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CLINTON, Bill

( U.S. President in 1992-2000.)

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Biography CLINTON, Bill
photo CLINTON, Bill
William Jefferson Blythe IV was born on August 19, 1946 in Hope, Arkansas. Even before his birth in an accident killed his father, and 4 years later his mother married a car dealer Roger Clinton, whose name stepson formally adopted at the age of 15 years. The family belonged to the middle layer of the American. Parents worked, and the day of Bill and his younger half-brother Roger took care workers. Parents' marriage and family life were clouded by alcohol problems and stepfather. Bill Clinton was ambitious and well-studied, for all years in school consistently been one of the best students. In addition, he was Speaker of the pupils and the head of the school jazz band (playing the saxophone is still sort of his hallmark). Key event in his life was meeting with President John F. Kennedy, when he was a delegate to the national youth organization in July 1963 had the honor to shake hands with the president in Washington. By his own admission, is visiting the White House made a deep impression on him and contributed to the decision to become a politician.

. Although he was a member of the Southern Baptist church, he studied at the prestigious Catholic University of Georgetown in Washington,
. He received a scholarship that allowed him to study from 1968 to 1970 in Oxford. After Yale Law Institute, where he met his future wife, Hillary Rodham Clinton returned to Arkansas. His extraordinary energy - he financed his studies, while laboring in the three works - and his outstanding intellectual abilities became the basis of a brilliant political career.

. After a brief teaching at the Institute of Law University of Arkansas at Fayettville Clinton in 1974, actively joined politics
. In the third district of Arkansas, he claimed the seat in Congress from the Democratic Party, but was defeated. Victory is in this position the Republican contender was negligible, so that the political establishment Arkansas drew attention to the "child prodigy" Clinton. In 1976, Clinton won the election the Minister of Justice of Arkansas, and in 1978 successfully ran for governor. At the age of 32 became the youngest governor in the history of the United States.

Arkansas was one of the poorest states of the U.S. federal. In 1975 he was the last place in front of the Mississippi River, income statistics, in 1991 the state went up two places and stood at 47 th place, the growth rate was 4,1%. This total of 11 years of Clinton, at first glance, is impressive enough, but because of the huge structural problems of the state and it should not be underestimated. Clinton spent welcoming to entrepreneurs policies to attract investment and thus create or secure jobs. The main aims are the education policy. Overcoming stiff resistance, has an extensive publication program of reforms, and now Arkansas, allocates more money per capita on education than most other states.

. When October 3, 1991 Clinton ran for president, he still stood out enough at the federal political level
. He has already created a name for himself as one of the most important representatives of the "new Democrats", t. e. formed mainly southerners factions within the Democratic Party, . is in contrast to the liberal orthodoxy emphasized focused on the effectiveness of pragmatism, . take back the voters of the middle layer and white workers, . in the 80 years referred to the Republicans (so-called "Reagan Democrats"),
. "The Forgotten" middle layer, which in the long term, he promised tax relief, was also an important target group of Clinton's election strategy. Memorable saying: "Fool, It's the economy!" - Has become the most popular slogan of the campaign, along with numerous socio-political tasks call center primarily economic demands of the future. Accordingly, the post-Cold War Clinton led foreign policy that Ronald Reagan and George Bush gave the advantage of subordinate importance. He believed that trading nation, the U.S. will in the future to carry out its global tasks only on the basis of a strong and competitive economy. Given the economic downturn with the growing number of unemployed and lowering real wages this appeal fell on fertile ground and helped Wedge-gonu unexpected defeat supposedly invincible after winning the Gulf War, George Bush,
. This obvious benefit brought him a candidate Ross Perot, a non-entrepreneur. who was able to write to your account almost a fifth of the votes. The fact that neither Clinton (43%), neither Bush (38%) did not achieve an absolute majority, was a symptom of the growing discontent of Americans by politicians of both parties.

. Successful pre-election struggle, however, marred by doubts about the sincerity and strength of character, Clinton, and which still maintains his presidency
. Behavior during the Vietnam War, . save him from conscription, . hardly convincing recognition, . that a student, he smoked marijuana, . but did not inhale, . besides his extramarital sex life, . which he, . seemed, . imitates his great idol, John F,
. Kennedy, widely discussed amenable to sensational media and often hypocritical public. To court accused of sexual harassment during the governorship and the investigation of his role in the dark to real estate, . in which was also implicated and Hillary Rodham Clinton, . caused considerable damage to the moral authority of the President, . although in both cases is of dubious validity of the charges.,

. Ronald Reagan has left a heavy legacy, which include, among other things, the highest in the history of U.S. public debt and the annual state budget deficit of more than $ 200 billion with a tendency to increase
. Since early 90-ies burden the state budget annually interest payments of about $ 200 billion. Faced with this threat, the Bush administration has begun taking the first steps to curb the huge government debts. Clinton is in his report on the status of the nation on Feb. 17, 1993 announced the elimination of the deficit primary objective of his presidency. He said reducing the budget deficit by 1997 to 140 billion dollars, and after arduous negotiations and a vote held by the Senate five-year budget, . combining tax increases (mostly for higher-income groups) with a decrease, . with amazing perseverance began to strengthen budget,
. Even if overloaded many compromises draft budget seemed to some in Congress, not radical, its publication still represented a considerable political success of the president.

. Originally planned energy tax with far-reaching ecological and political assumptions proved to be unfeasible
. Vice-President Al Gore, belonging to prominent politicians, environmentalists its environment is still a carefree country, called for a carbon tax on energy consumption, which was approved in principle by the President. However, it remains only to note that the environmental protection policy of the Clinton administration had not yet failed to deliver on its expectations.

. According to many experts in the field of economy, fiscal and political assumptions the Clinton administration significantly affected the improvement of marketable U.S. economy
. After three years of recessive U.S. economy in 1993 once again reached the rate of growth of 2 to 3%. The trend is also apparent recovery in the form of low inflation index, creating many new jobs and decreasing the number of unemployed. Real income, however, remain far below the level of the early 80's.

The main point in the domestic political agenda of the Clinton health care reform was a radical through the introduction of universal health insurance. In the first place should have been monitored by the rapidly rising costs in health care, whose share in the national budget from 1965 to 1992 increased from 2.6 to 16%. The President instructed his wife guide the working group responsible to the White House over health care reform, and brought it to this most important and influential role, which has ever formally implemented the "first lady". Thus, . Clinton, . has behind her successful career as a lawyer and for many years active in the field of education and social policy, . finally moved beyond the mandatory role of "wife at his side", . especially, . that Clinton during his election campaign stressed, . it will belong to the circle of his closest and most important advisers,
. Project of the century for fundamental reform of health, as expected, encountered numerous obstacles, which primarily related to the president required the participation of employers in the costs. The fact that Clinton and his wife insisted on a global reform at a time when long been clear that the majority in Congress will act only for certain amendments in the health system was a heavy political mistake. Reforms have failed to approve before congressional elections in autumn 1994, . after the dramatic defeat of the Democrats in the midterm elections, the prospect of implementing the concept advocated by Clinton in this period of his tenure as president has been reduced to zero.,

. Greater success has been prepared for the Clinton law to combat crime, which was adopted at the end of August 1994
. Given the ever-growing crime, particularly in large cities, a package of laws in general was found urgently necessary, although its separate parts had caused a significant controversy. These included costs of $ 30, . $ 2 billion for hiring new police 100 000, . expansion of prisons and the development of government programs, . as, . example, . ban 19 types of semiautomatic weapons, . against which bitterly fought the National Rifle Association,
. Criminals, . convicted for a third time, . should automatically receive a life sentence (as soon as they were sentenced by a federal court), . adolescents over 13 years for certain crimes should be judged not by the criminal law for minors, . and in accordance with the general criminal law,
. While still governor of Arkansas, Clinton has repeatedly affirmed the death sentences and, by approving the "tough" stance on internal security, which is characteristic for the "new Democrats" won traditionally Republican territory.

. For more open to internal political reforms, the president projects include a series of socio-political activities, . especially the restructuring of the social security system, . investment program to create new jobs (the first draft budget provided for this purpose only a small article), . reform of the financing of election campaigns and the establishment of a national information network, . so-called communication superhighway.,

.

. On the international scene, Bill Clinton, almost defiantly refused pronounced personal presence that is characteristic of his Republican predecessor, and thus stressed the advantage of domestic policy
. His intention, as a "laser beam" focus on the economic problems of the United States finds its clear reflection in foreign policy, as its center of gravity has shifted distinctly to the security policy on foreign. As the U.S. economy without the growth of the global economy can grow only to a limited extent, the free world trade should be strengthened and must simultaneously improve the conditions of competition for U.S. products. How ratification by Congress in November 1993, initiated under the Bush administration's North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), . and the timely completion of the Uruguay Round of GATT in the coming months in line with that target set,
. This is particularly the ratification of the North American Agreement should be assessed as a personal success of the president, because that had to overcome significant protectionist opposition in Congress and in his own party.

. Indicative of the more vigorous foreign policy of the Clinton administration is increasing pressure on Japan to speed up the long desired the opening of its market for American goods and thus contribute to the elimination of chronic negative trade balance,
. At a conference of Asian and Pacific nations at the summit in Seattle in November 1993, the President expressed his belief, . that this economic space benefits to the safety of military presence and a leading regional role of the United States, . Although the United States at the same time would not be appropriate share of the consequent economic prosperity,
. Also in relations with the States of the European Union there is a desire of the Clinton administration to achieve a balanced relationship between the responsibility for the security and economic power. In this picture fits what Clinton called for the adoption of the economic "superpower" of Germany and Japan in the UN Security Council.

. Emerging strategic shift in American foreign policy is reduced to the formula of "leadership through selective multinational cooperation" (Ernst-Otto Ch)
. Not giving up the leadership and international political responsibility of the United States, . allies in Europe and Asia must be actively involved in regional responsibility for peace and stability, . to relieve the United States on the question of political security and to withdraw from the role of the ubiquitous "world policeman",
. American restraint in the conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina as symptomatic, as the desired reform of NATO, including its expansion to the east.

The most important areas of American foreign policy are further relations with Russia. While, . Foreign Minister Warren Christopher has succeeded primarily in the peace process in the Middle East, . reached a historic turning point in signing a peace treaty between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization in the White House in September 1993, . American policy towards Russia is largely in the hands of the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Strobe Talbott,
. "King" of Russia, . friend of the president of Oxford, . sent a strong U.S. policy in support of Russian President Boris Yeltsin, . that Washington has supported since the attempted coup in the autumn of 1993 and which has been denied the support, ,
. The full involvement of Russia to hold political consultations of the Group of Seven conference in Naples was intended, among other things, to strengthen the personal authority of Yeltsin. Urgently needed economic assistance to Russia has been rather meager, to the same Senate in 1994, put it in dependence on the final withdrawal of Russian troops from the Baltic countries.

. "Partnership for Peace", which was adopted January 10, 1994 at the NATO conference in Brussels, met with strong Russian bias on the alliance's expansion eastward
. However, during his trip to Europe in July 1994 and later, Clinton has repeatedly said that the accession states of Central and Eastern Europe into NATO is not a question of "Shall" and the only question of "when" and "how."

. Denying Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine of nuclear weapons Clinton has made important partial success in their intent to prevent the expansion of the nuclear powers
. After the summer of 1994 arose considerable tension in relations between Washington and Pyongyang because of its nuclear ambitions of North Korea, a communist country has made concessions in the future and promised to freeze nuclear program

. However, . because of the desire of various countries - among them Iran, . Iraq and Libya - to its own atomic bomb and other weapons of mass destruction, . control of proliferation of treated top-priority goals in the Clinton became trudnoobozrevaemym international situation.,

. Fortunately, the president did not have to deal with international crises on a large scale
. As with the events in Somalia, and when you try to resolve the conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina, he earned little applause. The talks with Cuba on curbing dramatically increased in the summer of 1994 the number of refugees were, by contrast, successful. In Haiti, the Clinton administration succeeded with the help of military pressure and diplomatic mediation to restore the deposed President Aristide coup, but that Clinton has not made a convincing impression as a specialist in crisis management,
. American soldiers, landed at the end of September in the island nation, had to be replaced during 1995, the UN peacekeeping troops.

. Although Clinton may make a significant positive outcome of domestic policy, he failed to use these advances to the personal popularity
. At the midterm elections on Nov. 8, 1994 American voters gave the president and the Democratic Party is almost unprecedented rebuff. In both chambers, the Senate and House of Representatives, the Republicans have comfortable majority for the first time in 40 years and now put 31 out of 50 governors. Even the southern states, where the late civil war, the majority always votes for Democrats, for the first 130 years, was sent to Congress more Republicans than Democrats. Long-term effects of this Republican "conquest" of the southern states for the American party system can not be predicted.

However, the results of elections, no doubt, is a resounding slap primarily for Bill Clinton. To this there are a number of reasons. Another start of the Clinton administration fundamentally failed, because the president allowed to involve itself in the debate about the possibility of conscription into the U.S. armed forces gay. Along with numerous disorders, . errors in appointments and often confusing picture of what is happening in the White House, . Chief of Staff Thomas McLarty whose, . one of Clinton's oldest friends, . In June 1994, was replaced by the manager of Budget Leon Panetta, . already mentioned personal scams president were serious pledge last,
. That, . that Clinton has so far shown little dignity, . corresponding to its position (eg, . indulges in conversations with reporters about his preferred underwear), . little like the majority of Americans, . as well as his tendency to debase himself as president through the excessive appearance in the media,
. In conjunction with this symptomatic of the lack of uncertainty about the ability of the Clinton style to demonstrate decisiveness and strength of leadership caused crisis of his presidential authority.

. The deeper causes of the collapse of the elections also should not lose sight of
. The election marked the intensification of the conservative and religious-fundamentalist tendencies in American society. The growing discontent and frustration of white middle layer are expressed in the resistance to illegal immigration (case 187 in California) and in the criticism of alleged too an advanced support for minorities. Clinton has tried to soften the backlash promise to facilitate the taxation of the middle layer.

. Many issues strong opposition, headed by a popular House Speaker Newt Dzhingrichem successfully wrested from the hands of leadership of the president on forming opinions.

. Weeks and months after the midterm elections were marked by a feverish campaign in which Dzhingrich agitated for the initiation of "Contract with America"
. Ten Point Program, which provides among other things enshrining a balanced budget, legislation to reduce government spending and taxes, contrary to expectations, however, remained in the bud. Supplement to the constitution of a balanced budget, the core of the program, failed in the Senate because of one vote, which was lacking to the required two-thirds majority. Other legislative initiatives Dzhingricha Clinton caught, using its right of veto.

. However, in 1995, hardly anyone dared to predict that triumphant success with which Bill Clinton won the presidential election on Nov. 6, 1996 his Republican rival Senator Robert Dole of Ohio
. Clinton won 49% of the votes cast, 41% of the vote was given for Dole and 8% for Ross Perot (at very low participation in elections to 49%). In Congress, as the balance of power remained unchanged, although again somewhat diminished Republican majority in the House of Representatives.

. Clinton had the following initiatives: instruments for protection of working parents to care for sick children, and the reform of general education; tougher measures to combat crime and violence
. In 2000. Clinton refused to deploy a national missile defense and withdrawal from the ABM Treaty, leaving it to the discretion of the future president.

Source: Peoples.ru


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