Trediakovskii Basil Kirillovich( poet, educator.)
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Biography Trediakovskii Basil Kirillovich
In the middle of the XIX century some rasceyanny official, namely Goncharivske Oblomov, though 'once sent some necessary paper instead of Arkhangelsk Astrakhan': mistaken. And indeed, it is easy to confuse consonant, both on the 'A', the names of these cities antipodes - atipodov in the sense that one of them is located on the north and the other - on the southern outskirts Rossiyskogo States. 'Archangel man' Lomonosov and Astrakhan Popovich (born in the family priest) Trediakovskii - these two people did one thing in common a great deal in our literature, and yet psychologically were completely incompatible. Inseparable, but inexorably divided. As in the dialectic: the unity and struggle of opposites.
One older than the other for almost nine years and because many undertakings could come before his mighty opponent. After Astrakhan religious school, . where the monks taught Catholics in Latin, . and not willing defiance of his father to become a spiritual person, . Trediakovskii in 1723 fled to Moscow and entered the Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy - the very, . where a few years later would be adopted, too, escaped from his father, Lomonosov,
. Studied mostly rhetoric and Slavic grammar. For his outstanding achievements was sent to St. Petersburg, . the Academy of Sciences, . but, . seen, . and that he, . hungry to acquire European education, . was little, . and in 1726 took second escape - abroad, . first in the Netherlands, . then on foot pilgrimage to Paris to attend the lectures at the Sorbonne (training at the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences and wandering in exile waiting for a time and University).,
. Lyrics Trediakovskii began to write more in Russia
. Among them, special mention should be 'a song that I composed, while still in Moscow schools, to my departure to foreign lands'. This is a song about spring, and it has such expressive string (surrounded by no less expressive):
. Singing birds
. With titmouse,
. Tail waving and chanterelles.
. After 30 (!) Years Lomonosov angrily and sarcastically wrote that heartburn affected all those who have not read your titmouse 'and' smelly chanterelles'
. But in vain he swore: song was a success. She not only read but also sang, and the melody was surprisingly nice (notes preserved and reproduced in the 'Selected Works' Trediakovsky). Its Full Tilt citizens and literate peasants, the lower clergy and the young officers, merchants and artisans. All this is not construed otherwise than as a genuine acceptance. Abroad Trediakovskii perfectly mastered French, which allowed him to subsequently engage in a lot of translations, and poems could write not only in Russian, but also in French. 'Breg Sensky' (Bank of the Seine in Paris) was for him 'dredge', but Russia is not forgotten, beckoning to him from afar:
. I'll start on the flute poems are sad,
. vain to Russia through countries far ...
. Hundred language I must have been used
. celebrate all that is in you, dear.
. At home, he returned in 1730, well certified professors of the Sorbonne, full of creative plans and have already begun work on a major product, which is rapidly completed and published at the same time: 'Riding into the island of love'
. This is a translation of the French novel (the author - P. Thalmann) with inserts his own poems Trediakovsky. The novelty of the book was her gallant-erotic tone, not typical for Russian literature with its then-ascetic chastity. Culture amorous feelings and longing for the Western model, we still had to develop - Trediakovskii, as in many other endeavors, was here first. His style seems very awkward, but it is not caught the eye - there are no standards of elegance did not know. Besides, why would not be erotic, tongue-tied?
. For example, inflamed jealous peeps to see how the lady of the heart betraying him with another:
. There still a lover, she is able to
. Fortunately sky Chinyayev all zavisno,
. In the heat of love's kiss yu ever,
. And it all wrong affliction fix!
. All boiling lust in his face zrilas,
. How UHL burning, everything is flushed.
. Hands pressed to her, and felt her whole body.
. And wrong about all that very
. I wish there ubitsya know you wake!
. All it was then in his will,
. Repaired as he wanted to se if it, either;
. And wrong, as I opened
. all breast.
. With all that Trediakovskii - reckless jealous purity of the Russian language, should be free, in his opinion, from the excesses 'glubokoslovnyya slavenschizny', that is from the Church Slavonic Heritage
. This is his favorite idea, and realize it is not really himself, and the same Lomonosov, the future author of 'Russia grammar' (until written Grammar of Slavonic and Russian, that is, the Church Slavonic language). The same pattern emerges: the older overtook junior.
It concerns the question of verse forms. Trediakovsky honored to start this thing, which proved to be most significant in the history of Soviet literature of XVIII century. This is a great reform of Russian versification. Before him, but first and with him it was syllabic, that is complied with the specified number of syllables in a line of verse and rhyme, but admitting of disorder in the arrangement of shock on the unstressed syllables. The result of this verse, which, after this very reform the vast majority of poetry lovers were seen and treated as a rhythmically awkward. Lyrics of 'riding in the island of love' - example, and Trediakovsky enough intuition to understand this. It was clear and that it is not in his personal stihotvorcheskoy, let's incompetence: as they say, 'blame the system', rather than individual. Even such a large master sillabist as Antioch Cantemir - and that may seem untenable poet, and his rhythms - the faltering:
. Uma unripe, the fruit of a brief science!
. Rest, shall not be obliged to pen my
. hands ...
. So, Trediakovskii proposed remake of the first of the above Kantemirovsky lines thus:
. Um Toll weak, the fruits of labor / /
. short of science!
. And this is not syllabic, and syllabo-tonic, this trochee, metrically the same as' my bells, / / Tsvetikov steppe! " or 'On the mountain stands alder, / / Under the cherry hill', we just have to continue to comply with the appropriate size
. Opening? Huge! The transition to a fundamentally different, more perfect system of versification. Trediakovskii substantiate a wonderful idea in his treatise 'A new and concise way to the addition of Russian poetry from the definitions of appropriate titles until now', published in 1735.
. The most receptive and interested reader of the treatise was, of course, Lomonosov
. Going to Germany, he took with him a copy of this work, he studied it and ... decided himself, as if regardless of Trediakovsky, as if his own mind before this came to become the reformer of Russian verse. It is 'Letter to the rules of Russia's Prosody', in which not only refers to the experience Trediakovsky, but - without naming him - ironically on the poet's rhymes. Theoretical proposals Lomonosov and illustrate their poems brilliant. If Trediakovskii 'thought of' just before the choir and went no further, the Lomonosov demonstrates the excellent possibilities of other dimensions of poetry and especially iambic tetrameter.
Undoubtedly, he has eclipsed Trediakovsky and pushed him aside, even though both premnogim obligation to each other. Lomonosov Trediakovsky - the very idea of poetry sillabotonicheskogo. Trediakovskii Lomonosov - the fact that his prompt markedly expanded its metrical repertoire mastered iambic, hexameter.
Them to live in harmony! Did not work, disliked one another. Mutual taunts, epigrams. And next he lived and worked for three wonderful poet - AP Sumarokov, at odds with both of them. Trediakovsky he called Tresotinom or simply Sotino (in French, you fool; nickname was catching, and so-called Lomonosov willingly his enemy). Dialogue angry poets - Sumarokova and Trediakovsky - was as follows:
- You owl!
- You're a bat!
- Sam pig!
But this is not the most distressing. This, in its own way, even funny. Worse and more difficult - the humiliations and beatings, which underwent Trediakovskii of the powerful and their cronies. Particularly nasty incident occurred in 1740. On the ice of the river erected unprecedented Palace - the famous Ice House, colorfully described the eponymous historical novel II Lazhechnikov. There should celebrate the wedding amusing court jester and crackers, to be magnificent amusement (cm. essay 'Funny wedding' in an ice house '). Are to Trediakovsky, which decided to order greeting verses newlyweds, being taken to the cabinet lords Artemia Volyn - Managing the upcoming celebration. Poet, did not immediately urazumevshy what he should actually required, dared to express his surprise and discontent, for which he was severely beaten Volhynia and subordinate officer. Punched in the face and sticks on his back - with particular brutality, realizing that Trediakovskii wants to complain about their abusers almighty Biron, a favorite of the Empress Anna. Had yet to compose the required verses. At the wedding in the Ice House to read the author himself, dressed in a masquerade dress and a mask:
Hello marrying a fool and a fool ...
And after repeated beatings. Trediakovskii not hope to survive. The back and sides are blackened, swollen face. Lying at home, he wrote a will in which his books leave academic library.
Outrage authorities Trediakovsky have to experience before and after this dreadful event. In contrast to the University, he did not have athletic build, and it is not considered to be above him was allowed to mock. Dramatically discrepancy between its high significance in the history of national culture and the humiliation of his position in society. It would seem: poet laureate, an eminent scientist (in the end, academician), a good citizen and family man (wife, son Leo) would deserve infinitely more respect for myself. However, what the poet laureate for Anna?
Projecting laudatory ode to the Empress, on her knees to crawl from the entrance to the throne room to the foot of the throne. Being a court poet is hardly better than a clown, and the reputation Trediakovsky is this fact: a buffoon, a fool (plus to the boring pedant scholar and completely talentless poet).
Also in 1740 executed Volyn. The dubious joy for Trediakovsky: in the history of his torturer is a martyr who fought with the dominance of the Germans in our board, with bironovschinoy, and folded light head for their patriotic beliefs. In the same year, gave up the ghost 'imperatriks' (as in Latin majestic Empress Trediakovskii) Anna Ivanovna. It would seem, can now breathe freely. But do not become easier. Trediakovsky haunt the failures and disasters, including fire has killed a large part of his library and unpublished manuscripts possessed by the worker. Incidentally, the word 'worker' - another detail in his reputation. Unjust asserted that even Peter I, allegedly paid attention to the youth Trediakovsky, described it thus: 'Eternal worker, but the master never'.
The bad shape literary affairs. Early successes are forgotten, as if they were not. It has become commonplace to consider: if such a poem composed Trediakovskij, then they are very bad. Ode 'Spring Warmth' poet published under an assumed name, the name of encrypting their initials: Spring Heat - Vasily Trediakovskii. And what happened? Lyrics all liked the name of an imaginary author of them nobody repelled. They were like moldings surprising images generously prosody:
. Forth and shepherd in cereal meadows
. From the huts, where he was dazedly darkness.
. Sat down near one of his former girlfriend,
. Osklablenny bowed to her SPAR.
. Main work Trediakovsky - a monumental poem 'Tilemahida'
. This is a verse translation of the prose novel of French writer F. Fenelon 'The Adventures of Telemachus'. Poem written hexameters ( 'size of ancient verse'), in the spirit of the Homeric epic, and it is appropriate, since the ancient story: Telemachus - son of Odysseus. The size of the hard, the line is long, it often fall into the words that reading does not need to accentuate the stressed syllable, and these words the poet connects the dashes with the neighboring word - a support and shock. These lines he called "edinitnymi chopsticks'. Built by him building Russian hexameter as if enclosed in scaffolding 'edinitnyh sticks': 'Behold, suddenly she saw the broken boards Ship ...'. 'Tilemahida' It's readers do not like, and of the poets for a long time hardly anyone dared to write hexameters, for fear of being branded as the second Trediakovskij (this size is completely rehabilitated only in the XIX century, NI Gnedich - interpreter 'Iliad').
. The poem was published during the life of the author, in 1766
. Empress Catherine II reacted to it negatively. The court, if admitted some mistakes and violated etiquette, are exposed to a punishment: should have been read aloud a page from 'Tilemahidy' or learn from it by heart a few lines.
. Trediakovsky readily attributed to the seemingly absurd or ridiculous poems, for example, are: 'Catherine the Great, oh! / / I went to Tsarskoe Selo '
. Or a poetic riddle: 'It is wood, / / By the wall join, / / sings wonderfully, / / And being a finger poke' (clue - piano). In actual fact very nice zagadochka! Or a toast to the Empress: "Be well, / / As a cow, / / fertile as a pig, / / And rich as the earth '. All this was somewhat comical tone.
But were he and admirers. Reform of Russian verse went down in history as the reform Trediakovsky-University, ie, the first is rightly described as the one who started this great work. Sympathetic and respectful attitude toward memory Trediakovsky AN Radishchev, who wrote an essay about it and has taken a verse from 'Tilemahidy' (in slightly modified form) as an epigraph to his 'Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow'. Pushkin Lazhechnikov scolding for what he Trediakovsky caricature depicted in the novel 'The Ice House'. AA Delvig liked the verse of 'Tilemahidy' on odisseevskom ship: 'Run dividing the wave, because the eyes went away and hid-'
. SP Shevyrev noted the following beautiful lines Trediakovsky, in which a high sense of poetic inspiration:
. Hear me, O heaven! and river
. Earth, let him hear the mouth of the verbs;
. How do I word trickled rain,
. And snidut like dew to the flower
. My broadcasting valleys ...
. It's really very beautiful
. But it is equally important to understand and feel that in his magnificent and other poems Trediakovsky, causing a sharp comic impression of angularity and awkwardness. They charm sample, search, philological experiment. This is also our 'trudolyubny scholar' given new ways of development of Russian verse.
. I asked him, is what the royal statehood?
. He otveschal: The king has the power to all the people;
. But the laws over them all the same power to course.
. V. Trediakovsky
. Poem 'Tilemahida'
Lord! you crown and throne
Gives law, not nature.
You stand above you people
But above you, the eternal law.
Pushkin. Ode 'Liberty'