TSIOLKOVSKY Tsiolkovsky( thinker and scholar, founder of astronautics.)
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Biography TSIOLKOVSKY Tsiolkovsky
Years of life
1857, 17 (5 September) in the family of a Polish nobleman, who served on the State Property Office, was born Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky. Father scientist - Edward Ignatievich Tsiolkovsky. Mother scientist, Maria Ivanovna Yumashev, was a Russian with an admixture of Tartar blood. Russian land and its language was native to the future scientist. His parents were a complete contrast. Here's how he wrote many years later, Constantine E. autobiographical sketches in "The features of my life": "... among friends father was reputed clever man and speaker. Among the officials - red and intolerance on the ideal of integrity ... Kind of had a dark. There was a terrible kicker and debater ... Has a strong and heavy for the surrounding nature of ... Stick to the Polish society and actually sympathized with the rebels, the Poles, who in our house always found shelter ... Mother - merry, cheerful, giggler and scoffer ... "Usually, with children involved in mother. It was she who taught reading and writing of Constantine, introduced with the beginnings of arithmetic.
1860 Tsiolkovskys family moved to Ryazan. Father, Edward Ignatievich, was determined by dividing the clerk of the Forest Ryazan Chamber of state properties.
1866 Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, scarlet fever. As a result of complications from an illness, he lost his hearing. There was something that he later called "the most mournful, the darkest time of my life". Deafness has deprived the boy of many children's amusements and excitement, his usual healthy peers.
1868 family moved Tsiolkovskys to Vyatka. New post father - chief clerk of the Forest Branch of the Vyatka Chamber of state properties.
1869 admission to school. Great successes future scientist did not shine. Items were many, and the deaf boy was not easy to learn. But for the pranks he repeatedly found himself in solitary confinement.
1870 death of his mother - Maria Ivanovna Tsiolkovsky (Yumasheva). Woe crushed orphan boy. Much sharper than he feels his deafness, which made him more and more isolated. Deprived of support, the boy learns to worse ... And then the day comes when he is forced to change a bad relationship with a gymnasium, multi-year friendship with the books ...
1871 expulsion from the school c characteristic ... for admission to the technical college ". But at this time of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, finds his true vocation and place in life. He is responsible for the formation of self. Unlike his high-school teachers book generously apportion its knowledge and never make the slightest reproach. At the same time, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, is attached to technical and scientific creativity. He alone makes astrolabe (first measured her distance - to fire tower), . home lathe, . camodvizhuschiesya carriages and locomotives (an invaluable material for the steel plates are steel skeletons of lush women's skirts, . fully emerged already out of fashion, . and sold so dirt-cheap in the market),
Tsiolkovsky in 1873 moved to Moscow to continue education. Ability son became evident to Edward Tsiolkovsky, and he decides to send the boy to the capital. Constantine finds himself an apartment (the exact address where Tsiolkovsky lived, unknown), and literally living on bread and water (father sent ten or fifteen rubles a month), persistently engaged. Every day from ten in the morning until three or four days in the afternoon hard-working young man shtudiruet science Chertkovsky library (now - Rumyantsev). During the first year of life in Moscow passed physics and mathematics beginning. The second Constantine overcomes the differential and integral calculus, higher algebra, analytic and spherical geometry.
Tsiolkovsky return to Vyatka. Inculcated father is going to resign and he no longer afford to support his son financially. Constantine became a private tutor and earn independently, and in his spare time continues to work in urban public library.
death from typhoid schoolboy Ignatius Tsiolkovsky, brother of Constantine.
family moved to Ryazan. Retired Edward Tsiolkovsky decided to leave the city, where his wife died, and one of his sons and return to live out their days in Ryazan. Constantine had again to struggle for existence - in Ryazan was no longer dating, there was no private lessons. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky decides to prepare for exams as an external student at the rank of county school teachers. He wants to have a profession and not to depend more on odd jobs. At the same time, leaving no intellectual pursuits, the young scientist came close to answering the question posed to himself back in Vyatka: "Can not we invent a machine to get up in the air space?"
. July 8 - Konstantin Tsiolkovsky began compiling astronomical drawings and tables
. 1879 Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, built the world's first centrifugal machine (the predecessor of modern centrifuge) and conducted her experiments with different animals
. Weight red cockroach was increased 300 times, and the weight of a chicken - at 10, without the slightest harm to them.
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky exams for the teaching profession and moved to Borovsk by appointment from the Ministry of Education for his first public office.
August 20 - Konstantin Tsiolkovsky marries Varvara Evgrafovna Sokolova. Young couple starts living separately and a young scholar continues to physical experiments and technical creativity. In the house of Tsiolkovsky sparkle electric lightning, thunder, jingle bells, dancing paper dolls. Visitors were amazed as the "electric octopus", which grabbed everyone with their feet nose or fingers, and then there has got to him in the legs, the hair stood on end and sparks jumped from any part of the body. Puff it up with hydrogen rubber bag and carefully balanced by means of a paper boat with sand. As a living, he wandered from room to room, following the air currents, rising and falling.
At the same time Tsiolkovsky independently developed a kinetic theory of gases, shortly before he brought to the finished appearance of the works of Clausius, Boltzmann, Maxwell and Van der Waals forces (as Tsiolkovsky simply did not know). Despite the opening already open, the manuscript of "Theory of Gases", aimed at the Russian Physico-Chemical Society, founded shortly before Mendeleyev, Tsiolkovsky has brought fame to the world of science.
death of his father - Edward Ignatievitch Tsiolkovsky
1883 Tsiolkovsky builds and runs over Mongolfier Borovckom.
1885 began work on the manuscript of "Theory of the balloon"
1890 VII Department of the Russian Technical Society passmotrel draft all-metal airship Tsiolkovsky. Although the cash grant to the author was denied (on the basis of purely technical difficulties in implementation, not completely overcome by the project), the idea and theoretical calculations were found to correct
. 1891 publication in the Proceedings of the Society of Naturalists article Tsiolkovsky "fluid pressure on a uniformly moving in its plane
. Tsiolkovskys family moved to Kaluga to the reappointment of Konstantin Eduardovich career
. Tsiolkovsky publishes a brochure entitled "metallic balloon-controlled"
. Work on it was completed back in Vorovsk, but it was released in Moscow printing Volchaninova after moving Konstantin Eduardovich
. Tsiolkovsky passed among the members of the Nizhny Novgorod circle amateur astronomy
. Tsiolkovsky publishes in the annex to magazine "Around the World" fantastic story "The Moon"
. 1894 publication in the journal "Science and Life" work "or birdlike airplane (aircraft) flying machine"
. Here is a grand paradox - Tsiolkovsky was fascinated at the time the ideas of constructing aerial vehicles (suffice it to say, . that he had to endure a lengthy series of battles for its all-metal dirigible, . and that it is inherent in his ideas became the foundation for the development in Germany famous Zeppelin (by the name of the designer - Count Ferdinand Zeppelin),
. Petersburg ideological opponents Tsiolkovsky - MM. Pomortsev and A.C. Kovan'ko, familiar with his project, included in the commission of technical control over the development of controlled balloon Austrian inventor Schwartz, specially invited to St. Petersburg Russia's defense minister. After several failures Schwartz managed to make the first run already in Germany. Graf Zeppelin bought his patent and was able to set up production of airships. So Tsiolkovsky's ideas, not implemented in the Motherland, energized foreign project. Finally, the famous bathyscaphe Auguste Picard has much in common with the project Tsiolkovsky).
However, in this work, originally conceived for "shaming" balloons, Tsiolkovsky came to quite different conclusions and far ahead of his time. It is in this work were expressed ideas monoplane, autopilot and the use of gyroscopes in aircraft.
1895 out of the book "Dreams of the earth and sky"
1896 Tsiolkovsky acquainted with the book A.P. Fedorov's "new way of aeronautics, excluding the air as a supporting environment
1897 Tsiolkovsky builds a wind tunnel. This tube became the second in Russia (the first built in 1871 in St. Petersburg Pashkevich engineer for the study of ballistics). Tsiolkovsky also became the first in the search patterns of flight with small speeds. This champion of the airship was one of the founders of a new science - experimental aerodinamiki
. 1897, May 10 - Tsiolkovsky derived a formula, which establishes a relationship between:
. speed of the missile at any time
. Velocity of the gas exhaust nozzles
. mass rocket
. mass explosives
. The catalyst for the withdrawal of this brilliant formula (she was named "Tsiolkovsky Formula") and served as a jet propulsion scheme proposed by Fedorov in his book
. Tsiolkovsky himself Fedorov did not know then about the same pattern Nicholas Kibalchicha developed by them before execution.
After mathematical writing, Tsiolkovsky automatically set the date: May 10, 1897. Of course, he never for a second suspect, how much joy will deliver later historians find yellowed and crumpled sheets. After writing the date of computation, Tsiolkovsky, without knowing it myself, established cvoe primacy in matters of scientific exploration of outer space.
1899 invitation to work in the Women's Diocesan School
1900 The Academy of Sciences has decided to help Tsiolkovsky in conducting experiments on the aerodynamics. Tsiolkovsky, on the basis of experiments displays the formula, . connecting the power demand of the engine with an aerodynamic coefficient of drag and lift coefficient and approaches the problem of turbulent flow, . which was subsequently one of the major problems in aircraft,
. 1902 suicide of his son Ignat
1903 publication in "Science Revue first part of work" The study of outer space rocket appliances ". In this pioneer work Tsiolkovsky:
. fully proved the impossibility of access to space in a balloon or by artillery shells,
. deduced the relationship between the weight of fuel and the weight of the rocket structure to overcome the force of gravitation,
. suggested onboard attitude control system on the Sun or other celestial
. analyzed the behavior of the missile outside the atmosphere, in an environment free from gravity
. So on the banks of the Oka dawn of the space age
. However, the result of the first publication was not one of waiting Tsiolkovsky. Neither compatriots, nor foreign scholars have not appreciated the study, which today boasts science. It is simply the era ahead of its time.
1905 purchase of a house on the Korovinskoe street in Kaluga
1911 Journal of ballooning begins to publish the second part of the work "The study of outer space rocket appliances". Tsiolkovsky calculates the work to overcome the force of gravitation, determines the speed you need to exit the device in the solar system ( "escape velocity") and flight. At this time the paper Tsiolkovsky made a splash in the scientific world. Eight years for the development of science - a considerable time! Tsiolkovsky found many friends in the world of science
. By this time the true beginning of discussions with foreign authors on the research priorities (first the Frenchman Robert Esnault Pelterie, and subsequently, after the death of Tsiolkovsky - an American, Francis Goddard)
. publication of the brochure "The second law of thermodynamics"
. participate in the "Third All-Russia Congress of the balloon in St. Petersburg
. magazine "Nature and People" begins publishing the novel "Out of the Earth"
. participate in the Proletarian University of Kaluga
. August - Tsiolkovsky was elected to membership in the Socialist-sorevnovateley Academy
. June 5 Tsiolkovsky was elected an honorary member of the Russian Society of Amateurs mirovedeniya
. November 29 - Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR shall decide on the appointment of Tsiolkovsky's personal pension
. 1922 Tsiolkovsky participates in the annual congress of the Association of Naturalists
. 1923 correspondence with the beginning F.A
1924, August 23 Tsiolkovsky was elected an honorary professor at the Air Force Academy named H. E. Zhukovsky
. 1925, May 3 debate at the Polytechnical Museum in Moscow on the feasibility of building an airship Tsiolkovsky
. 1926 publication of a great work "The study of outer space rocket appliances"
. June 23 Rocket Research Institute Tsiolkovsky elected an honorary member of the technical council
. September 13 - a letter-testament to the CC, CPSU (b)
. September 19 - the death of Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovskoogo
. Sergey Monakhov
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. TSIOLKOVSKY Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935) - Russian Soviet scientist and inventor in the field of aerodynamics, rocket dynamics, the theory of the aircraft and an airship, the founder sovr
. Space. Born in the family gamekeeper. After a postponed in childhood scarlet fever is almost completely lost his hearing, deafness is not allowed to stay in school, and 14 years he worked independently. From 16 to 19 years living in Moscow, he studied Physics and Mathematics. Scientific cycle secondary and higher education. In 1879 external students passed the exam for the title of a teacher and in 1880 was appointed a teacher of arithmetic and geometry in the thieves' district school Kaluga Province. By this time the first scientific study of Tsiolkovsky. Not knowing about the discoveries already made, in 1880-81, he wrote a 'theory of gases', which outlined the basis of the kinetic theory of gases. His second work - "Mechanics of the animal organism '(same years) received a favorable review and. M. Sechenov, and Tsiolkovsky was adopted in Rusco Physico-Chemical Society. The main work of Tsiolkovsky after 1884 were associated with four major challenges: the scientific rationale for the all-metal balloon (airship), streamlined airplanes, trains, hovercraft and rocket for interplanetary travel. Since 1896 Tsiolkovsky systematically studied the theory of motion of jet apparatus and proposed a number of schemes for long-range missiles and rockets for interplanetary travel. After the October Revolution of 1917 Tsiolkovsky much fruitful work on the creation of the theory of flight, jet planes, invented his scheme of gas turbine engine, in 1927 published a theory and scheme of the train on an air cushion.
The first printed work on the airship was 'metallic balloon-controlled' (1892), which given the scientific and technical rationale for the construction of an airship with a metal shell. Progressive for its time, the project airship Tsiolkovsky was not supported, the author was denied a grant for the construction of model. Appeal Tsiolkovsky in the General Staff of the Russian army also had no success. In 1892 Tsiolkovsky moved to Kaluga, where he taught physics and mathematics at school and the Diocesan School. During this period he turned to a new and little-studied area of aircraft heavier than air.
Tsiolkovsky's idea to build an airplane with a metal frame. In the article 'An airplane or birdlike (aircraft) flying machine' (1894) gives a description and drawings monoplane, which by its appearance and aerodynamic configuration anticipated aircraft designs that have emerged over 15-18 years. In Tsiolkovskogo airplane wings have a thick profile with a rounded front edge and the fuselage - faired. Tsiolkovsky built in 1897, Russia's first wind tunnel with open working part, . developed the experimental procedure in it, and in 1900 to grant the Academy of Sciences made the purging of the simplest models and determined the coefficient of drag ball, . flat plate, . cylinder, . cone etc.,
. tel. But work on the airplane, as well as on the airship, not recognized by official representatives of Russian science. Many years later, in Sovestky time, in 1932 he developed the theory of flying jet aircraft in the stratosphere and circuit device for aircraft flying at hypersonic speeds.
The most important scientific results obtained in the theory of motion Tsiolkovsky rocket (rocket dynamics). Thoughts on the use of the principle of the rocket in space is expressed Tsiolkovsky in 1883, but the strict theory of jet propulsion is described them in 1896. Only in 1903 he managed to publish part of the article 'The study of outer space rocket devices', in which he substantiated the real possibility of their use for interplanetary communications. In this article, and its extensions (1911, 1912, 1914) he laid the foundations of the theory of rockets and rocket engines. Consideration of the practical problem of rectilinear motion of the rocket resulted Tsiolkovsky to address new problems of mechanics bodies of variable mass. They first solved the problem of landing spacecraft on the surface of planets without atmosphere. In 1926-29 Tsiolkovsky developed the theory of multistage rockets. He considered (approximately) the influence of atmosphere on the flight the rocket, as well as calculated nebohodimye fuel reserves to overcome the resistance forces Earth's atmosphere.
Tsiolkovsky - the founder of the theory of interplanetary. His research showed for the first time the possibility of achieving cosmic velocities, thus proving the feasibility of interplanetary flights. He first examined the issue of missiles - an artificial Earth satellite and suggested the establishment of Earth Stations as artificial settlement, . using solar energy, . and intermediate bases for interplanetary communications, considered the medical and biological problems, . arising during prolonged space flights,
. Tsiolkovsky wrote several works in which paid attention to the use of satellites in the national economy.
Tsiolkovsky made a number of ideas that have been used in rocket. He suggested: gas rudders (graphite) for the rocket's flight control and change the trajectory of its center of mass, use of components of the fuel to cool the outer shell of the spacecraft (at the time of entry into Earth's atmosphere), . the walls of the combustion chamber and nozzle rocket engine, pump fuel feed system components (to reduce weight control); optimal descent trajectory for the spacecraft returning from space, etc.,
. In the field of rocket propellants Tsiolkovsky studied a large number of different oxidants and fuels for rocket engines; recommended that couples fuel: liquid oxygen with volorodom, oxygen with hydrocarbons, etc..
Tsiolkovsky was the first ideologue and theoretician of human exploration of outer space, the ultimate goal to-cerned appeared to him in the form of a complete restructuring of the biochemical nature generated by the Earth-minded beings. In this regard, he is proposing a project of the new organization of mankind, which originally intertwined ideas of social utopias of various History. epochs.
Tsiolkovsky - the author of several science fiction works, as well as research in the DR. disciplines: linguistics, biology, etc..
Under Soviet rule the conditions of life and work of Tsiolkovsky radikalyyu changed. Tsiolkovsky was appointed as personal pension and to enable productive activity. His work contributed significantly to the development of rocket and space technology in the USSR and others, the countries. For 'special achievements in the field of inventions that are of great importance for the economic strength and defense of the USSR' Tsiolkovsky in 1932 awarded the Order of Red Banner of Labor. On the eve of the 100 th anniversary of the birth of C. In 1954 the USSR established the gold medal of. K. E. Tsiolkovsky "3a outstanding work in the field of interplanetary communications". In Kaluga, Moscow and built monuments scientist, a memorial museum-house in Kaluga, and his name are the State Museum of History of Space and Pedagogical Institute, a school in Kaluga, Moscow Aviation Technology Institute. Tsiolkovsky crater on the Moon named.