John Duns Scotus( theologian, the last and most original representative of the 'golden age' of medieval scholasticism.)
Comments for John Duns Scotus
Biography John Duns Scotus
(Duns Scotus; Dunanus)
(ca. 1266, Duns, Scotland - 8/11/1308, Cologne)
Information about the life of DS. have half-legendary character. Franciscan monk; "subtle doctor" ( "doctor subtilis"). With great success he taught theology at Oxford, and later in Paris. During his short-lived life DS. wrote a lot of works: his complete works (Lyons, 1639) contains 12 volumes. Its main compositions - commentary on Aristotle, Porphyry and Peter Lombard.
Vladimir Solovyov points out: "What was Thomas Aquinas for the Dominicans (Order of the preferred teacher), the same became DS. for the Franciscans. It is permitted general limits scholastic outlook, DS. was an empiricist and individualist, firm in the religious and practical principles and a skeptic about the truths of the purely speculative ". Sharper other scholastics distinguishing belief and knowledge, DS. strongly denied a subordinate relationship to the science of theology. The concept of matter at DS. coincides with the notion of universal substance, the only real substratum of all things. Not surprisingly, therefore, that in spite of all the scholastic kingpins DS. attributed to the materiality of human souls and angels. He compares the universe with a huge tree, the root of which - the first matter, the barrel - the visible matter, the branches - the physical body, leaves - organisms, flowers - the human soul, and fruits - angels. DS. the first of the philosophers of the Christian world rose in cosmology at the genetic point of view. Presentation of the universe as an independent, from developing a whole is a philosophical merit DS.
The writings DS. we find the concept of occult forces, astrology and alchemy appear as a science, credible. This attitude to astrology and the occult appeared in his works "Opus Oxoniense" and "Reportata Parisiensia". Asked about the impact of the sky at the lower worlds DS. replied in the affirmative and in almost identical terms in both works: the planet, and acting on mixed body, . as a pair in the air, . and committed and inanimate body, . as metals, . "which are formed in certain areas under the influence of the constellations, . related precisely to the area, . and not another, . TK,
. Earth does not play an active role in these differences ". But not all. They act on the living beings, by changing the mixed body to a state compatible or incompatible with the soul, an animating this body, and thus they can act in the direction of the origin or decay. They may even by sharpening or dulling the senses affect the intellect, as illustrated by the insane and lunatics, whose imagination has been lost. The stars also change the sense of appetite and encourage people to follow him in spite of reason, but will not completely suppressed and can resist the stars. But if something does not apply to the free will of man, angelic or divine, everything will happen as needed, and no chance. Natural law and freedom of will for DS. - The only factors determining the effect.
It is important to emphasize that among the famous thinkers of that time DS. - The only one which is quite strongly and clearly recognize the freedom of will, with the exception of any determinism. According to his conception, will have a reason, which may itself determine.
Thorndike L. A History of Magic and Experimental Science. Vol. II. - New York: Columbia University Press, 1943.
1. Vladimir Solovyov. Duns Scotus. / / Christianity. Collegiate Dictionary.
2. Cassidy L. Practicing Christian, devoted himself to astrology. / / Digest astrology. - Winter 1992.
3. Gaidenko In. Duns Scotus. / / Philosophical Encyclopedic Dictionary.
4. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica.
5. Poggendorff JC. Biographisch-literarisches Handwoerterbuch zur geschichte der exacten Wissenschaften ...