Vasili Petrov( Distinguished Professor of physics and academician of the Imperial Medico-Surgical Academy (1793 - 1833))
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Biography Vasili Petrov
(1762 - 1834)
A remarkable self-taught physicist. P. - A native of the province of Kursk (the son of a priest, Mr.. Oboyan). After the course of the Kharkov Collegium and the St. Petersburg teacher seminary, P. was appointed in 1788 a teacher of mathematics and physics in Kolyvan-Voskresenskoe Mining School in g. Barnaul, where, in 1791, moved to St. Petersburg teacher of mathematics and Russian style in the engineering school at Izmailovo Regiment. In 1793, P. invited to St. Petersburg Medical College to teach mathematics and physics at St. Petersburg Medical-Surgical School of the military-land hospital. In 1795, the transformation of the school in Medical-Surgical Academy, P. was awarded the title of an extraordinary professor, and then, for several years, arranged for the rich at the time the physical cabinet (base served as a collection of physical devices gr. Buturlina bought P. Moscow). P. especially enthusiastically remembers this time when he could take over the experimental resolution of the physical and chemical issues, which he has accumulated over many years of reading various memoirs of foreign scientists. The first printed work of P. appeared in 1801 under the title "Collection of new physical and chemical experiments and observations". Much of the work is devoted to the description of experiments on combustion in order to refute the theory of phlogiston. Considerable scientific and historical interest are articles on the luminescence of phosphors animal and mineral kingdoms. P. determines the limiting temperature at which the phosphorus does not glow already in the pure air, and a variety of experiments on fluorspar prove that the glow of their different than that of phosphorus. These experiments, he criticized the theory of Makor and Scheele. For the first scholarly work P. was awarded the title of professor. The discoveries of Galvani and Volta particularly interested in P. and led him to a large number of independent, . original experiments, . described them in detail in a special edition: "The news of electrocutaneous voltovskih experience through a huge battery, . sometimes consisting of 4200 copper and zinc disks "(Saint-Petersburg, . 1803),
. The most remarkable results of these experiments are presented: the electrolysis of oxides of metals (mercury, lead, tin), vegetable oil, alcohol, etc.. Electrolysis of water from a copper-zinc pair, . in the case of copper electrodes; obtaining electric light and white flame (electric arcs) between two pieces of charcoal, . from which the "dark enough rest can be brightly lit; impact on the length of the sparks of elasticity of the surrounding air, P,
. observes that the length of sparks from the voltaic column in a vacuum is considerably shorter than in discharges of electrical machines. He drew attention to the immediate charging of large battery of Leyden by a small voltaic column, and the slow charging of the batteries of the same powerful electric cars. During his experiments, P. to notice the importance insulating electric conductors and their size (resistance) at the optimum effect voltaic column. In 1804, P. published the 3rd his work "New electrical experiments" made by him to find out myself what electricity from the friction. All the work put Petrova in a number of prominent Russian scientists of the XIX century. In 1803, P. was elected to the Academy of Sciences, and in 1807, at the suggestion of Academician Kraft, was elected a member of the Academy (the successor to SP, in 1834, was appointed E. Lenz). Numerous physical, chemical and meteorological studies (on the evaporation of snow and ice) were published in editions of the Academy of Sciences ( "Memoires de l'Academie", tt. I, II, III, IV, VI, VII, VIII, IX and X; "Speculative research", Tm. I, II, III and V; "Proceedings of the Academy", h. I, II). Edited by AP, in 1807, issued a translation of physics Schrader ( "The initial reason for the use of physics in secondary schools"). This textbook used before 1830. According to contemporaries, P. was a wonderful lecturer and Head Professor. One of his students Medico-Surgical Academy, Hamel, who later was his companion at the Academy of Sciences, occupying the chair of applied chemistry and technology. In addition to teaching in the Medical-Surgical Academy, P. many years read physics and mathematics at the Academy of Arts and in the 2 nd Cadet Corps. After serving in the Medical-Surgical Academy 40 years, P. "beyond all expectations, was dismissed in February 1833 from the Academy's pension 5000 rubles per year. July 22, 1834 P. died in St. Petersburg. Conference of the Academy, mindful of many years of teaching and scientific merits, P., expressed a desire to honor the memory of his late fellow-staging tombstone. But soon (April 1835) decided to honor the memory of zealous former members and its utility service at the Academy, other decent way. But this decision was completely ignored. Only in 1892, . when the device of the Imperial Military Medical Academy, the central building of the rotary electric lighting of the building academy, . clinics and other nearby government buildings of the military departments Conference, . with the permission of the Most High, . devoted the whole construction of the electric device memory VV,
. Petrova and established on this occasion in the engine room a special marble plaque inscribed with the corresponding. N. Egorov.