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Johannes Kepler

( Outstanding German astronomer, astrologer and mathematician.)

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Biography Johannes Kepler
photo Johannes Kepler
(Kepler, Keppler)
(27.12.1571, 14:06 GT, Weil der Stadt, Wц+rttemberg, Germany - 15.11.1630, Regensburg)
Life By. was full of obstacles and hardships. As a child he was sick a lot, almost died of smallpox, suffering from eye disease. The first marriage was his failure, his son and daughter died of meningitis, not having lived a year. In 1591, Mr.. K. received a master's degree in Tц+bingen, in 1594, Mr.. - A place teaching mathematics in Graz. However, it as a Protestant, under pain of death being driven out of Graz. In 1600, Mr.. went to Prague and began working at the court of Rudolf II as an assistant of Tycho Brahe. But there he is forced to flee from the raging religious strife. Although K. and was listed as a court mathematician, but often do not receive salaries. Dies, his wife and one born in Prague, two sons. Mother K., engaged in astrology and reporting the interest in it to his son, in 1615, Mr.. accused of witchcraft, imprisoned, and K. with great difficulty after a six-year process can save her from a fire. Of the seven children from his second marriage died, three. After the abdication of Emperor Rudolf II from the throne a new emperor completely ceases salaries K., issued an order that his debt paid magistrates from several cities. Almost a year to. toured different cities, but in the Thirty Years War, managed to collect only a fraction of the amount owed to him. Died K., . leaving his wife and four young children inherited a threadbare coat, . somewhat stale in the pockets of coppers, . two shirts, . 57 computer tables, . 27 print (part of multi-volume) works, . a huge pile of manuscripts (they were released after nearly 200 years in 22 volumes) and 29 thousand florins unpaid wages,
. Goethe wrote: "When the history of Kepler's life compare with what he was and what he did, happily surprised, and at the same time one realizes that the true genius overcoming any obstacles".

To. contributed greatly to the development of astrology. He developed criteria astrological science. To be a real science, . astrology, . considered K., . must satisfy three conditions: based on a coherent philosophical and astronomical cosmogony; have a reliable experimental basis, to check the validity of its provisions, the criterion of practice,
. Based on the Pythagorean tradition,. considered the foundation of the universe and the harmonic ratio of about 30 years spent in search of the law of universal harmony of the world. In the course of these studies, . the first phase ended with the publication of his main work "Harmonice Mundi" ( "Harmony of the World", . 1619), . he discovered three laws of motion of celestial affairs, . Newton subsequently used to justify the law of universal gravitation (see,
. Kepler's laws).
To. also pointed to the correspondence between the distances of the planets and the musical tones of the diatonic scale, not excluding the transition to a chromatic scale in the case of bringing the number of planets (including Sun and the Moon) to twelve. Thereby. anticipated the modern notion of the quantum character of planetary orbits, already scheduled rule Titius-Bode (cm. Phaeton (I)). This "music of the spheres", in K. should be audible only to the Sun, the conductor of the orchestra - the Solar System. In this paper, "Mysterium Cosmographicum" ( "cosmographical secret", 1596) K. established a numerical relationship between the distances of planets from the Sun and the size of regular polyhedra inscribed in the sphere. At present, the idea psevdokristallichnosti solar system is being seriously discussed by theorists. Among the other most famous works to. - Labor "Astronomia nova" ( "New Astronomy", 1609).

To. followed a rare at that time among the astrologers view that planetary influence did not directly affect the rights and not form his fate, they merely correspond to the "vibrations" (ie. biorhythms) organism, including per. In an effort to put astrology on the reliability of the calculated base, without which any great foresight, K. taken a giant work on the calculation of the ephemeris, published under the title "Tabulae Rudolphinae" ( "Rudolfinskie table", 1627). K. contributed greatly to the development of the theory arc perspective: he believed, . aspects that should not limit traditionally adopted a set of aspects (generated by the numbers 2, . 3, . 4, . 6, . 12) and that aspects of, . generated by other numbers, . also have an impact (cm,
. Generating numbers). The theory aspect has been used to. in the "Harmony of the World" in deriving the third law of planetary motion.

To. also studied Kabbalah. His friend was Rabbi Lev ben Bezalel, the legendary creator of the Golem.

Dream to. was the revival of symbolic philosophy of astrology on the Pythagorean tradition, cleansing it of "zvezdoslovnyh superstition", introduced by astrologers are often poorly educated early Middle Ages. Friend To. often wrote that yearns to separate the wheat from the chaff. However, in his major works, for example, in his treatise "arbitrator", he cautioned "some theologians, doctors and philosophers ... that they rightly rejecting exaggeration astrologers, not be poured along with dirty water and the child from the baptismal font ". K "repatriating" the compilation of horoscopes, to "court" of astrology are those statements to. in letters to friends, . are often quoted opponents of astrology: "Astrology is - such a thing, . which is not worth spending time, . but people in his madness thought, . that it should deal with the mathematician, "or:" Of course, . This Astrology - silly daughter, . but, . Heavens, . which would become of her mother, . vysokomudraya Astronomy, . if she did not have silly daughter,
. World it is far more stupid than her, he is so stupid that for its own good old sensible mother - Astronomy through the foolishness daughter must resort to exaggeration and lies ".

Aim to. was the restructuring of astrology on the basis of experimental studies, and to this he tirelessly strove all his life, making horoscopes and prognostics, and checking their truthfulness. The best known is the fact that preparation to. horoscope famous military commander Wallenstein (personal astrologer whom he was in 1628-1630 gg.) and the correct prediction of the death of the commander, made on the Zodiac. This projection to. used by Schiller in his play "Death of Wallenstein". The first astrological predictions K., made by him in 1595, proved very successful and have made him a prominent astrologer. Nevertheless, to contemporary predictive astrology to. treated very skeptical. Its weakest link, he considered arbitrary systems domifikatsii.

In the biographical literature on K. frequent assertion that the AK, not believing in astrology, sometimes was forced to cast a horoscope for the sake of earning. However, this view does not explain the fact that K. engaged in serious, purely astrological research, and studied the own horoscope, whose interpretation made by the K. expected in November-December 1597, has reached our days and published in Russian (About me. / Kepler and. About hexagonal snow flakes. - M., Nauka, 1982. - P. 170-187; fragment J.. Nature. - 1980. - N1. - P. 120-128). These notes are an invaluable document which allows to reconstruct the complex and contradictory nature of GK, which combines the hardness of ideological beliefs with bitter humor that helped him in the struggle with poverty and misery. Among the purely astrological works to. should mention the treatise "De Fundamentis Astrologiae Certioribus" (publ. in Prague in late 1601), including weather prediction for each month of 1602, as well as the last of the "Three books about comets" (1619), containing a discussion of the astrological influence of comets.

In honor of K. named minor planet 1134 Kepler.

Selected works:
Kepler and. About hexagonal snowflakes. / Per. s lat. - M.: Nauka, 1983.
Nova dissertatiuncula de fundamentis astrologiae certioribus ad cosmo-theoriam spectans. - Pragae, 1602.
Astronomia nova. - Heidelbergae, 1609.
Ephemerides novae motuum coelestium ... - Lincii, 1616.
Harmonices mundi Libri V... - Lincii, 1619.
De cometis libri tres. - Aug. Vind., 1619.
Tabulae Rudolphinae ... - Ulmae, 1627.
Die Astrologie des Johannes Kepler. - Muenchen, 1926.
Recommended Reading:
White Yu.A.. Johannes Kepler. - M.: Nauka, 1971.
Field JV. Astrology in Kepler's Cosmology. / / Astrology Science and Society Historical Essays. / Edited by P. Curry. - Woodbridge, Suffolk; Wolfeboro, New Hampshire: Boydell Press, 1987.
The History of Science Society. Johannes Kepler: A Tercentenary Commemoration of His Life and Work. - Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1931.
Koch WA. Aspektlehre nach Johannes Kepler. - Hamburg, 1950.
1. Field JV. Astrology in Kepler's Cosmology. / / Astrology Science and Society Historical Essays.
2. Becker U. Lexicon der Astrologie.
3. Kollerstrom N. Kepler's Belief in Astrology. / / History and Astrology. Clio and Urania Confer.
4. Poggendorff JC. Biographisch-literarisches Handwoerterbuch zur geschichte der exacten Wissenschaften ...
5. Astrological Dictionary.
6. Smirnov and. Astrology from different points of view.
7. Kolchinsky I., Korsun AA, Rodriguez M. Astronomers.
8. Saplin A. Astrological Encyclopedic Dictionary.

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