Galileo Galilei( Italian physicist, mathematician and astronomer, one of the founders of modern experimental and theoretical science)
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Biography Galileo Galilei
(15.02.1564, ca. 15:00, Pisa - 8.01.1642, Arcetri, near Florence)
. Italian physicist, mathematician and astronomer, one of the founders of modern experimental and theoretical science, laid the foundations of classical mechanics; initially adherent, then the enemy astrology
. In his youth, was a practicing astrologer, but was in this field a painful defeat. He predicted a long and happy life of his patron, the Duke of Tuscany, who died two weeks after the prediction. Then G. was to deny the validity of astrology, although based on our own horoscopes predicted in his heavy eye disease that really struck him in his mature years (in 1637 he became blind).
G. studied at the University of Pisa. In 1589, Mr.. received the chair of mathematics at Pisa, in 1592, Mr.. - Padua. The first astronomical observations D. produced in 1604, constructed in 1609, Mr.. telescope (telescope). Since 1611. - Member of the Accademia dei Lincei.
G. discovered four satellites of Jupiter, the laws of circulation of the Moon, lunar gray light, the mountains on the moon, sunspots, solar rotation axis, the phases of Venus, a protrusion (later it was found that the ring) Saturn. Found that the Milky Way consists of a large number of individual stars. Trudy G. confirmed the teachings of Copernicus on the heliocentric system of the world. G. laid the foundations of classical dynamics, formulated the principle of relativity of motion, the idea of inertia, the law of free falling bodies. G. also opened a parallelogram of forces and isochronism swing of the pendulum, constructed a microscope.
G. developed the principles of mechanistic materialism. He proposed the idea of material substance as a single, consistent framework of nature, has a definite structure and requires for its description entirely mechanical and mathematical tools - figures, numbers and movements ".
For his views r. subjected to cruel persecution of the Inquisition. In 1633, Mr.. interrogation he formally renounced the teachings of Copernicus. Only after 340 years after the death of Mr.. Pope John Paul II acknowledged the unjust persecution of a scientist and acquitted him of charges.