NIXON, Richard( President of the United States in 1968-74 gg.)
Comments for NIXON, Richard
Biography NIXON, Richard
Richard Milhouse Nixon was born January 9, 1913 in Southern California Yorbe Linda and rose from the ordinary conditions of life to the highest state post. His parents, deeply religious Quakers, had a small grocery store in the small town near Los Angeles. Childhood and youth in labor and thrift, and were marred by the death of two brothers, and they were four. Intelligent, athletic, gifted with musical talent and an extremely ambitious young Richard Nixon stood in a local college as an excellent student. In 1934 he received a scholarship to study law at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, who finished three years later, in its third edition. His comrades, he appealed primarily iron discipline. His passion was continuing hours of debate, politically he considered himself an opponent of the "new course".
Returning to his homeland, became a member of a small law office. This start of his career a bit disappointed. In June 1940, rather shy young man, after a long courtship he married Thelma Catherine "Pat" Ryan, a teacher of his age. They had two daughters, Patricia (1946) and Julia (1948). How would often distrustful and cynical as it may be to their friends and enemies, harmonious family life gave support to his original in American history, political career.
. Immediately after America's entry into World War II the couple moved to Washington, where Nixon got a place in the national government price controls, which soon seemed to him the embodiment of the arbitrariness of government intervention
. Although, as a Quaker, was exempted from military service, he volunteered, perhaps with future political career, he went to the navy. From late 1942 to mid 1944, he served as a procurement officer in the South Pacific and was loved by both superiors and subordinates. The service has not provided the opportunity to show their heroism, but he succeeded in playing poker, winning a significant amount of 10 000 dollars.
. He not only accepted the offer without hesitation, but also financed the election campaign in part because of their savings, although a Democrat, incumbent, was considered the favorite. With the advantage in 13,3% of the vote, he entered the House of Representatives.
In 1953, Mr.. became vice-president from the Republican Party. Although Eisenhower and Nixon did not have any close personal relationship, vice president had played an important role as a mediator between the administration and the Republican Party. He regularly attended meetings of the Cabinet and National Security Council (NRC) and in 1955 and 1957, briefly substituted for a sick president. First of all, he has appeared an intense interest in foreign policy, which led him on an official visit at least 61 countries. Among them were sensational statements, such as concurrent nationalist unrest trip to South America in 1958 or verbal test of strength with Nikita Khrushchev in 1959 in Moscow ( "kitchen debates"). Nixon as vice president, got so much political weight, that in 1960 no domestic rivals, nor skeptical Eisenhower could not prevent him from becoming a candidate from the Republicans.
. The presidential election in 1960 ended with a slight advantage in the 0, . 17% in favor of John F. Kennedy, . to the entrance to the White House was not so much obliged to his good looks and winning on points in the first TV duel with a tired-looking Nixon, . much manipulation in the election in Illinois and Texas.,
. But Nixon did not give up everything and tried to create a new database, putting forward its candidacy for governor of California
. Unequivocal defeat which he suffered in 1962 against Democratic Governor Edmund Brown, seemed cemented the end of his political career. On his "last press conference," he scolded reporters and said his departure from politics. The family moved to New York City, where Nixon went to the well-known law office.
Was it a serious abdication, it is doubtful. In general, the beginning of the 60-ies was unfavorable time for the Republicans, and in 1964, Nixon gave the ultraconservative Senator Barry Goldwater sorry to lose to President Johnson. But two years later the election to Congress, he again joined the election campaign as a candidate in the White House. Meanwhile, radically changed the political climate in the U.S.. The escalation of the Vietnam War and a wave of racist and politically motivated violence in American society have raised deep uncertainty. Nixon offered himself as someone who can restore law and order and to unite the nation that was a bold promise, given that few politicians so strongly polarized Americans.
. In the primary election Nixon easily defeated his rivals, Nelson Rockefeller and Ronald Reagan
. After the assassination of Robert Kennedy Democrats at the convention, accompanied by prolonged confusion, nominated Vice President Hubert Humphrey, who identified with the Johnson administration. In the election campaign Nixon made a bet on internal security and argued with the social program, along with Johnson's Vietnam War as a source of inflation and public deficits. Ticklish question of ending the war he went from defiant assertion that he has a secret plan, "honorable peace", which he still does not want to disclose. For the first time Nixon had used the racial issue, with the "strategy of the southern states, seeking the votes of the white population of the southern states, tuned to the continuation of racial integration. Great destabilizing factor was, however, the American Independent Party, led by George Wallace, former governor of Alabama, racism and chauvinism, which is positively perceived by many young people in the North. In fact, Nixon in November 1968, Humphrey won with an advantage of 0,7% with a relative majority of 43.4%, t. e. with such a small margin, with some lost 8 years ago. Since Nixon was able to go in most states, the election board with a clear majority, he was elected 37 th President of the United States.
. The first year of his presidency brilliantly illuminated moon landing, which made July 21, 1969, astronauts on the spaceship "Apollo" Armstrong and Aldrin, and has strengthened the nation's shattered confidence in themselves
. But the pressing problem of the new president was the war in Vietnam, which cost the lives of every month 500 American soldiers who absorbs an enormous amount, dividing the nation and harm the credibility of the U.S.. Core formed in July 1969 "Nixon Doctrine" for further U.S. military activity in Asia was "Vietnamization", t. e. replacement of the American South Vietnamese troops that modern weapons were to be able to prevent the communist triumph. Since not have to rely more on the military victory, the Secretary for Security, Henry A. Kissinger joined in 1970 in secret talks with the North Vietnamese government. In order to force Hanoi to make concessions, Nixon made a bet on the simultaneous military strikes, such as first disengaged in the secret bombing of Viet Cong bases in Cambodia and the subsequent invasion of ground troops. Useless in the war against the expansion of the war resulted in the U.S. to mass protests, which resulted in the May 1970 national guardsmen were shot and killed 4 students of the University of Kent State's (Ohio). In the face of growing military pressure to secure the South Vietnamese army Nixon did not see, in the end, no other solution than to force Hanoi to the negotiating table. In April 1972, were renewed bombing of North Vietnam, and when a temporary compromise in October, broke the resistance of the South Vietnamese government, they have grown to Christmas in the biggest air offensive of the war. While many historians confirm the success of Nixon's strategy, as the bomber war forced North Vietnam to give in, signed January 27, 1973 in Paris an agreement with Vietnam was hardly expected "honorable peace". Withdrawal of U.S. troops and the return of prisoners of war put the final point at the longest war America, . but the presence of 100 000 of North American soldiers in the south could be seen as recognition, . that the fall of South Vietnam was only a matter of time,
. Despite the U.S. promise of aid, South Vietnam government, which forced Nixon ultimatum to the adoption of an agreement, felt betrayed by the United States. That, . that the fall of South Vietnam in 1974-75, . Kissinger later claimed as, . without paralysis, . Watergate caused, . could have been prevented, . be a great challenge due to the reluctance of the American public and Congress to return to the military option.,
. Nevertheless, Nixon's foreign policy successes are indisputable
. That, . the former hunter of Communists tried to establish relations with both Communist powers, and in 1972 was the first American president, . visit China and the Soviet Union, . was, . unquestionably, . major turning U.S. foreign policy since the beginning of the Cold War, . that baffled critics and many of his political friends,
. Caused by Henry Kissinger in his memoirs an impression that he was, in fact, the architect of the Nixon administration's foreign policy, clearly exaggerated. Nixon himself has consistently emphasized its leading role in making all important decisions. At the same time between the president and his security adviser and later as Minister of Foreign Affairs, there will be perfect agreement about the principles and objectives of American foreign policy. Both saw themselves as focused on the national interests of realpolitik, for which the ideological or moral considerations were of secondary importance. Both would most like to see international politics in the hands of conservative leaders, if possible, without the annoying interference of public opinion or parliamentary control. In America, the Vietnam era, this concept, despite all the diplomatic progress, no longer corresponded to the time and increasingly met with resistance. Thus, Congress is increasingly insisted on their constitutional rights and in 1973. issued, despite Nixon's veto, the law which requires the President to report every use of force within 48 hours and - if the Congress during that time did not declare war - the maximum 60 days after cessation of hostilities.
. The premise of realpolitik Nixon was, above all, in understanding the need for reconciliation with the Soviet Union, where the game was cleverly put "China card
. External results of this policy were concluded in 1972 a treaty on limiting strategic arms and missile defense systems (SALT-1 and ABM), which slowed down the arms race, as well as the expansion of trade relations. Although Washington US-Soviet bilateralizm was, . Yes the center of detente and the Nixon administration, with some disbelief watching the socio-liberal policies in the eastern Bonn, . president is not putting in her stick in the wheel, . not to cause anti-American tendencies in Germany,
. As clearly demonstrated the Four Power Agreement on Berlin in 1971, the very delicate situation of the divided city to ensure that no German government can not conduct policy in the East against the United States.
. Dynamics of the Nixon administration's foreign policy eased with the beginning of the second term
. In Congress, growing resistance to the policy of detente, and the visit of the Soviet General Secretary Brezhnev to the U.S. in June 1973 did not bring any significant changes in the control of arms. First of all, the Watergate crisis all the more restrained foreign policy capacity president. The war in the Middle East in October 1973 and was struck by the administration of a sudden and in the midst of violent internal strife. However, still controversial, whether the delay was the result of using wounded Israeli truce violation, and subsequent militant threatening gestures superpowers - the result of inaction Nixon, or rather, arbitrary Kissinger. Nevertheless, the "pendulum diplomacy led finally to the truce, so that in June 1974 Nixon during his visit to Egypt, met as a mediator in peace. But the U.S. failed to prevent the explosion in oil prices caused by the Arab embargo and the ensuing global economic downturn. How would Richard Nixon nor emphasized his role on the world political scene and how it may be valued as a partner for negotiations on an international scale, the collapse of his domestic political power did not give him more chances in the foreign policy. When at the end of June 1974 he went to the last summit meeting in Moscow with the vain hope of returning to the second agreement on SALT, the critics have already ironic that he wants to seek asylum. The fact that the Board introduced this swindler Watergate as a conspiracy against the policy of detente, was little consolation.
. Prior to his appointment in the Nixon always insisted that the United States need a president, in fact, only for foreign policy
. Whoever therefore relied on policy in the spirit of anti-government credo was rather disappointed. However, under the banner of "new federalism" individual states have been returned to power and money, but to limit the federal executive could be no question. On the contrary, the creation of a new structure of the budgetary authorities and internal coordination council centralized in the White House more power than ever. Rather than abolish the regulation, were created two new federal body for labor and environmental protection, and also passed a law on the conservation of clean air. "Welfare state remained basically intact, even the Nixon administration introduced a plan for reform of social assistance with a guaranteed minimum income for families, but it is stuck in Congress. The ratio of Nixon to Congress to determine the stress and hostility, not only because the Democratic majority in both houses, but also because the president considered this attitude as nothing but a bitter struggle for power. In the beginning, when you try to appoint a supreme court chamber of the two conservative Southerners, he suffered an unpleasant defeat in the Senate. For its part, Nixon tuned Congress against himself, when a questionable rationale established by Congress froze the costs, after it was rejected by his veto. In the fight against inflation, he did not even stop the sharp intervention in the economy in peacetime, . temporary freeze of wages and prices, . which Nixon announced in August 1971, together with a tax on imports and the removal of the ban on the dollar exchange rate, . to compensate for first-XX century,
. balance of trade deficit. Indeed, the economic situation again revived, and for some time through ongoing monitoring is also hampered by inflation.
. Trying to get a leg in a conservative white South, Nixon publicly opposed mandated by the Supreme Court in 1971, delivering a bus to school children for the purpose of racial integration schools
. During his tenure as President of the number of black students attending segregated schools in the South fell from 68 to 8%. Also, progress in the legal equality of women there has been at this time in spite of rather than because of personal attitude and initiative of the Nixon. In general, his domestic policy reveals more continuity than discontinuity with the previous period of liberal reforms.
. But this statement pales in the face of a chain of hidden and illegal actions of the president's circle, in which breaking the headquarters of the Democratic Party in Washington's Watergate Hotel in June 1972 was not even the most important link
. However, "dirty tricks", such as abuse of the FBI or the tax authorities, has long included in the repertoire of discrediting political opponents, but now their scale and the personal involvement of President reached a new quality. The same Nixon who communicate freely with the great communist world, within a politically obsessed Manichean thinking enemy, one which allows for any funds. For the faithful surrounded, as vassals, staff, as chief of staff in the White House, Haldeman and domestic Erlikhman coordinator, Nixon erased the boundaries between legitimate opposition and subversion. In his instructions were drawn up lists of enemies, "and listen to telephone conversations hated journalists. In 1970, Nixon approved a massive plan to undermine the movement against the war with the help of the FBI and CIA, which was disrupted by an objection FBI chief J. Edgar Hoover,. to a lesser extent due to legal considerations than out of fear of losing the independence of the federal police. That did not stop the White House to create a special undercover unit called "tinsmiths, which among other things, had the task of" plug the holes "in relation to the press. When the New York Taims "in June 1971 began publishing a secret study of the Ministry of Defense about the origins of American action in Vietnam, the so-called official Pentagon Papers, Nixon was beside himself. Since the Supreme Court endorsed the publication, the informant newspapers Daniel Ellsberg, a former employee of the National Security Council, it was necessary to discredit all means. "Tinman" entered the office of his psychiatrist, but have not found a suitable material. In the election campaign in 1972 the leaders of "Tin", former FBI and CIA agents Howard Hunt and Gordon Lydda, initiated a covert campaign to foment disputes and unrest in the democratic camp.
. To this day it remains unclear given the motive of breaking in the Watergate Hotel
. Established initially eavesdropping microphones were not working, and when you try to replace them by 17 June 1972, five burglars were caught unawares by a security guard and then arrested. Police found the head of James McCord, a former CIA agent and the chief of security "Komi memo. no re-election of the President "(CREEP), later the FBI has established and instigators Hunt and Lydda. The fact that the president ordered to perform this action, by its representative in contacts with the press classified as "treteklassny hacking", or at least heard about it, is unlikely. Even more absurd is the theory, which represent a victim of unauthorized personnel or enemy of the conspirators. Nixon and Haldeman immediately agreed to hush up the relationship with the burglars CREEP and instructed John Dean, ambitious young assistant, to send the accused paid for his silence and to keep the FBI from an investigation under the pretext of "national security".
. Efforts Dean initially had success
. Watergate had ceased to be the theme of election campaigns, . and Richard Nixon was re-elected Nov. 7, 1972 by an overwhelming majority, . defeated his Democratic opponent George McGovern, . Representative of the left wing of the party, . who never had a serious chance,
. That, . that scam yet been made public, . largely depended on the two reporters of the Washington Post, . Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, . that his persistent search drew public attention to the numerous illegal actions "of people the president" in the election campaign,
. In the trial of Judge Sirica Watergate burglars threatened a long imprisonment, if they do not tell the whole truth. Their leader admitted that he received money for his silence and the promise of a speedy pardon. Because of an acute instinct for power the president distanced himself from his followers and directly exposed as fired Haldemana, . Erlikhman, . Dina. And the Minister of Justice Kleyndinsta, . whose successor on behalf of Nixon appointed an investigator for Emergency Affairs of Harvard jurist Archibald Cox.,
. Attempt to present themselves as untainted by man faces, . however, . with televised hearings in session from May 1973 emergency committee of the Senate, . in which Dean accused Nixon of incitement and complicity in the action for concealment case,
. Since the word Dina stood against the president's remarks, . it could more or less safely get out of this fraud, . if his bureau chief, Alexander Butterfield on Friday June 13, 1973 - for Nixon really unlucky day! - Not recognized by representatives of the Senate Committee in, . that all conversations in the Oval Office "recorded with the help of hidden listening devices,
. Thus, there were records of conversations between Nixon and his staff who could answer the crucial question: "What the president knew and when he knew it?".
. Due to the issuance of these tapes fierce struggle between the investigator for Emergency Cases of Cox and the White House, which cited no specific "executive privilege"
. 20 October 1973 scandal, when the Minister of Justice and his deputy refused to fire Cox, which demanded that Nixon, and resigned, only three people in the ministry complied and announced the dismissal of. The act, . perfect in despair and called "beating up on Saturday night", . provoked a storm of public indignation, . and Nixon no choice, . how to appoint a new investigator for Emergency Cases, . which was no less inconvenient, . than hated Cox.,
. The imaginary "executive privilege" was inactive against the constitutional and legal charges the president to "high treason, . bribery or other crimes and misdemeanors ", . against impeachment, . to Justice Committee discussed with the House of Representatives on Oct. 30, 1973,
. As Nixon would not asserted that he was not "a crook", the requirement to issue recordings never ceases. In April 1974, the White House decided to take the offensive and published containing over 1200 pages, however distorted, a copy. More than many inconsistencies with earlier statements of Nixon, the Americans shocked the vulgar tone of communication and prison mentality in the White House.
. The end came in July-August 1974: July 24, the Supreme Court ordered to issue all necessary tapes Justice Committee House of Representatives, . that between 27 and 30 July, adopted three articles of impeachment, . accused the president among other things, abuse of office, . perjury and contempt of the constitutional rights of Congress,
. Under massive pressure from Nixon, published Aug. 5 record conversations with the then Chief of Staff Haldemanom of June 23, 1972. of which clearly indicated that the president himself gave the order to hold shares of obscure. Since it was established, from which "goes smoke, even though Nixon insisted that the conversation accuses him only superficially. But even supporters of the president for the last cup was overfilled. Republican leadership has hinted that the majority will, perhaps, for the removal from office. August 8, 1974, Richard Nixon said in a televised address of the resignation the next day, without acknowledging guilt and motivating care that he lost his political base. Transmission capacity of Vice-President Gerald Ford on August 9 was eliminated from the impeachment, but not with the question of penal consequences. A month later, Ford brought the general apology for all the crimes that Nixon may have committed as president, and delivered his predecessor from the humiliation of the trial.
. No matter how absurd or seemed a sign of victory, . which Nixon said goodbye to his last adherents, . leaving the White House, . he proclaimed the struggle for its rehabilitation, . which was conducted over 20 years with his usual tenacity and in the end, not without success,
. He later said the decision "life or death" as one who surrenders after defeat, dying spiritually and physically, and soon. First of all, it was a struggle pen. After his resignation, Nixon wrote at least 9 books, beginning with the 1978 memoir and ending with completed shortly before his death, the book "On the other side of the world". Two themes pass through these well-written and successful book: Nixon's point of view on world politics and a justification of his tenure as president and his role in the Watergate affair, . in which he has always wanted to see a conspiracy of their enemies, . use the typical "pre-election dirty trick", . to shift its,
. The fact that he challenged the personal involvement in the act punishable by law and recognized only political mistakes, it was impossible, without significant distortion of the facts, and therefore had never taken any public or historians.
. Even without the impossible for him to confess guilt Nixon could eventually return to public life as, . he could imagine: as a senior statesman, . Board and experience vsemirnopoliticheskogo which searched for active policy,
. When he died of a stroke April 22, 1994, the respect for his foreign policy achievements and extraordinary strength of will outweigh everything else. Watergate was not forgotten, but clearly forgiven. The deceased was not only awarded the mandatory state funeral, then, . that being in the position of President Clinton, . that in the 60 years, participated in demonstrations against Nixon and the Vietnam War, . he delivered a eulogy, . seemed almost a second pardon and reconciliation generations.,
. Institute for presidents Richard Nixon has got, without a doubt, the hardest in its history, a crisis of confidence that his successor could be overcome only partially
. Watergate became an example of a typical political scandal, which is mentioned at every opportunity. Myth of the most powerful man in the world has shown its reverse side, and the need to limit and control this power became apparent. Election of Nixon, begun in 1968, the dominance of conservatism in America was briefly interrupted by Ford's non-election to a second term. In the Republican Party after Nixon and Ford took the top religious fundamentalists and ideologues of laissez-faire. Even a critic Nixon, as his biographer Stephen Ambrose, referring to the past, sees the tragedy of his own resignation in the missed chances of continued moderate social-state orientation and pragmatic internationalism.