Chaadayev Peter Yakovlevich( The philosopher, publicist.)
Comments for Chaadayev Peter Yakovlevich
Biography Chaadayev Peter Yakovlevich
27.5/8.6.1794 - 14/26.4.1856
Overview Studied in Moscow. un-te / 1808-1811 /. Member of the Patriotic War of 1812. Mason / since 1814 /. In 1836 published the first "Philosophical Letter", after which he was forbidden to publish. I think that Russia was no longer on the human race and saw the task of reuniting it with the Western civilization. Has constructed social utopia in which the unity of the human race is restored by educating morally perfect personality. Eden B. formed the basis for Westerners.
Characteristics of views "Chaadaeva negative attitude toward Russia, expressed so strongly in his first" Philosophical Letter "smoothed out somewhat under the influence of Prince Odoevsky and other friends. In 1837, Mr.. Chaadaev wrote "Apology of a Madman", which after his death, was published in Paris, a Jesuit Russian prince Gagarin in his book "Oeuvres choisies de P. Tchaadaief "(1862). Chaadaev came to the conclusion that the sterility of the historical past of Russia is in a sense, good. Russian people, not being constrained petrified life forms, has the freedom to carry out the spirit of the great challenges of the next ". (Lossky N.O. History of Russian Philosophy
. Teaching people of Europe
. 'The peoples of Europe have a common person, family resemblance, despite their separation in the field of Latin and Teutonic, the southerners and northerners, there are connecting them into one feature, clear to anyone who is deep into their common destiny
. You know, not so long ago the whole of Europe was called Christendom, and the word meant in public law. Apart from the general appearances of all, each of these nations has its special features, but all this is rooted in history and tradition and is a hereditary property of these nations. And in the depths of every individual has his share of the total inheritance, without labor, without the stress of life picks up scattered in the knowledge society and use them '. (Chaadaev PO Box. Compositions. M., 1989. S. 22).
'A small minority thinks the rest of the senses in the end do we get the general movement. This is because all peoples on earth, with the exception of only a few wild race, which kept out of human nature, one only appearance ... Primitive peoples of Europe, the Celts, Scandinavians, Germans, had its Druids, their skalds, their bards, who in their own way were strong thinkers. Take a look at the tribes of North America, which eradicates with such zeal material civilization of the United States: among them there are people, amazing depth. And now I ask you, where are our wise men, where are our thinkers? Who for us ever thought of who we think now? " (Ibid.. S. 24).
Lack of progress
'Internal development, the natural progress we have no previous idea of sweeping out the new, because the latter do not grow out first, and are coming from outside. We perceive only the ideas in finished form, so those indelible traces that are deposited in the minds of successive development of thought and create a mental strength, not furrowed our minds. We are growing, but not mature, we moved forward, but in an oblique direction, t. e. the line, does not lead to the goal. We have similar article to the children who are not forced themselves to talk, so that when they grow up, their is nothing in them, all their knowledge on the surface, all their soul - out of their. These are the same and we '. (Ibid.. S. 21)
. Beginning of spiritual activity
. 'Repeatedly returning to the fundamental principles of our spiritual activities, . to, . that is our thoughts and our actions, . impossible not to notice, . that a significant portion of their defined by something, . that we did not belong, . and that most good, . most sublime, . very useful for us from what is happening in us is not done by us',
. (Ibid.. S. 42).
'Every natural phenomenon is a syllogism with greater and lesser assumptions and conclusion. Consequently, the very nature inspires the mind the way that he should follow to its knowledge, therefore, and here he only obeys the law, which to him is revealed in the very movement of things'. (Ibid.. S. 53).
'All the time we make ourselves, there is no doubt. God did not create time, he allowed him to create a man. But in this case, which would have gone to time, this pernicious idea, surround and oppressive me everywhere? Do not go away whether it is completely out of my mind, not dissipate it without the rest of his imaginary reality, the overwhelming me so cruelly? " (Ibid.. S. 56).
'Any movement in nature is produced by two forces which stimulate the desire in movable in two opposite directions, and in outer movement that truth manifests itself most clearly. Meanwhile, astronomers, . satisfied, . that the celestial bodies, shall be subject to the law of gravity and that of the law can be calculated with accuracy, . turned the whole system of the world in a geometric problem and now the general law of nature in lomoschi perceive some sort of mathematical fiction under the name of one attraction or gravitation,
. But there is another force, without which neither the severity of what would have served as: the initial shock, or's commitment '. (Ibid.. S. 66).
'On the day of a man that God talked to him, and man heard and understood him: this is the true origin of the human mind, psychology will never find a better explanation. Later, he lost the ability to perceive a part of God's voice, it was a natural consequence of the gift he received unlimited freedom. But he lost memories of the first divine words, which rang in his ear. So this is the first verb of God to the first man, passed from generation to generation, striking man in the cradle, he was the person enters the world of consciousness and turns it into a thinking creature '. (Ibid.. S. 81).
Material and spiritual interests
'Once satisfied with the material of interest, a person does not go forward, it's good if he does not retreat. Make no mistake: in Greece, . as in the Indian subcontinent, . Rome, . as in Japan, . All mental work, . as if it may be noteworthy, . past and present, . had always been and always leads to only one: poetry, . philosophy, . Arts, . - All this has been and still serves as only one - to meet the physical substance,
. All the most sublime and overflowing in the exercises and habits of East not only contrary to this general provision, . and, . opposite, . confirms its, . because who does not see, . that all these thoughts come from exaggerations and fabrications of the material rights of self-delusion ',
Literature Tarasov, BN. Chaadaev. , 1986; Sapov VV. Abuser Russia / / Questions Literature. 1994. Tech. I, II; Case banning J.. "Telescope", ibid; Falk H. Das Weltbild Peter J. Tschaadajews nach seinen acht "Philosophischen Briefen". Muenchen, 1954; McNally R. Chaadayev and his Friends. Talahassee, Florida, 1971; Zeldin M.-B. Chaadayev as Russia `s First Philosopher / / Slavic Review. 1978. Vol. 37. ? 3; Quenet Ch. Tchaadaev et les lettres philos. P., 1931 (There is a large - about 700 items - bibliography).