William Taft( President of the United States in 1909-13 gg.)
Comments for William Taft
Biography William Taft
William Howard Taft was born September 15, 1857 in Cincinnati, Ohio, attended school in his hometown, then Yale, where in 1878 he received a degree and law degree from the Law School of Cincinnati. In 1880 he was admitted to the practice of law, in 1881, joined the civil service and in 1887 became a judge of the Supreme Court of Ohio. In 1890, President Harrison appointed him Chief Prosecutor of the United States. In 1892 he returned to Cincinnati, where for eight years was a judge at the assizes court of the United States. McKinley in 1900 elected him president of the Second Philippine Commission, which was to draft a constitution for the archipelago since 1898, occupied by U.S. troops. A year later he became the first governor of the Philippines, the post required a special diplomatic dexterity because of the persistence of the Philippine resistance to American occupation. In 1904-1908 years he served as war minister in the cabinet of President Roosevelt. At the suggestion of Roosevelt's Republican Party chose him in June 1908 as their candidate for presidency. In elections in November 1908 he and his candidate for vice-president James Sherman, a senator from New York, defeated Democratic candidate William Jennings Bryan.
Long-term experience of public service, however, was not a guarantee of success for the presidency. In today's picture of history thickens impression of failure: even during the presidency, spoke of him as a "hack" and criticized his indecision and lethargy. In 1912 he lost the presidential election opponent of Democrats Woodrow Wilson, after the split in his own party and ex-President Roosevelt spoke out against him as the candidate of the progressive wing of the. This ended a period of almost uncontested domination of Republicans in Washington,. The reasons for failure must be sought in the nature of Taft, in his relations with Roosevelt, the state Republican Party, but above all in political preferences and decisions of the Taft.
. Together with seven brothers and sisters Taft spent carefully protects youth in Cincinnati in his parents' home, the distinguished Judge Alfonso Taft and his second wife, Mary Louise, nee Torrey
. Representations of the parents about the values, which took over the young Taft, were conservative and distinguished by a pronounced individualism, which was combined with a sensitive social conscience, an intense sense of justice. Good, smart, suave and optimistic young William loved everywhere. Very early he began to struggle with the problem of influence and showed even then the fear of conflict and passivity, which at the time of his presidency passed into the depressive phase. Along with the ambition of mother and well-connected father as the driving force of his acting career (after his marriage in 1886) his vysokointelligentnaya and charming wife Helen, . nee Herron, . which does not limit his ambition raising three children, . and dreamed of the presidency for her husband.,
. Taft's own ambitions at first did not go beyond his post as chief judge of the Supreme Court
. This target setting shows a realistic estimate of their own abilities and character, but who lacked the political charisma. The fact that he gave his candidacy of the Republican Party despite the dislike of the election campaign and community work, points to the influence of his wife and his brother Charles, who supported him well and financially.
. During Taft's presidency was unable to escape the shadow of his predecessor
. Roosevelt's success was so yardstick that Taft was measuring himself and which he measured the public. Despite the contrast of characters, Taft and Roosevelt were both politically and in private life friends. Dynamics of politics Roosevelt and unpretentious discretion active lawyer complementary. Roosevelt appreciated the friendly slowness Taft, his incorruptible character, a sharp legal mind and unconditional loyalty. Taft enjoyed the friendship and the position of trust, which won in 1904 as one of the closest advisers to President. Both were linked to republican-democratic ideas of values and their activity is to update the state and society, although Taft while constantly represented the more conservative position. Therefore, Roosevelt believed that Taft as president will continue his policy of reform. Friendly advice of his mentor Taft soon began to perceive as petty tutelage, so admired Roosevelt increasingly come into conflict with his own desire to assert itself. But when Taft went on his way and as a result, there was a threat of failure, then the installation Roosevelt became a rivalry, and, finally, into hostility.
. Taft syachala aim was to consolidate the reforms of Roosevelt, . and he was considered a more conservative wing of his party, . proponents of the immutability of party systems, . and his powerful representatives in Congress by Senator Nelson Aldrich and the Republican Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies Joseph Kennenom,
. So he came into conflict with the progressive wing of the Republicans, so-called insurgents around Senator Robert M. Lafolletta, which referred to the reform Roosevelt. The first cause of the disorder for Roosevelt served as the new cabinet. Roosevelt expected Taft demonstrate political continuity and staffed, but was disappointed. Instead of the old guard in key positions in the cabinet Taft appointed persons from the circle of its own trustees, among whom were two Democrat-dominated, conservative lawyers with close ties to big industry. Thus, the lawyer for Economic Affairs Filander Knox as the Minister of Foreign Affairs took the lead in foreign policy. Sharp criticism from the circle of reformers Taft suffered after the appointment of Richard A. Bollinger Minister of the Interior, as he reviewed the policy for the protection of nature in the West, and Roosevelt wanted to provide the most left to the state forest land again in use for private owners.
. However, there can be no question of a general hostility to the reforms Taft, as he drove to the end of many of the initiated under Roosevelt and took up new
. He had a difficult reform of the mail and the creation of the post office savings bank, advanced the reform of the federal government to pay for labor. Ministry of Commerce and Labor was subordinated to his own agency, whose goal is to limit child labor. In 1910, the Mann Elkins Act was able to expand state control over railway companies. In 90 of the antitrust process, heard in court, Taft, Roosevelt acted much more vigorously against the illegal use of market power by large enterprises, despite their friendship to entrepreneurs. However, this inflexible antitrust weakened its political base in the Republican Party and among close to her enterprise.
The most important domestic political intent Taft was long overdue reform of the customs tariff. High customs tariffs law Dingli from 1897 were to be reduced. Roosevelt deliberately avoided this delicate task. Wing Republicans, . in favor of high protective tariffs and resisting customs reform, . was formed of representatives of industries, . central interest is to protect the American market from the cheap products of their European competitors and that, . anyway, . approve the reduction of duties on imports of raw materials,
. The progressive wing represented the interests of agriculture and some industrial processing companies that want to raise the exports through trade liberalization. In reality, the impact of financial crisis in the autumn of 1907 and the ensuing economic downturn have needed more than ever, a change of course in economic and financial policies. But supporters of the immutability of party installations in Congress blocked the increase inheritance tax and the introduction of income tax, which includes both compensation for loss of income due to lower taxes. In August 1909, Payne-Aldrich law, they, . not paying attention to the insurgents, . insisted on their "duties" desires, . after President Taft practically made no effort, . to curb the unlimited selfishness of interested groups and set up his own party on a course of compromise,
. Among the progressive Republicans reinforced the impression that the president is in the conservative camp. In the long trip to the western states to campaign for its policy Taft faced with an open rejection, . which further increased, . when in the course of 1909 sharply increased cost of living, . and the responsibility was assigned to the new customs law,
. In a wave of strikes in 1910 opened apparent widespread discontent.
In foreign policy, Taft also went his own way. Despite repeated warnings of Roosevelt's insistence on burdening relations with Japan by California racial laws and the political risk in Asia, . nor Taft, . nor Knox were not prepared to continue to this low-key policy toward Japan and tolerate Japanese expansion in China,
. Moreover, both were convinced that nothing could dampen "the Japanese threat to the Far East more effectively than the dominance of American banks and enterprises in China. Within the "dollar policy", American capital was supposed to promote economic development in China, which could lead to political stability and strengthen American influence. At the same time it must be put an end to the aspirations of the colonial powers to divide China into spheres of interest. The myth of the inexhaustible possibilities of marketing in the Chinese market are an important incentive, while many workers in China, missionary societies have an idea of the "special treatment" of their own country to the "middle country" in the life. The government itself, rather than Wall Street was the driving element of the policy with China, only a special urgency and prompted the U.S. government guarantees the financiers to risky contacts with China. With strong pressure on the Chinese government Knox succeeded, despite the resistance of the European powers, to ensure the participation of U.S. banks in a major railway project Hankow-Jinzhou. His plan for the neutralization of the railways in Manchuria was aimed at addressing the Russian and Japanese influence. When Russia and Japan July 4, 1910 in connection with U.S. attempts to intervene have agreed to its interests in Manchuria, politics Knox suffered a severe blow. In 1911, U.S. banks managed to lead a consortium of six so-called for reform of the Chinese currency, but all the major powers were angry aggressive American policy in China. But the moral premise of "special relationship" were the cover of dominant political goals, . when the government Taft, along with other major powers have opposed China's aspirations for independence and in 1911, . after the beginning of the revolution and the overthrow of the imperial household, . refused to recognize the new government,
. The revolution ended all further American expansion projects. In March 1913 American banks out of a consortium of six, when the new American government Woodrow Wilson dismissed a further guarantee for the American capital, and instead to recognize the new Chinese government of Yuan-Shih-Kai.
. Faith in Taft's blessing of the liberal-democratic interference was evident in "dollar diplomacy" in Latin America
. Especially in troubled countries of Central America should replace "cannonballs on the U.S." However, in Nicaragua in 1912, an attempt to achieve political stability in such a way only provoked the use of American parts of the Navy,
. Knox's efforts to impose Nicaragua American customs, as he had already been introduced by Roosevelt in the Dominican Republic, also failed because the U.S. Senate refused to approve. A similar fate befell attempts Taft with American banks to control the finances Honduran-American influence still reinforced, . as the new Nicaraguan President Adolfo Diaz was just a puppet, . supported by the presence of American troops,
. Knox also carried out an armed intervention in the Dominican Republic in the years 1911-13, . after not met expectations, . that established in 1907, U.S. customs control will be achieved political stability, . and forcibly overthrew the government, . and began the bloody unrest,
. However, neither the failure of the Dominican customs control, no beginning in 1910, the revolution in Mexico could not shake the faith of Taft in the fruits of American investment in Latin American neighbors. This is just the Mexican Revolution was a typical example of the social explosive force of a unilateral economic development, funded primarily by U.S. capital. Taft responded with concern the growing anti-Americanism in Mexico and mobilized the American armed forces. The completion of his presidency, Taft freed from the need to continue to engage the Mexican Revolution. In general, the result of "dollar diplomacy" Taft was a heavy loss of confidence and prestige of the United States in Latin America.
. European great powers responded to Taft's Latin American policy is not less irritation than its Chinese projects
. Only the growing polarization in Europe and especially the Anglo-Germanic antagonism prevented a sharp disagreement. Even in the negotiations on the new arbitration treaties with European powers in 1912, Taft was denied the success. And here he showed a tendency to over-rule of law and lack of flair for political contradictions. Desire to make the arbitration procedure mandatory for all international conflicts, he demanded too much from its European partners on the contract and from his own political friends. Roosevelt and Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, sharply opposed intentions are no longer relate to arbitrate issues of national "honor, independence and integrity", and the Senate failed to bargain with France and the UK contracts.
. Even the Democrats' victory in midterm elections in 1910 clearly demonstrated the loss of power Taft
. All the president clearly saw himself, that his chances for re-melting. But after Roosevelt decided to nominate his candidacy as a candidate for the presidency from the Republicans against Taft in Taft awakened the spirit of contradiction. Deeply offended by the behavior of a former friend, . perceived as a betrayal, . Taft fought primarily for their own respect and himself raised up and tried to convince, . that should protect the U.S. Constitution from the "despotic" intentions "demagogue" Roosevelt,
. Although most of the primary elections were in favor of Roosevelt, Taft, with the help of the party leadership was able to get the nomination at the Republican convention in Chicago, June 18, 1912. Four days later the newly formed Progressive Party called Roosevelt as their candidate for president.
Taft has appealed to conservative ideas about the values of Americans, but also have no hope of winning. He long ago lost the confidence of voters, and could foresee the defeat on Nov. 5, 1912. Woodrow Wilson won the election with 6.3 million votes, Roosevelt (4.1 million). Taft received 3.5 million votes and was third. In the Senate and House of Representatives, Democrats have a solid majority of. Never before has the president not lost re-election so disastrously.
Without taking into account the bleak surrounding circumstances, leaving the unloved office meant a great relief for Taft. He returned to Yale University law professor. Here there were three of the book "Not a native government", . "Its essence, . its permanence and its dangers "(1913), . "Antitrust Law and the Supreme Court" (1914) and "Our chief magistrate and his authority" (1916), . in which he handled his scientific expertise, judges and the president and sharply criticized for a narrow interpretation of presidential powers,
. After the war he maintained a policy of neutrality and Wilson as president of the League struggle for peace and advocated a new global world order. In appointing the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 1921, Taft had finally found his range is designed to work. Already in 1922 he carried out an extensive reform of the American judicial system. Personality Taft and his legal philosophy, in which the law can maintain its efficacy only when it is carefully and slowly adapts to the social and economic change, q