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Frank Simon Ludwigovich

( Philosopher.)

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Biography Frank Simon Ludwigovich
photo Frank Simon Ludwigovich
16/28.1.1877 - 10/12/1950

Information The creator of metaphysical realism - a new concept of unity. Studied at the Faculty of Moscow. Zap. For participation in the student movement arrested / 1899 / and exiled from Moscow. Education completed in Berlin. Since 1912 - Assistant Professor Petersburg Zap. In 1922, exiled from Russia. He lived in Germany and France, since 1945 - in the UK. His teacher believed in the philosophy of Nicholas of Cusa. Designed F. concept of unity metalogical possible to overcome the subjectivism in philosophy, which reduces the world to objectivity, understood as the counter-subject. Prove the impossibility of understanding realnosti without a trace in the system of rational concepts, and therefore offer a 'made wise ignorance' as a way of knowing. Do not recognize the possibility of fusion as resolving contradictions and opposed to it 'Vitanov' over antinomical judgments. The concept of F. see the development as ideas slavophiles of communality. The system of philosophy thinkers formed a trilogy: 'The subject of knowledge', 'Human Soul', 'The spiritual foundations of society', whole presentation exercises carried out by the author in his book 'Inconceivable. Ontological introduction to the philosophy of religion '/ written in 30-ies and published in Paris in 1939 /. Problems of the Russian national identity of thought devoted to the 'essence and the leading motives of Russian philosophy' and 'Russian philosophy'.
. Characteristics of views "Frank bent on destroying the special theory of knowledge, different from the theory of existence and its predecessor
. Transcendental consciousness of the object is not totally separated from us, is not something closed in itself. The subject is always a member of the system of absolute being, and it is being inherent in us before and independently of knowledge of his soderzhanii.Predmet is known directly by intuition. Contemplation is always an intellectual intuition or imagination: to whatever was sent to our consciousness, it is not always directed to the immanent experience, as such, but to him as a party or of the absolute being. Contemplate or to know something can only be aware of the very unity. Abstract knowledge, relying on intuition, unity can never exhaust its fullness, so abstract knowledge to adequately. In composing S. Frank also hear echoes of Bergson, Lossky and Spinoza, but in terms of his - the impact Slavophiles, for example. Frank talks about "living knowledge" ". (Radlov E.L. Outline of the History of Russian Philosophy. Sverdlovsk, 1991,. 144)

Teaching sense of knowledge
'The meaning of knowledge consists in entering into the unknown, T. e. content that we had not been invented nor freely created by us, we are convinced that they really lie in the object itself and only this consciousness transforms thought into knowledge. Knowledge is not free, torn from its foundations with peer-holding A, B, C, knowledge is a set of propositions "X is A, B, C. ..", t. e. content in their rootedness in the unknown object. Where we have only a certain (pure content of A, B, C), there is no knowledge, knowledge requires us famous and the unknown, knowledge is its mainstay unknown '. (Frank C. L. Subject knowledge. Petrograd, 1915. S. 25 - 26).
'If I knew anything recognize "red", it means that it is, as a "red", stands out from all the "non-red" and differs from it. But "not-red" and "red" correlate to each other. Consequently, that from which "stands out" red, and through a relationship to what it asserts its essence as "red", there is unity, predshestvutee division into "red" and "not-red", t. e. unity in its entirety '. (Ibid.. S. 255).
'When I looked at this "red object", t. e. through the act of attention or contemplation of transforming experience into the subject, sees in it "redness," I thus penetrate into the beyond the experience, update potentially "available" I have absolute being, I see 'redness' in it, t. e. see its contents. For see "redness" (and not just survive it), and mean nothing, as have the intuition of private ones'. (Ibid.. S. 262).
Objectivity of knowledge
'Transcendence or subject matter knowledge means clear that the knowledge of its content coincides with the existent-for-itself, t. e. with with existent as it is, when cognitive gaze did not affect P not highlighted it - with unknowable existent. To, . that this idea - as indicated, . absolutely necessary, and therefore self-evidently true - was not impossible, . we must, . hence, . somehow "have" not only perceived by, . but unknown, . unknown, . - And, moreover, have it be eliminated and inviolably firmly ',
. (Frank C. L. Op. M., 1990. S. 211)
. Transdefinitnoe
. 'Transdefinitnoe though is the ultimate goal of our abstract knowledge - that to which it is directed - but it is the goal only in the sense lodestar: it can never itself be caught as a result of this knowledge - in the system of a certain
. We should always be as contemplative grope transdefinitnoe, . face transdefinitnogo always recharge, . fix, . complicate the system of our concepts, . feasibly take out and dish it through amendments, . to adapt, . to fit featured connection to concreteness transdefinitnogo ',
. (Ibid.. S. 235)
. Validity
. ' "Reality" is like building, . comprising only suitable for him, . conveniently fit into a stone, but next to this building is still randomly scattered pile nepodhodyatsih, . not used for the construction of the building stones',
. (Ibid.. S. 259)
. ' "Reality" is that, . that is understandable in reality, . although, . as indicated, . in its composition, we come to the moment it is unknowable essentially because, . that it is self-contained self-contained unit, . but once immersed in the dark "ocean", . and on their edges and in its depths with this reality emerges, . - Precisely because of overlap with the very specific - there are essentially unknowable ',
. (Ibid.. S. 289).
Mastering reality
'Any final, full learning a reality and it adequate synthesis can never be rational, but on the contrary, all the GDSs transratsionalen. Its true, it is possible not only as a vague smell of it and only guess on the contrary, it has the highest apparent. But his evidence, of course, is inexpressible in words and thoughts he is unutterable and inexplicable, it is available only through certain non-verbal contact, through the unspeakable domestic coverage in them '. (Ibid.. S. 313)
. Antinomic monodualizm
. 'On what would logically perceptible contrasts is the question - the unity and multitude, . spirit and body, . life and death, . eternity and time, . good and evil, . Creator and creation, . - Ultimately we are faced everywhere so the ratio, . is logically separate, . based on mutual denial, however, internally fused, . permeates each other - that one does not have another and at the same time there is another, . and only with, . in him and through him is that, . that it truly is in its final depth and completeness,
. That is antinomical monodualizm all things, . and in front of his face every kind monism, . both dualism and every, . is false, . simplifying and distorting abstraction, . is unable to express the fullness of concrete and concrete structure of reality ',
. (Ibid.. S. 315)
. Incomprehensible
. 'Everything in the world - no matter how much it may be apprehended and comprehended - is also the ever-inscrutable mystery, not only in the sense, . in which we talked about this in the previous chapter - in the sense that, . that it is always something more and in this regard and other, . than all, . what we know about him, . -but also in, . much deeper and significant meaning, . that all reality in its concreteness metalogichna and because super-rational, . unknowable essentially,
. Therefore, all led by us and we can only familiar knowledge and a familiar face reality, . knowledge and its familiar "phenomenon" or "mapping", . while the source itself and the support of the slave - reality itself as such, . - Being open to our intuition, . It is in this contemplation of the instant case as essentially unknowable,
. It is incomprehensible, . mysterious and wonderful in this sense, . repeat, . not on the weakness of our cognitive abilities, . not because, . that is hidden from our sight, . and therefore, . that it is clearly coming to us of itself, . inherently superior to all expressible in terms of, and have the content knowledge of something absolutely alien,
. It is in this sense it is unknowable essentially '. (Ibid.. S. 232).
The face of reality
'The objective significance of the plural is its significance for the derivative, the outer layer or the appearance of reality, which corresponds to the beginning of her certainty, t. e. that abstract knowledge is captured in the system of concepts. Beyond these limits, t. e. in relation to reality in its concrete fullness, the plural is certainly not applicable and devoid of meaning '. (Ibid.. S. 237 - 238)
. What "is"?
. 'Vertiginous, . almost leads us to the brink of insanity question: "what, . proper, . we mean by the word "there"? what it means, . that anything or everything in general "is"? - This issue is solved by itself through the discretion of, . that goes beyond all comprehensible in concept, and there is Existing venous defining characteristic is that, . what we mean by the realities of D ',
. (Ibid.. S. 279)
. Spiritual being
. 'Spiritual Being, . failing area, . a method or way of life, . - Similar to being as such - is definable and opisuemo, . hence, . only in its significance for us or act on us, . but not on its content, and that is why it is essentially incomprehensible,
. Meeting in our experience with the spiritual being, . we are facing a sort of "something" is not just in the sense, . that it is something unknown or not familiar to us, . but in the sense, . it in essence is not something definable lo content, . is not something "you" or "otherwise", . but there is a simple revelation of being as such, . throughout the we have already outlined transratsionalnosti and incomprehensibility of this concept, or - more precisely - all discretion we tozhdstve yet, . what we mean by "being" and under "incomprehensible" on the merits',
. (Ibid.. S. 401).
Personality and soul
'The mystery of the soul as a person lies in that its ability to rise above itself, to be on that side of herself - on the other side of all of its actual state, and even the general nature of its actual. Here we are in a different form again we see the action transratsionalnogo principle antinomic monodualizma. Personality - that, . which is the last, . primordial unity of our psychic life, . as if its substantial form, . - Given to us only through the duality - the duality, . which should have been admitted even so naturalistically minded researcher, . Freud, . differences in the composition of "I" simple "I" from the "super-ego or ideal ego ',
. (Ibid.. S. 409).
'If consciousness is being-for-itself, apart from the moment of this "for-itself", this self-disclosedness, there is a point of being itself, as his obvious condition. And so we say that this moment of being is more directly important and primary feature of psychic life than the moment of consciousness. To the extent that life is more important than to know what preceded the validity of intuition, psychic life is primarily a real force, only derivatively an ideal carrier of consciousness'. (Frank C. L. Human Soul. M., 1917. S. 71)
. 'The identification of the soul or spiritual life with the knowledge or based on vague, . undifferentiated concept of consciousness, . when it ideal moment of consciousness, . itself, . not separated from the carrier point of this pure light of the impersonal, . or necessarily leads, . thought of the end, . to the very prmitivnomu pantheism, . for which there is only one vseobemyaschee impersonal consciousness - on the way to anything and is a modern epistemology, . as the subject of consciousness is identical to it with the very form of "consciousness in general" ',
. (Ibid.. S. 87)
. Living knowledge
. 'In the living knowledge, . which we have in our deepest self, . immediately given to us is an organic unity of being itself, . virtue of which all derivative, . relative, . subektivpoe however, is rooted in the absolute, . primary, . self-sufficient and there is only its detection,
. The depth, . in which our mental life is merged with the absolute unity and experienced and known in this fusion, in which, . therefore, . emotional sentiment is not something merely subjective, . and is also the objective knowledge and rooted in the objective existence - this depth is the region, . which we call the spiritual life ',
. (Ibid.. S. 197)
. The nature of religious experience
. 'Religious experience - even in its flawed form, is knowledge, . that apart from apparent, . layer being accessible to us, . is the empirical reality, . they have even a, . deeper, . directly in its content inaccessible layer - like some other izmzrenie,
. Outside attitudes izmreniyu we can not survey the being as a whole, but beyond this overview, we can not understand and appreciate his common sense '. (Frank C. L. Spiritual Foundations of Society. M., 1992. S. 434)
. 'Faith is nothing, . as completeness and relevance of the vital forces of the spirit - self -, . depth perception to the final depth of the absolute foundation of our inner life, . - Burning heart strength, . which, by its significance and value is obviously perceived as something higher and more, . than I do ',
. (Ibid.. S. 247).
The problem of meaning in life
'In order to make life meaningful, requires two conditions: the existence of God and our own involvement in it, achievable for us life in God, or divine life. Should primarily, . to, . despite the futility of worldly life, . there was a general condition of its meaningfulness, . to last, . supreme and absolute basis it was not blind chance, . not muddy, . all for a moment, throws out all again absorbing the chaotic flow of time, . not the darkness of ignorance, . and God as an eternal rock, . Eternal Life, . absolute good and comprehensive light of reason,
. And should, . secondly, . that we ourselves, . despite all our weakness, . to blindness and the harm of our passions, . on randomness and short duration of our lives, . were not only "creatures" of God, . not only pottery, . which shapes according to his potter, . and not only "slaves" of God, . performing His will, bonded and only for Him, . but free members and communicants of the divine life itself, . so, . serving Him, . We in this ministry does not extinguish and not afflict his own life, . and, . opposite, . it claimed, . enriched and enlightens',
. (Ibid.. S. 169).

Major works 1 / subject knowledge. Petrograd, 1915; 2 / Human Soul. M., 1917; 3 / collapse idols. Paris, 1924; 4 / Meaning of Life. Paris, 1926; 5/Soch.. M., 1990, 6 / Spiritual Foundations of Society. M., 1992.

Edition 1. Friedrich Nietzsche and Ethics "love of the far / / Problems of Idealism. AM, BG. S. 137 - 195. 2. Ethics of Nihilism / / Milestones. M., 1909. S. 150 - 184. 3. Philosophy and Life. Studies and sketches on the philosophy of culture. SPb., 1910. 4. Subject knowledge. On the bases and the limits of abstract knowledge. SPb., 1915. 5. Human Soul. Experience of the introduction of philosophical psychology / / Zapiski East. - Phil. fak. Petrograd University - ta. CH. 138. Pg., 1917. 6. De profundis / / From the depths. M.; Pg., 1917. 7. Outline of the methodology of public nauk.M., 1922. 8. Introduction to the philosophy compressed izlozhenii.Pg., 1922. 9. Living knowledge. Sat. Articles. Berlin, 1923. 10. The collapse of the idols. Berlin, 1924. 11. Religion and science. Berlin, 1924. 12. Meaning of Life. Paris, 1926. 13. Spiritual Foundations of Society. Introduction to Social Philosophy. Paris, 1930 (Russian Abroad. SPb., 1991). 14. Incomprehensible. Ontological introduction to the philosophy of religion. Paris, 1939. 15. Shining Through. Paris, 1949. 16. Reality and Human. The metaphysics of human existence. Paris, 1956. 17. God Is With Us. Three reflections. Paris, 1964. 18. Russian outlook / / Social Sciences and Modernity. 1990. ? 6. S. 220 - 234, 1991. ? 1. S. 179 - 188, 19. Spiritual Foundations of Society. M., 1992. 20. Subject knowledge: The Foundations and limits of abstract knowledge; Human Soul: Experience the introduction of philosophical psychology. SPb., 1995.

Literature SLFrank. 1877-1850. Collected in memory of S. Frank. Munich, 1954; Zenkovsky VV. Anthropology S. Frank / / History of Russian philosophical thought of the twentieth century. Pittsburgh, 1968; Gaidenko PP. Mystical pantheistic dialectics (S. Frank) / / idealist dialectic in the twentieth century. Moscow, 1987; Gavryushin NK. "Russian idea" in the interpretation of the Frank C. / / Social Sciences. 1990. ? 6; Alekseev PV. The philosophical concept of SL Frank / Frank SL. Spiritual Foundations of Society. M., 1992; Nekrasov EH. Semyon Frank / / Veche. Almanac of Russian philosophy and culture. Tech. 2. SPb., 1995. S. 91-179; Redlich R.N. Socialist. philosophy S.L.F. Mr. Frankfurt / M, 1972; Kornilov SV. The philosophy of consciousness and creativity (Portraits of Russian thinkers). SPb., 1998.

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