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Nikolai Mikhailovich Przewalski

( Famous Russian traveler, Major-General.)

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Biography Nikolai Mikhailovich Przewalski
photo Nikolai Mikhailovich Przewalski
Born in 1839, Mr.. His father, Mikhail Kuzmich, served in Russian army. Initial teacher it was his uncle, P.A. Karetinkau, a passionate hunter, he instilled a passion and with her love of nature and wandering. At the end of the course at the Moscow school Przewalski determined in Moscow non-commissioned officer in the Ryazan Infantry Regiment, received a commission, joined the Polotsk regiment, then entered the Academy of General Staff. At the same time there are his early works: "Memoirs of a hunter" and "Military Statistical Review of the Amur Region". Occupying the post of professor of History at the Warsaw cadet school, Przewalski diligently studied the epic African journeys and discoveries, became acquainted with zoology and botany, was a geography textbook. In 1867, Mr.. Przewalski received a trip to the Ussuri region. In Ussuri he came to the village of Busse, then to Lake Hanka, serving the station during the flight of birds and which gave him material for ornithological observations. In the winter he explored the South Ussuri region, passing for 3 months 1060 miles. Spring 1868. He again went to Lake Hanka, then pacified bandits in Manchuria, China, for which he was appointed a senior aide headquarters troops Priamurskoj area. The results of his first trips were works: "On the mixed ethnic population in the southern part Priamurskoj area" and "Journey to the Ussuri region". In 1871, Mr.. Przewalski made a first trip to Central Asia. From Beijing, he moved to Lake Dalai-Nor, . then, . resting Kalgan, . investigated ranges Suma-Walk and Yin-Shan, . as well as over the Yellow River, . showing, . that it has no branching, . as was thought previously on the basis of Chinese sources, passing through the wilderness of the Ala-Shan mountains and Alashanskie, . He returned to Kalgan, . making for 10 months of 3500 miles,
. In 1872, Mr.. He moved to the Cook-Nora and then to Tibet, then, through Tsaydan, to the headwaters of the Blue River (Moore-CCD), in 1873,. to Urga, through the middle of the Gobi, and from Urga to Kyakhta. The result of this trip was writing Przewalski "Mongolia and the country tungutov". Within three years Przewalski was 11 000 miles. In 1876, Mr.. Przewalski made a second trip from Kuldja the river or, . through the Tien Shan and the Tarim River to Lake Lop Nur, . south of which he opened the Altyn-Tag; spring it on the forehead, Nora took the flight of birds for ornithological research, . then through Kurlya and Yuldus returned to Kul'dzha,
. Illness forced him to return to the time in Russia, where he published "From Kuldja for the Tien Shan to Lob-Nor". In 1879, Mr.. He spoke of Zaisan a third trip with a detachment of 13 men on the river Urungu Haliysky through the oasis and the desert into an oasis of Ca-Chzheu through Nan Shan mountain ranges to Tibet and went into the valley of the Mur-Usu. The Tibetan government did not want to put in Przewalski Hlassu, and the local population was so much excited that the Przewalski, going through the pass Tan-La in the former and 250 miles from Hlassy, was forced to return to Urga. Returning to Russia in 1881, Przewalski gave a description of his third trip. In 1883, Mr.. he made a fourth trip, led a detachment of 21 men. From Kyakhty he moved through Urga, the old way, to the Tibetan Plateau, has surveyed the sources of the Yellow River and the watershed between the Yellow and Blue, and then passed through Tsaidam to Lob-Nora and Karakol, Karakol now. Journey ended only in 1886. Academy of Sciences and learned societies all over the world welcomed the opening of the Przewalski. Outdoor range of mysterious mountain range called Przewalski (cm. above). The biggest merit is its geographical and natural-historical study of the mountain range of Coin-lun mountain ranges of Northern Tibet, pools Lob-and-Nora Cook and origins of the Yellow River. Besides, . they discovered a number of new forms: wild camel, . Przewalski horse, . Tibetan Bear, . number of new forms of other mammals, . as well as collected huge zoological and botanical collections, . involving a lot of new forms, . described later by specialists,
. Being well-educated naturalist, Przheval'skii was at the same time, a born traveler, a wanderer who preferred the lonely steppe life creature comforts. Due to its persistent, determined character, he overcame the opposition of the Chinese government and the resistance of local residents and sometimes up to an open attack. Our Academy raised Przhevalsky medal with the inscription: "The first investigators of nature in Central Asia". After graduating from the processing of the fourth trip, Przewalski preparing for the fifth. In 1888. He went through Samarkand to the Russian-Chinese border, where a cold while hunting, and died October 20, 1888, Mr.. in Karakol, Karakol now. At the tomb of Przewalski's monument to the drawing AA. Bilderling, and another on his own project, put Geographic Society in the Alexander Garden in St. Petersburg. Proceedings of the Przewalski's been translated into many foreign languages. In all the expeditions conducted Przheval'skiy route survey, . based on astronomical points, . they also identified, . determined by the height of the barometric, . were constantly meteorological observations, . assembled collections of Zoology, . Botany, . geology and information on the ethnography,
. He held in Central Asia, the complexity, 9 years 3 months and went through 29 585 miles, not counting his journey to the edge of the Ussuri, during which time they determined astronomically 63 points. Barometric observations made height to 300 points. Before Przewalski in Central Asia was not caused by just one point on the map, but the nature of this part of Asia knew very little positive. Research Przewalski cover a vast area from the Pamirs in the east to the ridge Greater Hinggan, length 4000 miles, and from north to south - from the Altai to the middle of Tibet, ie. width up to 1000 miles. In this space, Przewalski crossed several times the Great Gobi Desert, so called, East Gobi, he crossed in two directions, and summarizing all available data on these countries, gave a full description of these localities. Przewalski gave the first description of the East Turkestan, found the final map for the Tarim and place of Lob-nor, where it empties. Having surveyed over 1,300 miles all the southern outskirts of East Turkestan, Przewalski was the first European to visit these areas. He also had the honor of the first survey Kuen-lun, the northern boundary of the vast Tibetan Plateau, before he is appointed to the maps hypothetical. They found the first time the structure of the earth's surface of these places, where a huge Altyn-Tag, surging to the south of Lob-shares are two totally different nature. In the north-eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau Przhevalsky were the first to examine in detail the whole area of Lake Cook, Nora and visit the sources of the Yellow and Blue River. In general, Przewalski first to give true, in general, now the entire northern Tibet. Proceedings of the Przewalski, . Apart from the above: "The Third Journey in Central Asia" (St.-Petersburg, . 1883), . "The fourth journey in Central Asia" (St.-Petersburg, . 1888), then, . part has already been published, . often have to be issued "Directions and weather diaries", . "Flora Tangutia" and "Enumeratio plantarun bacusgue et Mongolia notarum", . "Department of Zoology,, . with a description of all the zoological collections of Przewalski and "Insects",
. The most complete biography of Przewalski given N.F. Dubrovin, NM. Przewalski (St. Petersburg, 1890); cm. "Proceedings of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society" (T. XXIV, 1888, p. 231 - 288).


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Nikolai Mikhailovich Przewalski, photo, biography
Nikolai Mikhailovich Przewalski, photo, biography Nikolai Mikhailovich Przewalski  Famous Russian traveler, Major-General., photo, biography
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