ROOSEVELT, Franklin Delano( President of the United States in 1933-45 gg.)
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Biography ROOSEVELT, Franklin Delano
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born January 30, 1882 on the sunny side of society. The house where he was born, was in Hyde Park, it was a spacious estate on the Hudson River between New York and Albany. Franklin was the only child from his second marriage, while 54-year-old father, James Roosevelt and Sara, who was 26 years younger than her husband and brought a dowry of one million dollars. Father kept measured life of rural gentry of the best New England families of Dutch origin. He was also a farmer, businessman and a secular man who just loved the opera and theater, as well as regular trips to Europe. Although the state of Roosevelt did not go in comparison with novobogatymi Vanderbilts, and Rockefellers, their social position among the leading families of New England was invulnerable.
James and Sarah gave his only and beloved son of the relevant provision, careful and at the same time eventful and ideas of education. Natural reliability, which radiated parents and parents' home, moved to the perception of the life of his son and laid the basis for his unwavering confidence in himself and the world.
. This self-confidence and extreme self-discipline helped him when he was in 1921, severely polio
. Despite the high-energy efforts undertaken for many years to defeat the disease, Roosevelt remained paralyzed and bound to a wheelchair. Without the aid of steel tire weighing ten pounds, he could not stand only on crutches, slowly and gradually moved. How would he not inwardly grumbled at fate, apparently wore the mask of the immaculate, full of hope and confidence. He forbade himself any thought of frustration and self-pity, and his entourage - any sentimental gesture.
The disease has also changed, and his wife Eleanor and the nature of their marriage. Roosevelt married Eleanor Roosevelt, a distant relative of the fifth degree of kinship of the Hudson Valley and the niece of President Theodore Roosevelt, in 1905. The first child, a daughter, born in 1906 in the next 10 years, born 5 more sons, one of whom died at the age of 8 months. Of the initially timid in public and humble housewife and mother, step-by-step shaped "Eleanor", a woman who, perhaps more admired in the United States in the 30 th and 40 th years. Along with its multi-faceted socio-political activities, . her tireless performance for women's equality and the trade union movement, . general for the oppressed, . humble and poor in American society, . along with its activities as a teacher, . author editorials, . speaker and organizer, she, . especially from 1922 to 1928, . became Vice-President Roosevelt and the contact person with the Democratic Party,
. Marriage turned into a political community of working, . which led the Christian-social beliefs, Eleanor incarnation - "left conscience" of Roosevelt and which over the years increased its own credibility, . but she was convinced had always recognized the political primacy of her husband,
. For Eleanor, this meant a change of roles at the same time escape from the inner loneliness. Because the scam Roosevelt in World War I with Lucy Mercer, Eleanor's attractive secretary, caused a rift in their marriage, never to cemented. Since assuming the presidency in 1933, Eleanor was forced to abandon hope, . that her husband will provide for her place in her life, . whom she wanted: a place of equality and a trusted partner, . dividing the deepest hopes and disappointments,
. Brilliant, . witty and charming Roosevelt, . that even before his presidency as a magnet for men and women, . used them for his political ambitions and expected them to absolute loyalty, . no one opening their innermost feelings, . even his wife.,
. After visiting one of the finest private schools in the country in Groton Roosevelt from 1900 to 1904 he studied at Harvard College, and then from 1904 to 1907 years was a student of law at Columbia University.
. He refused to complete the academic training, passed the exam of the New York Chamber of lawyers and enlisted in the famous New York law office as a moderately paid intern
. Since he did not feel any pull to delve into the details of the economic rights and the rights of cartels and has already had financial security and social recognition, the only object of his ambition was clearly defined policy. In addition, a further example of Theodore Roosevelt, whom Franklin and Eleanor many times visited the White House. Without any irony in the course of the conversation, Roosevelt developed a clear timetable for the movement upward: in favorable to the Democratic Party election year he wanted to try to become a member of parliament in New York, . then his career should follow the path of Theodore Roosevelt: State Secretary in the Ministry of the Navy, . Governor of New York, . president.,
. According to this model of his career and developed
. In November 1910 he became secretary of the State of New York in the parliament, which threw in its lot with the "progressive" Democrats. In March 1913 and was appointed State Secretary of the Ministry of the Navy, position, duties which he enthusiastically served seven years. In 1920, the Democratic Party nominated him even a candidate for vice-president. Year after the defeat of the Democrats in the presidential election and after his polio, he linked the hope for a final recovery plan to return to politics. In 1928 and 1930, Roosevelt became governor of New York, November 8, 1932 after a bitter election fight against being in the position of President Herbert Hoover was elected president of the United States.
. "This contest is more than a fight between two men
. This is more than a struggle between two parties. This is a fight between two points of view on the purpose and objectives of the Government ". This pre-election statement of President Hoover could, word for word would belong to Roosevelt, as the sense he claimed the same thing during his election campaign. In a passionate debate about the causes and overcoming the economic crisis, . which obviously coped Government Hoover, . question, . Does the federal government headed by the president right and duty, . and to what extent, . intervene to regulate and bring order to the U.S. economy to address the crisis and the needs, . is a crucial contrast between the two candidates,
. The question concerned the core of American self-understanding. Deep and life-long antagonism between Roosevelt and Hoover was based on their disparate views on the function of government.
. While Hoover appealed to the classic American virtues of individualism and dobrevolnosti and warned against the tyranny of the State, . Roosevelt campaigned for the most radical state-interventionist program planning, . which until then had not yet formulated in peacetime presidential candidate,
. In the spring of 1930 he wrote: "For me there is no doubt that the country should be quite radical, at least for one generation. History teaches that a nation in which it occurs from time to time, free from revolutions. He saw himself as a guardian and an innovator, a supporter of tradition and progress at the same time. I never intended to question the foundations of the American system, such as private property, the motivation of profit, regional and functional separation of powers, freedom of press and freedom of religion. Despite the sharp attacks against korystolyubtsev at the top of the social pyramid, he was not the ideology of class struggle. It would be deeply at odds with his core belief that the president is the protector of public interest. He certainly was not a Marxist or a Socialist, as asserted by Hoover in the final phase of election campaign. Just as little should be classified as a capitalist. When asked about his political beliefs with disarming simplicity could say that he was a Christian and a Democrat. But if the U.S. system can not do that, according to Roosevelt, it should do, namely, to serve the common good and ensure that every American a decent livelihood, then the government should intervene. This requires common sense and human decency. Deep non-US governmental philosophy Hoover distributes doubt, hopelessness and fear among millions of people who, without money, power and social status are mired in the basement of the social pyramid. Roosevelt promised in the election campaign "new course" and meant by this term from the vocabulary of the players in the card that the U.S. faces a new beginning.
. The severity of the crisis and led to Roosevelt's belief that there was a quantitative and qualitative leap in the value of the presidential institution
. On a larger scale, . than even Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson, . The White House has become the energy center of the entire American system of government, . source of new ideas, . driven trade, . engine of social transformation and thus, . on presentation Roosevelt, . embodiment of the common good,
. For the mass of the American population, the Federal Government and the president for the first time became a recognizable part of their daily lives, the center of their expectations and hopes.
. Formation of modern American institution of the presidency due to the fact that Roosevelt consistently led the country from the global economic crisis and of the greatest in the history of the war
. In a sense, the U.S. has fought these twelve years, first with the economic needs, and then with external enemies. Double-hour state of emergency has been executive. It is noteworthy that in overcoming the economic plight of the metaphor of "war" has played a crucial role.
. "Roosevelt was the case" to the limits of the possible, which the American constitutional system sets even a strong president
. He was an artist in power politics. Like no president before him, he snatched the Congress a legislative initiative, and in this sense, expanded function of the legislative institution of the presidency. Roosevelt broke all records of the veto power, in total, he vetoed 635 times. He courted and persuaded the decisive deputies and senators in personal conversations, the use of official patronage and, if necessary, put pressure on Congress with the help of public opinion. Roosevelt focused on the expectations of the public institution of the presidency, because he knew how the two media of the time, the press and radio, an incomparable way to use as instruments of its policy. Roosevelt was the first president of the media. He prevailed in the major headlines, not least because of its sovereign policy of "open doors" in relation to working journalists in Washington. Every year, paralyzed below the waist president collected twice a week around his desk to 200 journalists. They could ask him any question without the prior written application. These conferences were the masterpieces of the ability to dispense with a free press. By comparing their value with an hour of questions and answers in the British House of Commons. Secret of success of his spontaneous conversations by the fire (fire-side chats) no radio, who won a million-audience, was that the dialogue with the people was not for Roosevelt's manipulative ploy, but for the essence of his understanding of democracy.
. The offset center of gravity of the policy on executive power and manifested in the human and institutional levels
. Especially between 1933 and 1935 years, . and then again from 1939 all new institutions, . Offices, . Committees, . Commissions grew up like mushrooms, . been in constant transformation, . dissolution and reorganization, . often overlapped and were able to bring to the desperation of adherents of well-defined competencies and orderly way the chain of command,
. While Roosevelt's presidency has doubled and even tripled the staff of the executive bodies: in 1933 the federal government was engaged in exactly 600 000, . in 1939, . before the European war, . about 920 000 people,
. When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, the number had increased to more than 1.5 million, then to the war once again rise dramatically. Under one of his followers is not the number falls below 2 million.
. Finally, the reorganization and expansion of the service personnel themselves president allegedly having belonged to the great effects of global economic crisis on the U.S. political system
. After 1933, Roosevelt quickly realized that his office institutionally unable to cope with enormous challenges and demands. He appointed a committee, the famous Brownlow Committee. This committee in 1937 concluded: "The President needs help". He proposed the establishment of the Executive Service of the President, under whose roof and the White House must be staffed by competent, energetic staff, which should differ only by one: "passion for anonymity". After a bitter political tug of war in 1939, Congress passed a law on the reorganization of the presidential institution, which Roosevelt put into practice by presidential decree? 8248.
. This president has an independent bureaucracy, which gave him the opportunity to compete with and significantly increased bureaucracy, Congress
. Simultaneously, this reform harbored the possibility of abuse, the temptation to gather in the White House a power elite, not controlled by Congress and the public, and to establish, therefore, an "imperial presidency."
. Persistent neoplasms and overlapping authorities have brought glory to bad Roosevelt administrator
. And to a certain extent this is correct, but in the process concealed method. Roosevelt relied on the spontaneity, strong initiative, improvisation, willingness to experiment, competition and rivalry as the driving force behind the New Deal, and later the war economy. Splitting of power below the level of the president in line with the technique of "divide and rule", which he had a master.
. He maintained his freedom of decision and final responsibility only because, . in business, . staffing and institutionally leave open alternative, . always used, . lot of information channels, . Nobody has provided a monopoly on access to the president and forced the contending ministers and advisers to ever new compromises,
. For quite justified complaints of politicians from the environment Roosevelt on his unorthodox and unpredictable customs information and decision-making is often hidden and wounded vanity.
. Transformation of the presidential institution and the strengthening of the Washington bureaucracy were simultaneously prerequisite and a consequence of state-interventionist policy of "New Deal", . goal, . scope, . and contradictions which, in gross terms already appeared in the election campaign,
. According to Roosevelt's understanding of power as the association of stakeholders, policy to follow the "diagonal", which will try to help all groups and to involve all sectors of the economy. Roosevelt promised short-term assistance in a crisis, economic recovery and long-term reforms that were supposed to make it impossible to repeat the disaster of unprecedented. Legislation "New Deal" to reflect these goals in different mixtures, often tried one event simultaneously carry two or even three goals.
. Roosevelt entered the national stage, 4 March 1933 as a healer and left it only three times after re-election in 1936, 1940 and 1944 with his death April 12, 1945
. Even without taking into account who became famous first 100 days of his presidency, . in that Washington nearly blew up on the activity and most of the bills Congress approved a record pace, . Roosevelt, . despite some setbacks, . despite growing opposition to the left and right, . almost always belonged to the initiative.,
. When Roosevelt took office, the United States were in an unprecedented crisis
. In February 1933, all banking threatened to collapse, and there were several cases of starvation in a country suffering from an excess of food. One of the areas where immediately after assuming the office of the Roosevelt intervened, declaring a four-day "bank holiday", was a system of monetary and credit handling U.S.. All activities in this field serves three purposes: radical reform rather chaotic banking, . supervision and monitoring of securities trading and, . was particularly important in the initial phase, . creating a legal basis for the inflationary policy of the State, . to overcome deflation through a new money issue.,
. Along with the opening of banks Roosevelt, if he wanted to return people's confidence in government, was supposed to begin immediately to urgent social problem - the huge unemployment
. It was impossible to wait until the reform legislation will bring the expected economic benefits. By means of temporary improvements were the direct benefits of Social Welfare Union, individual states and communities, . but above all a broad government program employment, . which began in March 1933 as a temporary measure and forced over, . Contrary to initial plans, . only with the entry into the U.S., the second world war.,
. How confusing would neither was external painting successive and complementary programs and organizations, . however vied with each other intensify the capital and labor projects, . Roosevelt's basic idea was simple: he wanted to remove from the streets of the able-bodied unemployed, . have not found jobs in the private sector, . protect them from poverty and despair, and return a sense of self-worth through confidence, . they earn their livelihood, . conscientious labor for the common good,
. If we add to this family, then the 25-30 million people will benefit from, albeit modest salaries for state work. Administration under the leadership of a trustee of Roosevelt, Harry Hopkins has built 122 000 public buildings, 664 000 miles of new roads, 77 000 bridges and 285 airports. The work got even teachers, artists and writers, as Roosevelt won public opinion stratum for a "new course".
. The most profound state intervention in the market economy are supporting activities in agriculture, which is undoubtedly the most affected sector of the economy
. Based on an urgent laws issued by Congress, the Roosevelt has taken a broad attempt to regulate the production and price. Curse of overproduction also pushed for intervention in the industrial sector. Since the federal law on the restoration industry offered hope through a kind of cooperative self-regulation under the prudential supervision and with the assistance of the Government to replace the "destructive competition" fair competition ". Government, employers and the working class had to voluntarily cooperate to stabilize production, prices and wages.
. The working class in this concentrated action for the first time in U.S. history has received as compensation the right of free standing of the business organization and the right to conduct collective bargaining on tariffs
. It further agreed to a maximum working day and the lowest salary was completely banned the employment of children under 16 years.
. Union decisive step towards social state was marked by the Social Security Act 1935, which introduced unemployment insurance and old age pension
. But the beginning of Social Security has been extremely modest. Nearly half of Americans were still deprived of the opportunity to use the already small payments. It was not given health insurance. Legislation "new course", however, and today still defines the structure of dual federal-state social policy. Both main principle of social state, financed through contributions from social insurance financed by taxes and social assistance or social security are rooted in the 30-ies.
. Until now, a contentious issue, how successful was the "new course"
. It is true that the "new course" could reduce but not eliminate unemployment and poverty, and socio-political laws did not go further humble beginnings. Only the war brought full employment and smashes all records for production. Unorganized groups and social declassed minority, . and black, . remained on the edge of the "New Deal", . varying structure of opportunities and income has changed little, . monopolies and trusts have lost in influence, . but not in the amount,
. Nobody knew the boundaries of the New Deal * better than Roosevelt himself, because he was on his second term declared the fight against poverty, the lower third of the nation. What he has not reached, depended not on him, but from the insurmountable barriers that politico-economic system even before the U.S. put a strong president. His two severe internal damage, . attempted reorganization of the Supreme Court, . who resisted the centralizing tendencies of the "new course", . and the exclusion of the conservative opposition in his own party after an outstanding victory at the elections in 1936 are vivid examples of this,
. Both attempts, which, according to Roosevelt, were to ensure and advance the "new course", failed, because he overestimated the capabilities and power of the president.
. The decisive thing was that Roosevelt gave new hope to the fallen spirit, unsure of herself and not having direction of the nation
. The only thing that was supposed to be afraid of a nation, as he announced the introduction of office, it is fear itself.
. Interdependence, . understood as the mutual dependence of all sectors of the American people, . was the central concept of the internal political thinking, . interdependence, . understood as the mutual dependence of all nations, . was the central concept of foreign policy thinking Roosevelt,
. U.S. should not isolate itself from the rest of the world, because the future security and general welfare of the country is inextricably linked with the destiny of Europe and Asia. True, . to be elected and not losing domestic support for New Deal, . Roosevelt was forced in the 30 years to make concessions to the prevailing isolationist sentiment in the U.S., . that under any circumstances would protect America from another war in Europe and Asia,
. But restricting isolation national interests in the Western Hemisphere, and half the Pacific Ocean, he did not share ever. His internationalist view of the world led him to force an expansive foreign policy, Germany, Italy and Japan in 1941 to a dilemma from which he was released only because of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and Hitler's declaration of war, the United States.
. During the 30 years in the U.S. increased fears that it might be supposed "Trojan horse" NSDAP in the United States, "Union of Friends of New Germany", will threaten the internal security of the U.S.
. Simultaneously, growing concern that the foreign policy of the "Third Reich" is a threat to peace on earth. This dual concern has not led to a preventive interventionist policy in Europe, but rather to strengthen the isolationist sentiments of the American people because of these danger signals even more decisively isolated from Europe. Traditional foreign policy prescriptions, . anticipated findings of the failed "crusade" of 1917-18 and a narrow understanding of U.S. national interests were the most important determinants of U.S. foreign policy before the European war in 1939,
. That, . What Hitler in 1940, tried in vain to get Tripartite Pact, . attack on the Soviet Union in 1941 and the Alliance with Japan, . namely, . keep America away from Europe and the scare back in the Western Hemisphere, . U.S. Congress has made itself, . issuing a law on neutrality,
. The international political situation began to develop in the opposite direction. At that time, both in Europe and Asia, increased aggression and expansion, the Congress of the laws of neutrality of 1935 and 1937 years replenished roster of foreign policy activities that are prohibited for the government of Roosevelt during the war and crisis. At the level of official foreign policy, . supported Congress, . legislation and public opinion, . Roosevelt was in the beginning of the European war in 1939, the naked prophet, . infinitely small quantity, . and as such to him accordingly regarded Hitler.,
. Roosevelt knew too well, . that will win the freedom of action and the possibility of action in world politics to the extent, . how he can change the "sense of threat", . presentation of the American people about the potential threat of National Socialist Germany and the United States,
. He had to explain and demonstrate to the American people, . that the restriction of the national interests of the Western Hemisphere, . isolation of the fortress itself "America" and the provision of events in their own flow of Eurasia to the United States is a dangerous illusion,
. Readiness - industrial, economic and psychological preparation for a possible war - was until 1941 the prevailing view of his foreign policy. In this sense, foreign policy was largely and internal.
Methodically and in the institutional sense, Roosevelt acted very skillfully. To avoid coming under suspicion of spreading its ideology through government propaganda, . that would only strengthen the prosecution of Roosevelt haters in the desire to make himself a "dictator of America", . He staked, . as during the New Deal, . the informal, . but very effective strategy,
. The White House, in numerous ministries and agencies have been created so-called "information offices", which allegedly had only one purpose - to inform the American people about the international situation. After the incident with France in 1940, the Government cooperated with Hollywood studios large number of documentaries and chronicles, radio, newspapers and magazines to get the isolationists and non-interventionists to the defensive. In this educational campaign, Roosevelt developed his internationalist vision of the world, the basic views on the future role of U.S. in the world. And on this fundamental level, Roosevelt was very constant, it was not a comforter or a juggler, not an opportunist, or swindler who promised not to engage in war, it only prolonged the U.S. - it was only at the tactical level. The internal political conflict with the isolationists, he unfolded the dialectic of globalization the U.S. in its two components: a warning against the enemy of world domination and global definition of U.S. national interests, . namely, . the content and range of national interest.,
. He shared the views of Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt and Alfred Thayer Marine Strategy Mehena that the balance of forces on the European continent is a vital interest to the U.S.
. However, Woodrow Wilson, he believed in the ideal of "a world" in which self-determination of the nation and the principles of collective security must guarantee peace. With his Foreign Minister, Cordell Hull, he shared the belief that only the free world economy can produce goods and services that are needed for a long time to keep the peace around the world. Hitler and the Third Reich "clearly threatened the whole time: the balance of forces in Europe, world peace and the free world economy. Therefore Roosevelt formed his warnings, his globalism as a threefold warning of the future.
. With each successful military aggression in Europe and Asia, . according to the president and his supporters, . approaching future, . implementation of which would be a disaster for the American economy: the victory of Hitler and Mussolini in Europe, . Japan in the Far East region to compel both the system is almost independent of the import, . planned economy, . that would mean the end of the liberal, . undivided world market and a serious threat to American economic and social system,
. If the United States and its allies would lose control of the oceans, according to Roosevelt, it can be used by Axis powers to attack the Western Hemisphere. But control of the seas can not be only the U.S. navy, it is possible only if Europe and Asia will be dominated by Axis powers, and you can have a shipbuilding capacity of the two continents. France, the British Empire and China, and from mid-1941 and the Soviet Union must be maintained, because they indirectly protect and the United States.
Moreover, the approaching war had for Roosevelt before the mass destruction of the moral scale. It was his crusade to defend freedom against aggressors and dictators. Almost obsessively repeating, Roosevelt constantly explained: the right of peoples to self-determination and the duty of States to submit international politics to the principles of international law are inseparable. Violence and aggression as a means to change the status quo are illegal. Prior to 1941, he interpreted the war as a landmark struggle for the vision of peace between the aggressors and peaceful nations, between liberal democracy and barbarism, between citizens and criminals, between good and evil. For Roosevelt, there could be no peace with the aggressors. The worst possibility, in his view, was "super-Munich in Europe and Asia, which would unleash the hands of Hitler for his racial empire in Europe and the Japanese for their empire in East Asia. While he was taking into account public opinion and Congress until the autumn of 1941 followed fiction, . that assistance measures, . provided by the U.S. to its allies, . to protect the country from the war itself, . Roosevelt before Pearl Harbor knew, . that the U.S. should join it,
. However, the assertion that he had been informed in advance about the Japanese attack on the Pacific Fleet and deliberately did not take any action relates to the field of legends.
. Since joining the U.S. in the war before the 61-year old Roosevelt faced with the task, which sapped his strength so that in 1944 each had seen the physical destruction
. Also included is go to war economy, . military and union-political problems "grand coalition" against the powers, "Wasp" and Japan, . new diplomacy of conferences in the war, . devotedly performed the role of commander in chief Roosevelt all American armed forces, . in 1943, problems in dealing with enemy nations after the expected victory, . he had long tried to delay and, . Finally, . big question, . as after the Second World War to create a long peaceful order,
. All of these tasks, Roosevelt had to deal with, constantly trying to justify to the public that the president failed to provide freedom of action even in war, but left the existing institutions of criticism. Public opinion. Congress, the party-political conflict between Democrats and Republicans, finally, presidential elections in 1944 and remained during the war factors that Roosevelt had to consider in word and deed. In this respect, he was dependent, as Winston Churchill, not to mention Stalin and Hitler.
Along with the variety of problems were manifested more of their global reach. During the war with greater force acting is, . that Roosevelt was formed in 1941: challenges for American foreign policy so vast and intertwined with each other, . that each attempt only to present them, makes him think of the two continents and seven seas,
. In World War II the United States, as predicted Roosevelt, became "the arsenal of democracy". In 1943 and 1944 the country produced 40% of all military goods of the world. As the principal enemies of Germany, Japan and Italy, as well as major allies, Britain and the British Empire, the Soviet Union and China were forced Roosevelt to think global scale. Important decisions taken in Europe in the light of Asia, and vice versa. Nazi Germany was the main enemy number one, however, since the incipient lesions, played a minor role in the President's plans for the future.
. Two days before Pearl Harbor, Roosevelt ended the conversation by the fireplace filled with hope the phrase: "We will win the war, and we will win the World"
. But during the war for his second goal of the first subordinate. Roosevelt's foreign policy in the war was, first and foremost, the policy for its successful completion. Major military and political goals were identical, . - namely, the destruction of the enemy, . although the president is very serious about the principles for the future of the world, . he declared as early as January 1940, in an address to Congress and explained in the August 1941 meeting with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill off the coast of Newfoundland in the Atlantic Charter,
. From this for Roosevelt followed the basic principles of action - to oblige their partners in the alliance before the public by the execution of these general principles and prevent the, . to possible political conflicts on specific issues of the postwar order, . as, . example, . borders and reparations, . not blown a large Anglo-Saxon-Soviet-Chinese coalition,
. In case of conflict should refer to these general principles, to conclude a compromise or postpone the controversial decision to victory.
Roosevelt's Policy toward the Soviet Union, often criticized since 1945, there was no alternative. He needed the Soviet Union, because Roosevelt had to go and win the American war, t. e. with the unprecedented use of technology and relatively minor victims. U.S. Russian soldiers were needed to defeat the German and Japanese troops. For every American who died in the war, died 15 Germans, 53 Russian. Already in 1942, Roosevelt knew "that the Russian army will kill more people powers" axis "and destroy more military equipment than all 25 of the United Nations together". Hence the inevitable conclusion that the power and influence of the Soviet Union after the joint victory would be incomparably greater than in 1939. Nobody could prevent the victory of the Second World War did the Soviet Union's Euro-Asian world power, and as a consequence, after the most murderous war in history, the world will depend on cooperation with the Soviet Union. From this logic, the authorities could not leave that Roosevelt and Churchill understood clearly. But in the beginning of this causal chain was Hitler.
Illusion of Roosevelt was the belief that when all admissions requirements of the Soviet Union in the security can be achieved by cooperation with the Atlantic Charter on U.S. terms. He did not understand, . that the imperial-hegemonic needs of the Soviet Union in the security was not in Eastern and Southern Europe so far, . to encroach on the international legal independence of these states and attach them to the Union of Soviet, . that she was from the beginning aimed at, . to break the independent will of these states through the transformation of "a new type of anti-fascist democracy", . the "people's democracy", . that, . on the Soviet view, . represents an intermediate step towards a dictatorship of the proletariat.,
. The sources do not answer the question, . I went skeptical Roosevelt in the months before his death, hope, . contrary to all expectations, . or he, . taking into account public opinion in their country after the Yalta Conference (4-11 February 1945), . only pretended, . believes in the common aims of the Allies, . not to endanger the U.S. entry into the United Nations.,
. Objectively, . however, . immediately after his death, . death resulted from a brain hemorrhage April 12, 1945, . collapsed all, . that Roosevelt wanted to simultaneously carry out: political cooperation with the Soviet Union and the American vision of a better world,
. He also could not combine the realistic and idealistic components of U.S. foreign policy, power and imagination. We could talk about tragic if these categories are not contrary to a deep unshakable optimism and a healthy belief in the progress of Roosevelt's New World.