But both candidates perfectly complement each other in the same harness that promises success. Roosevelt managed to win many votes for populist and democratic West. Campaign perpetual candidate, Brian has led the contrary, to catastrophe. His anti-imperialist tirade sounded unpatriotic and bimetallism, because of the economic recovery, has become a political sticker. Since McKinley was able to win compared to 1896 year is 100 000 votes and increase the advantage in the election board on 21 votes.
. The President was at the height of its popularity and use the first months in office for longer trips around the country
. In domestic policy, there has been a major conflict with the trusts. But McKinley remained more important to the development of foreign trade. Policy of military repression in the Philippines, he continued, as well as efforts on the Chinese market, the Caribbean has increased its efforts to build a canal across the Isthmus. First, the administration was trying to reach an agreement with Britain, which still retained a claim to participate in the construction. Treaty Hay-Ponsefo in 1900 was rejected by the Senate, but the increasing convergence between the two countries did not exclude the consent. The United States gradually became an attractive political partner.
Only half a year after the second entry McKinley in as president abruptly ended a national enthusiasm. September 6, 1901 President, while visiting the Pan American Exhibition in Buffalo, New York, New York, was shot from a revolver anarchist Leon Cholgosom. First still had hope that McKinley, who was wounded in the chest and lower abdomen, survives. But on Sept. 14 he died of gangrene.
Thank McKinley faded soon after his death. It overshadowed the sensational doing business as his successor. If it had not held the Spanish-American War, the presidency of McKinley would have been forgotten even faster, and it was not worth much attention. In domestic policy, he left no special marks, his performance of duty is not a new, and out of it then taken positively speeches none had prolonged exposure. Only the war and the next of her foreign policy made McKinley historical value - but only on the basis of a specific constitutional and legal significance of the president as commander in chief and the chief person responsible for foreign policy. He himself had no particular foreign policy plans and did not introduce anything of his own. They, as well as throughout his political life, led the circumstances, and the only reason he bought the historic significance. The primary responsibility for planning and carrying out the imperialist policy of carrying the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of War, John Hay and Elihu Root, two distinct, highly motivated, intelligent and shrewd administrator. Successor McKinley Theodore Roosevelt, they found more like the Chief.