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Pallas, Peter Simon

( The famous traveler and naturalist)

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Biography Pallas, Peter Simon
Born in Berlin on September 22, 1741, the son of a doctor father and was intended for the same profession, but carried away by natural science. He defended his doctoral dissertation in 1760. Then leads to the order of the natural history collections in Leiden, and visited England to study the botanical and zoological collections. This published work: "Elenchus zoophytorum" (The Hague, 1766), "Miscellanea zoologica" (The Hague, 1766),. Then he returned to Berlin, where he wrote "Spicilegia zoologica" (BA, 1767 - 1804, 2 volumes). At this time, invited by Empress Catherine II in St. Petersburg as an adjunct of the Academy of Sciences and the College Assessor. By the same decree, it undertook a trip to the Caucasus and in the trans-Caspian Region with Sokolov, Zuev and Rychkov (from 21 June 1768 to June 30, 1774). Results trip - his numerous works, like: "Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Russischen Reichs in den Jahren 1768 - 73" (St. Petersburg, 1871 - 76), "Sammlungen histor. Nachrichten uber die Mongol. Volkerschaften "(St. Petersburg, 1776 - 1801)," Neue Nordische Beitrage zur physikal. und geograph. Erd-und Volkerbeschreibung, Naturgeschichte und Oekonomie "(St. Petersburg and Leipzig, 1781 - 96, 7 tons) and t. d. Collections collected during this trip were the basis of collections of academic Kunstkammer, and some of them hit the Berlin University. In 1777, Mr.. appointed member of the topographical department of Russia Empire, 1782, Mr.. - College Counselor, 1787, Mr.. - Historian of the Admiralty. In 1793 - 94 g. studied climatology in the south of Russia and to describe the climate of the Crimea in 1796, was sent to Simferopol. In 1810 he returned to Berlin, where he died on Sept. 8, 1811. In his numerous printed works (all of them more than 170, complete with a detailed list of their titles of all publications is F.P. Keppenom in the Journal of the Ministry of National Education ", 1895, April, pp. 386 - 437) P. is a traveler, a zoologist, botanist, paleontologist, mineralogist, geologist, surveyor, geographer, physician, ethnologist, archaeologist, philologist, even the farmer and technologist. Despite this diversity of professions, he was not a surface scientist, and was a real encyclopedic. How serious and profound were his concepts of zoology, can be seen from the fact that he is in many ways ahead of the scientists of that time in a century. Just enter the following examples. P. pointed out in 1766, that the strict separation of animals and plants can not, and highlighted zoofitov the type of worms in 1772, he advocated the possibility of origin of several closely related species from a common ancestor, in 1780 P. first pointed out that the extreme volatility of certain animals, such as dogs, determined by the origin of several distinct species. In geology, just at P. can find the first reference to the sequence of geological strata (1777). In describing the animals P. already applied the method of precise measurements of their dimensions (1766) and drew attention to their geographical distribution (1767). During visits to the south-eastern steppes, he noticed traces of the former senior standing level of the Caspian Sea, and rather precisely defined part of its ancient shores. As a philologist P. edited "Linguarum totius Orbis vocabularia comparativa. Sectio Linguas Eur. et Asiae complexa "(St. Petersburg, 1786 - 89, 2 parts). He also edited the first volume (6 issues). Natural History magazine "Stralsundisches Magazin" (B. and Stralz, 1767 - 70). In addition to these major works: "Memoires sur la variation des animaux" ( "Acta Acad. Petrop. ", . 1780), . "Flora Rossica" (Saint-Petersburg, . 1874 - 88, . 2 hours), . "Icones Insectorum praesertim Rossiae Sibiriaeque peculiarium" (Erlangen, . 1781 - 1806, . 4 issues.), . "Dissertatio inauguralis de infestis viventibus intra viventia" (Lugduni Batavorum, . 1760), . "Zoographia rosso-asiatica" (Saint-Petersburg, . 1811, . 3 t.), . "Novae species Quadrupedum e Glirium ordine" (Erlang, . 1778), . "De ossibus Sibiriae fissilibus, . craniis praesertim Rhinocerotum atque Buffalorum, . observationes "(" N,
. Comment. Acad. Petrop. ", . XIII, . 1768), . "Illustrationes plantarum imperfecte vel nondumcognitarum", . (Leipzig, . 1803), . "Species Astragalorum descriptae et iconibus coloratis illustratae" (Leipzig, . 1800), . "Observations sur la formation des montagnes et sur les changemens arrives au Globe, . particulierement a l'egard de l'Empire de Russie "(" Act,
. Acad. Petrop. ", 1777)," Tableau physique et topographique de la Taurige "(" N. Act. Acad. Petrop. ", X, 1792)," Merkwurdigkeiten des Morduanen, Kasaken, Kalmucken, Kirgisen, Baschkiren etc. "(Frankfurt and Leipzig, 1773 - 77, 3 tons)," Bemerkungen auf einer Reise in die sudlichen Statthalterschaften des Russ. Reichs in d. J. 1793 u. 1794 "(Leipzig, 1799 - 1801). Translated into Russian: "Topographical Description of Tauride" (Saint-Petersburg, . 1795), "Journey in various provinces Rossiyskogo State" (St. Petersburg, . 1773 - 1788, the first part of the second edition in 1809), "Description of plants Rossiyskogo States, . with their images "(Saint-Petersburg, . 1736), "Comparative Dictionaries of all languages and dialects, . collected by the hand of a distinguished (Empress Catherine II) "(St. Petersburg, . 1787 - 1789).,

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