Viktor Kudryavtsev-PLATONOV Dimitrijevic( The philosopher and theologian, founder of transcendental monism.)
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Biography Viktor Kudryavtsev-PLATONOV Dimitrijevic
3/15.10.1828 - 3/15.12.1891
Trivia Graduated from Moscow. Theological Academy / 1852 /. Student FA. Golubinsky. Prof.. Mosk. Theological Academy. Author of fundamental works on epistemology / metaphysical analysis of empirical knowledge ", . "Metaphysical analysis of rational knowledge", . "Metaphysical analysis of the ideal of knowledge /, . which developed the concept of "perfect knowledge", . is a direct contemplation of transcendental,
. In "Religion, its nature and origin" and "From the readings on the philosophy of religion" an analysis of the major interpretations of religion and made her study, examining the evidence of the existence of God. Author of textbooks "Introduction to Philosophy / 1889 / and the initial foundation of philosophy / 1889-1890 /, which have stood respectively 7 and 6 editions.
Characteristics of views "Thought Kudryavtseva, Platonov is very simple. He says, . that religion can not be completely amateur works of man, to explain its origin to prevent the direct action of the unconditioned beginning of our spirit, . and this effect involves the ability of the assimilation revelation,
. This ability Kudryavtsev-Platonov saw in his mind, which he opposes to reason, as the ability of reflection. If thinking involves initial impressions of objects, the mind, as the ability directed to svehchuvstvennomu, must be capable of extrasensory perception. The act of the mind is not thinking, but simply a perception or sensation ". (Radlov E.L. Outline of the History of Russian Philosophy. Sverdlovsk, 1991
. Teaching of God and the world 'When God is portrayed as an artist, . the world is arranged as a separate entity and then leave it, . as a mechanic put aside their dokonchennuyu car, . here in the attitude of God to the world for illegally introduced the concepts of space and time,
. Spaces - because the world is separated from God as a spatial tsnloe from another; time - because of the Godhead are two or even three time moments - one to create a world, . then the act of creation and, . Finally, . termination of any relationship to the world,
. But in fact, no peace can not be separated from God, nor God to remain inert towards the world '. (Kudryavtsev, Platonov, VD. Vol.: The 3 m. T. 2. Tech. 3. S. 44). 'If the world is a revelation of the Divine, . if expressed in the absolute integrity of the end of life, . in being the final, . in the world only some items are in the nature of spirituality, . then, . obviously, . absolute consistency can not be called a spirit and not spiritual, . only partly manifest themselves as the spirit, . partially reveal themselves in spiritual manifestations,
. It absolutely can be called the spirit, but spirit and can be called a manifestation of the absolute. Spirituality is an absolute, we must understand just how immateriality, we have the right to say: the absolute is the beginning of the intangible, . but do not have the right to say: it is the beginning of the spiritual, . because it develops out of itself with the same need as the material, . and spiritual things,
. In his otherness, it becomes not only the spirit but also the real nature, so it itself is neither matter nor spirit, but something is above both of them being an indifferent start. But such indifference, . imperfect (because perfection is already later) start and did not deserve the name of the Deity, and does not deserve the name of the absolute, . because the absolute not only because absolutely, . that is detached from the limitations and shortcomings of finite, . but because, . that has absolute perfection,
. But an indifferent start being not only can not have any perfection, but no positive qualities, it is foggy something unthinkable '. (Ibid.. S. 69). Against positivism 'of positive philosophy: the knowledge available to us through the internal phenomena of experience - does not contradict another position: but it is accessible to us through other sources of knowledge - of faith and revelation (religion) and rational thought (the philosophy)',
. (Kudryavtsev, Platonov, VD. Vol.: The 3 m. T. 2. Vyp.1. S. 336). The Purpose of Creation 'The Purpose of Creation, . we must understand how absolutely good and wise, . should, . sure, . be achieved, . because God would not have been indefinitely committed, . if made the creation, . incapable to achieve its stated goal of the assumed its existence,
. But if this must be achieved, . and the world by itself, . Physics for his unconscious, . spiritual fragmentation of the goals and interests of its private actors, . it can not reach, . the very imperfection of the world in this respect presupposes Divine miropravlenie ',
. (Kudryavtsev, Platonov, VD. Vol.: The 3 m. T. 2. Tech. 1. S. 58). The path to perfection 'Despite playing petty vanity, . passions, . vices, . misconceptions, . personal interests of individuals and peoples, . human race not only does not die and do not completely depraved, . but, though slow and difficult strides towards perfection, and all temporary deviations from the straight path and adverse circumstances do not hinder the goal of human existence not only to all humanity, . but each individual,
. This shows that despite the shortcomings and imperfections, we observe in the world of the divine wisdom of Providence is strong to lead the world to its destination. It is not only strong to destroy the harmful effects of correctness and good, . but use them (eg, . natural disasters, . diseases) as a means to achieve higher goals, . eating them as a punishment of vice, . as a test of virtue and temptation, . general as the preparatory and educational benefits for the moral education of people ',
. (Ibid.. S. 59). The nature of the law 'If we assume a law of nature, then, of course, however, allow something is above matter and physical forces, allow external order and the norm of their actions. When we say: the law, it does not mean here that - either material, composed of, for example, of atoms. which nowadays is considered the essence of matter. Not knowing well that the law is the same as that force of nature, power is not yet law, but the effect of certain law. Thus, the law is something standing above matter and the forces that determine their mutual relations and action. But it is higher, determines may be nothing more than an expression of the will of the legislator, a manifestation of Mind, the ruling by nature '. (Ibid.. S. 62). The concept of the supernatural 'thinkers who deny the divine providence, to deny a special kind of it - of the supernatural, it is quite understandable and natural. But as soon as permitted not only the existence of Deity, but his providential relationship to the world, then reject the possibility of such action would be logical inconsistency. In fact, if God created the world originally, free act of His almighty will, given the known laws of nature, of course, he has power to change these laws, if it proved necessary for some - or the ultimate goal. If we say, . that these laws are constant and unchanging, . it should be noted, . that this constancy and immutability are not absolute, . derives from the nature of the Divine, . where they were a manifestation, and their relative constancy, . Understands, . free will of God,
. If not what - or the absolute necessity of the Divine nature, we must seek an explanation of the shape and form of the laws of nature, . what they have now, . and not free will being personal, . there is no obstacle to, . that this is the will and can change them or refer to the product of this kind of phenomena, . which naturally have not followed ',
. (Ibid.. S. 65 - 66). 'We are reliably explain the reasons for natural phenomena on the basis of observations on individual items and totality of the natural environment, we are accessible and known. These observations are sufficient to give us the true conception of the laws of nature, if not always that they can produce in an unusual combination of them, at least about what they can not produce. For every obvious, for example, that the word "man" can not suddenly heal the sick, resurrect the dead, dry the rod can not produce leaves, flowers, fruit and m. n. Calling for an explanation of such phenomena which - the unknown, the estimated force of nature, would be to give knowledge in the field of access absolutely fantastic gipotizam. These so-called first, the secret forces of nature at the present time, it is expelled from the field of natural sciences, and it would be strange to use them for the vibration of faith in the possibility of supernatural action '. (Ibid.. S. 75). 'Certainly, of course, that reality is much wider than the widest knowledge of it, there is more content than what we can perceive through the senses. But this limitation does not mean more to you, let's little that allow us to know about the world of our senses, it would not be true. Let us higher beings can see objects more than we do, and in this sense to imagine the world differently than we do, but it still does not prove that our knowledge of the world, though less complete and extensive, it was not true. If sight, armed with a microscope, discovers in the subject more than ordinary eye, it does not say that our eyes deceive us, pointing to the object is not what it is. Knowledge can have different degrees of perfection, and making arrangements measure various creatures. But the varying degrees of knowledge relate to one another not as true to false, but as a more complete to less complete and perfect. Clearly, a truly complete and perfect knowledge of things could have only a divine mind, which contemplates the right thing by themselves and for their knowledge has no need for any - or through agencies and. Knowledge of the finite is relative (ie. commensurate with their nature), a limited, but not false, it is different degrees, but not the essence '. (Kudryavtsev, Platonov, VD. Vol.: The 3 m. Sergiev Posad, 1893. T. 1. Tech. 2. S. 208). The essence of empiricism 'substantial disadvantage of empiricism is that, speaking of the categories and their empirical origins, he has in mind only the experience of the outside - and sensory impressions formed of them reporting. But we have seen that from such an experience can not explain the origin of categorical concepts. Not so, if we turn to the experience of internal, as the consciousness of our own psychological states and introspection. By tonosheniyu to this experience, we can truly say that its data are used for our mind to those results through monitoring and analysis which we have initially defined the concept of categories'. (Kudryavtsev, Platonov, VD. Vol.: The 3 m. T. 1. Tech. 1. S. 160). The concept and feel 'concept, of course, higher than mere sensation, but the false notion of the subject not only higher but much higher and more harmful than clear, direct view is his. The same ratio of forms and degrees of consciousness to the quality of their contents to notice in other spheres of mental life, such as moral. True and correct based on the instinct of our nature toward good; an act is much higher and purer than that based on the perverse moral concepts of activity '. (Ibid.. S. 362). Criticism of skepticism 'Man can not know the truth, says the skeptic. But the provision itself, obviously, can only be either reliable or unreliable, and if it is authentic, then the person can know even one authentic truth, if doubtful, dubious and untenable that he skeptical. The same dilemma occurs in relation to the evidence that skeptics confirms my thought. They are reliable or unreliable, in both cases, skepticism runs into a contradiction: If authentic, it means there is certain knowledge, if unreliable - drops all skeptical philosophy, as based on dubious and wavering arguments'. (Kudryavtsev, Platonov, VD Vol.: The 3 m. T. 1. Tech. 2. S. 83).
Works Vol.: The 3 m. Sergiev Posad, 1892-1894;
Vol.: In 2 m. Sergiev Posad, 1898-1914;
On the unity of the human race [master's thesis.] / / Additions to the creations of the Church Fathers. 1852. CH. 11 kn. 4, 1853. CH. 12 kn. 1-3, 1854. CH. 13 kn. 1;
About monotheism as the original religion of the human race / / Additions to the creations of the Church Fathers. 1857. CH. 14 kn. 3;
Religion, its nature and origin [doctoral thesis.]. MA, 1871;
Critical analysis of the teachings of Comte on three methods of philosophical knowledge. MA, 1874;
Introduction to philosophy. M., 1889.
Literature Vvedensky AI. On the nature, composition and value of philosophy V.D.Kudryavtseva-Platonov. Sergiev Posad, 1893; Prot. Ivanov. Becoming theologian. thought in Moscow. spirit. Acad. (1814-70), Moscow. spirit. Acad. 300 years (1685-1985) / / Theologian. Proceedings: Anniversary. Sat. , 1986; Kornilov SV. The philosophy of consciousness and creativity (Portraits of Russian thinkers). SPb., 1998.