FIELD Nikolai( Russian writer, literary critic, journalist, historian, translator.)
Comments for FIELD Nikolai
Biography FIELD Nikolai
born June 22, 1796, Mr.. Irkutsk. The son of a merchant, he has not received systematic education. Early in learning to read, he eagerly jumped on the books that I found in large quantities from his father. In his own words, he read thousands of volumes of all sorts of things and remember all read. Since ten years he published a handwritten newspapers and magazines, wrote drama and poetry, history, devoting all spare time to these lessons, he subsequently remained on the management of her father's affairs. In 1811, Mr.. The field moved from Irkutsk to Kursk. After visiting Moscow, where he attended the University for some time, and in St. Petersburg, Field realized insufficiency haphazard education and seriously took up self -. After a day of work behind the counter, he spent the night in the study of Russian grammar, and foreign languages (Greek, Latin, French, German). Rejecting the easy reading, he learns to "three hundred vocables in the evening, ordered all the verbs of Geymova dictionary perespryagal each separately and has made new tables Russian conjugations". In 1820, Mr.. Field, on behalf of his father, went to Moscow for the device distillery. Since then and especially after the death of his father (1822) Field wholeheartedly devoted himself to literature. In the same year received from the Academy of Sciences of large silver medal for the study of Russian verbs. In the literary field of the Field was made even earlier, in 1817, typing in "Russian Gazette" article on the visit by Alexander I of Kursk. In 1818, Mr.. he placed in the "European Messenger" Remark on the article about the hair "and" translation Shatobrianova descriptions Makkenzieva travel in North America ". Since then, articles and poems, signed on behalf of field, began to appear increasingly in periodicals. Grech and Bulgarin asked him to cooperate in their magazine, but this proposal was not them taken. In 1825, having met the support of the Prince Vyazemsky, he began to publish the famous "Moscow Telegraph. After the ban of the Moscow Telegraph "Field for some time was a regular contributor to the Library for Reading", then edited "Pictorial Review," "Son of the Fatherland", "Russian Messenger", "Literary Gazette, published by Krajewski. In all these publications, he published a series of articles on a variety of issues, speaking as a critic, essayist, historian, novelist, playwright. Separately, he issued a series of novels ( "Abaddon", . "Oath at the tomb of the Lord", . "Dreams and reality", etc.), . "Essays on Russian Literature, . "Dramatic works" (4 volumes), . "History of the Russian people", . "History of Peter the Great", . "The history of Suvorov", . "The history of Napoleon and other,
. "Few of Russian writers - says Field - written so many and such diverse genera, as I do". However, despite the truly astonishing "diversity" to the Field everywhere, in all its articles, is the conductor of the same views and beliefs. Beginning his education in adulthood, without any guidance, having the best years of life in the Russian merchant environment, the Field escaped the school routine at that time, he always remained dear to every Russian, the national. This did not prevent him, however, to assess the Western European science and culture, and reconcile their national sympathies with the consciousness of the need to learn from the West. In the beginning the Field was certainly good man. In effect, which Field had on Russian poetry and literature, Belinsky puts it on a par with Lomonosov and Karamzin. The significance of the Field as a journalist and critic, cm. Moscow Telegraph (XIX, 960), and literary criticism (XVI, 770 - 2). "The Moscow Telegraph translated the works of Byron, Schiller, Goethe, in. Scott Hoffman, Irving, Mickiewicz and t. d. In each book placed detailed reviews of all foreign literatures, not excluding the Chinese and Arabic, as well as the characteristics of individual works and writers. Richness and variety of distinguished and the department of history, geography and travel. From the beginning of the Field was on the side of Pushkin and proclaimed it "a great poet" and "genius". In an extensive article on Derzhavin Field for the first time gave an excellent description of the poet. The articles on Lomonosov, Cantemir and Hemnitsere Field considers their work in terms of nationality, sincerity and integrity of inspiration. With great artistic taste, . He overthrew a number of idols, . created by the then literary circles or esteem because of antiquated traditions: "there is no possibility, . - Said Belinsky, . - Recalculate all authorities, . destroyed them ",
. One of the largest authorities, against whom he fought Field, was Karamzin. Responding with enthusiasm about the importance of Karamzin, Field acknowledged his "History of" unsatisfactory. In the "rhetorical" Karamzin determining the history of the Field saw very limited understanding of its goals and stated in the work of Karamzin lack of an overall guiding idea. Instead, history Karamzin gives portraits without any historical perspective. Aptly Field pointed out that the patriotic historian, even the barbarians are ennobled, wise, artistic development, because Rurik, Sviatoslav - Russian princes. Credited Niebuhr and is heavily influenced by Thierry and Guizot, Field was not content with sorting out Karamzin: he decided to write "History of the Russian people". Armed with new views, it is step by step, has an old historical pattern, the basis of which was an idea of Russia as a "state" from the very beginning of its history. "I think - says Field - that the words" Russian state "was the main mistake of my predecessors. The State Russian into existence only since the overthrow of the Mongol yoke, until the end of the XV century as existed in Russia several States ". All personal, random Field tried to eliminate from the explanation of Russian History. He said it several periods, you should follow one after the other, a necessary consequence of this state of society and of world-historical events. In general, however, in spite of the importance of adaptation, the basis of the scheme remained the same: the history of society Polevoy characterizes continues the history of power and eventually falls into the same tone, for which thoroughly rebuked Karamzin. The main question - what is the world-historical role of the Russian people - Field was powerless to respond, and his attempt to resolve expressed by simple comparisons of synchronistic. The boldness with which the Field encroach on the well-established authority, especially in the authority of Karamzin, has not passed for him to go unpunished. He rebelled against everything from the giants of literature to all sorts of writers and self-esteem which he had somehow hurt in his journal. Pushkin openly resented for field to Karamzin. Prince Vyazemskij ceased cooperation with Moscow Telegraph "and broke a personal relationship with the publisher, calling it a" legitimate literary nizvergatelem authorities ". Field has now become the target of indecent assault, libel and even denunciations. On his sincere critical articles met with abuse, hinting at its origin, called half-educated and knew everything. Most dangerous for the field were those of his literary enemies, who tried all sorts of ways to prove "neblagonamerennost" magazine. A sincere patriot, the attacker only "jingoistic patriotism," Field gradually acquired a certain danger of a liberal, revolutionary, an enemy of Russia, which may disturb the minds of not only their own articles, but even in silence. Minister of Education Uvarov spoke directly Buе-haryn that "if the Field to write even the Our Father, then it would be outrageous". Chief of Gendarmes Benckendorf received three substantive note, which accused the Field "in the most explicit Carbonarism". Expected just an excuse to bring to justice the Field. Review of the Field to the drama Kukolnik "Hand of the Almighty saved the fatherland" provided such an occasion. Breathless patriotic feelings, she was recognized neblagonamerennoy only because it recognized the unfortunate product of the literary drama, which enjoyed the approval of the Most High. Emperor Nicholas I, had long since recovered against the Moscow Telegraph, first wanted to do strictly with the field, but later pleaded guilty to the government forbearance, limited ban on publication. This event ended with a brilliant half of the Field. Later, he himself said that he "should have been silenced as early as 1834" and that all his further work was the "game of all-to literary fame". Having lost the opportunity to keep a journal, Field made in his new genus - Drama. During 8 years he has given about 40 dramas, which had success on stage, but will be totally condemned by the better part of Russian criticism. "Grandfather of the Russian Navy", "Paracha-Sibiryachka", "Merchant Igolkin", "Russian Sailor", "Elena Glinskaya" and others, written on the theme of Russian life and presents no particular merit in artistic terms, was taken P. known "leaven patriot" to change his convictions. It was not quite fair, since sympathy to the entire Russian Field differed in the past but can not deny that such dramas he first called the less than mediocre. Aware of the shortcomings of his works, he nevertheless continued to write, not reading, almost without thinking. Littered with the work, almost ruined, oppressed by family misfortunes, pursued by creditors, Field compared himself with "fountain machine that someone zavedet, and she writes everything: drama, novel, criticism". Fan Romanticism, . the best part of my life devoted the search for vague ideals, . Field and in his later work is a true supporter of positive, . heroic types, which is why he nesochuvstvenno treated the "Inspector" and "Dead Souls",
. Articles Gogol Field indignation aroused against the best representatives of literature, the closest he found himself to his nemesis, Bulgarin. If at the beginning of the literary activities of the Field was subjected to all sorts of insults by obscurantists, but now it attacked people advanced, and attacked very severely. From the best man, gave the tone of the literature, Field became a literary pariah. Abandoned by all, without encountering anybody support often needs even in a piece of bread, the Field until the last minute went to work. His laconic diary, his letters paint a dire picture of his life: it was the slow agony of which has finally come, February 22, 1846, death was the desired outcome. She took off the memory of Field stigma that tormented him in his later years. His most relentless critic Belinsky, in a warm article rehabilitated Field, calling it one of the most remarkable figures in Russian literature. Wed. Belinsky "Works" (Vol. XII); I.Z. Krylov, "Sketches of life N.A. Field "(Moscow, 1849)," Notes KA. Field (St. Petersburg, 1888); H. Chernyshevski "Essays on the Gogol Period"; C. Stavrina, N.A. Field and "The Moscow Telegraph" (Delo, 1875, No. 5 and 7), AK. Borozdin "Journalist of the twenties" ( "Historical Journal", 1896,? 3), P. Miliukov "Main Currents of Russian historical thought" (vol. 1), Yves. Ivanov "History of Russian criticism" (St. Petersburg, 1898, No.. I and II); In. Botsyanovsky "N.A. Field as a playwright ( "Yearbook of the Imperial Theaters, season 1894 - 95, Application., Kn. 3rd); Sukhomlinov "Research" (Vol. II). V. Botsyanovsky.