HOOVER, Herbert( U.S. President in 1929-33gg.)
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Biography HOOVER, Herbert
Herbert Hoover was born August 10, 1874 in West Branch, Iowa. His father was a blacksmith and sold cultivating tools. Two circumstances, defer to the memory of the young Hoover: religious upbringing as a Quaker, to whom he was later obliged to his humane and pacifist views, and early death of parents, who in his youth led him to take care of yourself. From 1891 to 1895 Hoover studied geology at the newly opened Stanford University. There he met his future wife, Lou Henry, at the time of the first female student of the university, studying geology. They married in 1899. Mrs. Hoover was a moderate defender of the rights of women, who as first lady in particular stood for women's sports and has supported the organization of Girl Scouts.
After graduation, Hoover almost twenty years was a successful mining engineer and businessman abroad, with main offices in London, and soon became an internationally renowned expert of mining. World War in 1914 found him in London. Since then, he devoted himself to a humane purpose, first aid agencies of Belgium, after the war - of food aid to war-torn Europe, including the support of Soviet Russia, suffered from hunger.
. President Wilson, after America's entry into the war gave Hoover in 1917, management of food, which he effectively managed in the interests of the country and the Allies
. After the war, Hoover supported Wilson in his desire to join the League of Nations. In 1920, when finally returned from abroad, it became possible Republican candidate for president, and reformist forces of both parties have fought for it. In 1921, Harding appointed him Minister of Trade. In this position he worked in a spirit of unprecedented endorses them informal, voluntary cooperation of the Government and the business world. Now, Hoover was a modern conservative politician of the center, which stands for "American individualism", for the preservation of liberal democracy and capitalist institutions in their country. As trade minister he developed the statistics and economic analysis, market research and industry, as well as the exchange of information within the business world. He advocated cooperation between employers and trade unions, for an active policy against unemployment and for the development of housing, roads and air. All this was achieved not so much state coercion as a voluntary collaborative effort of private entrepreneurs.
After Coolidge's refusal to participate in the election of Mr. Hoover was able to present themselves as a candidate. Pre-election fight between him and Democrat Alfred E. Smith, governor of New York and a Catholic, did not have big issues. Hoover made his election theme of prosperity for the country and announced an early end to poverty: "a chicken in every pot and a car in every garage". As a result, Hoover won the Nov. 6, 1928 with the advantage of 6 million votes, and even more compelling advantage in the election board. In Congress again increased the Republican majority.
Hoover, swore March 4, 1929, was the first president of the elite managers of their country, a gifted organizer, administrator and technocrat. Until the fall of 1929 he had a good relationship with the public. His political concept first envisaged administrative update, attempting to manage the economy through informal interaction between the government and the leaders of the economy. In his study, and in government bodies, as was customary in the Republican era, included many important industrialists and bankers. Minister of Foreign Affairs has experienced Republican politician and diplomat Henry L. Stimson.
. Domestic policy Hoover was devoted to first expand the national parks and caring for forests, . improve the living conditions of Indians, . holding "prohibition", . reorganization of the prisons and the coordination of national charities and social services,
. Changes in these areas, however, were modest.
Later subjugate all event of the Hoover administration was started in October 1929 in America "Great Depression". U.S. industrial production in 1932 dropped to the level of 1913, and foreign trade, even to the level in 1905. At the height of the crisis in the winter of 1932-33 nearly one in four workers was without a job. Dramatically escalated the crisis, farmers. Hoover became a prisoner of events, he had long understood the extent of economic devastation and social needs. His policy is to overcome the crisis has relied primarily on self-healing forces of the capitalist economy. He dismissed the government control the economy and policy costs for the financing of federal social programs. Grave mistakes Hoover was the approval of the Customs Act of July 1930, which is a record rate of customs duty has had a catastrophic effect on world trade. Only at the end of 1930 the Hoover Administration began to move to crisis events and only in January 1932 after the establishment of financial corporations to restore the action became more active and widespread.
. Up to 2 billion was provided for public subsidies in the economy
. In July 1932 the Government allocated to individual states $ 300 million to provide assistance and benefits. At wide-ranging reforms proposed by Congress, such as the introduction of national unemployment, Hoover in 1932, put his veto. However, he confirmed his signature law of the Norris-La Guardia in favor of union. As it turned out, the president's tough stance in the face of universal needs quickly contributed to the loss of credibility in the Hoover community. Extremely unpopular was his decision in July 1932 to drive through military force of several thousand veterans of Washington, . where they staged a demonstration for the provisional payment of compensation and encamped near the Capitol.,
. Foreign Policy Hoover also greatly impact the crisis was marked by the global economy and deteriorating international position of the U.S.
. Even before the crisis began in June 1929 a plan of Yang, with the active participation of the U.S. undertook a review of the German reparation payments. Payment of reparations and war debts were thwarted by the crisis. Moratorium, called his name, Hoover in June 1931 attempted to restrain the collapse of the government suspended all international debts for one year. In fact, since a long time been suspended payment of reparations and war debts.
Hoover essentially continued the foreign policy of his two predecessors. He also firmly adhered to the non-participation in the League of Nations and non-recognition of the USSR. In his world outlook in the country, the United joined the nationalist identity, a sense of international responsibility, the belief in the superiority of "white people" and the desire to protect the country against new war. Hoover believed in international cooperation without coercion, in a peaceful international system based on the power of public opinion. He had a deep aversion to war and the ruinous arms race.
. Hoover tried to improve relations with Latin America, to destroy the distrust of "the colossus to the north, beyond the claims of intervention and imperialist gestures, intimidation, and develop economic and cultural cooperation
. The crisis has reversed, however, these intentions, but by the end of his presidency was the withdrawal of American troops from Nicaragua, and prepare withdrawal from Haiti. In the matter of disarmament Hoover reached at the London Conference in 1930 together with Britain and France compromise, which included an upper limit to the tonnage of cruisers, destroyers and submarines, but was short-lived. Broad proposal Hoover on Disarmament in Geneva Conference of 1932, which would be completely banned assault weapons and a third would reduce the national armed forces, remained in the area of good intentions. In breach of contract by the Japanese during the "Manchurian crisis," 1931 - 32 years Hoover and Stimson responded Jan. 7, 1932 named them the doctrine, . which affirmed the denial by the United States of Japanese conquest or transactions in China, . achieved violence,
. Economic actions against Japan, which insisted Stimson, Hoover did not become. In comparison with the challenges posed by Hoover his foreign policy in the crisis years despite all efforts remained ineffective. Just as little it could to prevent further deterioration of the international position of the country.
Autumn 1932 before the forthcoming presidential election authority Hoover reached the lowest point. However, the Republicans nominated him, because they had no alternative to the Hoover. Democrats put up a candidate, a reformer governor of New York Franklin D. Roosevelt. View of the changed due to the crisis of political forces and the ineffectiveness of its anti-crisis measures Hoover suffered a heavy election defeat private. Congress had again been in the hands of the Democrats. Disillusioned and lonely Hoover resigned as president March 4, 1933.
Herbert Hoover, despite mostly negative outcome of his administration, belongs to the remarkable personalities in the political life of the time. New studies more fairly assess the overall achievement of the Hoover, . than the old clichцL, . that branded him as a doctrinaire, . conservative ideologue and old-fashioned politics and take on his responsibility for the catastrophic scale of a large crisis,
. If we measure the policies of President Hoover as the only by his failure in the economic crisis, then lost sight of that or any other president in the "Great Depression" would encounter the limits of their power. Not only as a minister of trade in their most productive years of political activity, but also as President Hoover proved innovative and reformist parties in the beginning of his political and economic thinking. Today, research is not as strictly as before, the boundary between the more informal economic regulation Hoover and mandatory economic regulation under the "New Deal". With all the existing differences on the individual aspects of its policy today in Hoover saw an outstanding, capable, often far-sighted policy of his time.
. After leaving the White House, Hoover lived another 31 years, longer than any other ex-president
. At first he lived in New York at the Hotel Waldorf-Astoria, and sharply criticized the policy of "New Deal", which, in his view, or lead to fascism or socialism. Also, he firmly rejected in the period between the beginning of World War II and Pearl Harbor entry into the war on the side of Great Britain, and since June 1941 as an ally of the USSR. Dropped atomic bombs on Japanese cities at the end of the war outraged by it "because of the indiscriminate killing of women and children". When President Truman and Eisenhower from 1946 to 1955 Hoover again executed by government order as the coordinator of the Organization of American food aid for Europe and as head of the commission for the reorganization of the government apparatus in Washington,
. He did not approve of military intervention in his country in Korea and Vietnam. Hoover died on Oct. 20, 1964 at the age of 90 years in New York. He was buried at his birthplace in West Branch, Iowa, where since 1962 is the library named after President Herbert Hoover.