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SHULYATIKOV Vladimir

( Literary critic, a Social Democrat.)

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Biography SHULYATIKOV Vladimir
1872 - 1912
Information supporter vulgar sociology, believed any apology for the philosophy of certain classes.

Teaching Based on theses Article. Bogdanov "authoritarian thinking" about the reflection in the opposition "spirit - the body of" social contradictions "organizer - organized", . Shulyatikov represents "all without a trace philosophical terms and formulas ...", . employees "of the bourgeoisie to refer to social classes, . groups, . cells and their relationships "(Khludov In,
. in the book.: Russian Philosophy. Small Collegiate Dictionary. M., 1995. S. 608).

Major works 1 / From the theory and practice of class struggle. M., 1907, 2 / Justification of capitalism in Western philosophy. M., 1908.

Works from the theory and practice of class. struggle. M., 1907; trade union movement and the capitalist. bourgeoisie. M., 1907, trade unionist threat. M., 1907; justification of capitalism in the West European. philosophy (from Descartes to Mach). M., 1908; Izbr. literary crit. Article. Moscow, Leningrad, 1929.

Literature Gurstein A. One of the first: (a VS) / / On lit. post. 1929. ? 18; VI Lenin. Philos. Notebook / / Full. cit. op. T. 29; Kammari M. On Lenin's notes on the book. SH. / / Under the banner. Marxism. 1937. ? 6; Lunacharsky AV. More about the theater and socialism / / Vertices. Kn. 1. SPb., 1909; Plekhanov GV. About the book V.SH. / / GV Plekhanov. Op. M., 1925. T. 7; Rosenthal MM. Lenin's struggle against the vulgarization of Marxism / Lit. critic. 1937. ? 8.


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  • Bulli for SHULYATIKOV Vladimir
  • Shulyatikov, Vladimir Mikhailovich (aliases literature - B-uv, V. S., D., D-v,-uv M. M., S., Epato, Donnerwetter, alias Party-Donat) [30, IX (12.H) .1872, Moscow - 26.III (8.IV) .1912, ibid] - literary critic, journalist, publicist , literary translator. Party leader. Member RSDLP since the mid 90's. After graduating with a silver medal 1 st Mos-Dubcek high school in 1892. entered the historical-philological faculty Mos-Dubcek University. The university was one of the organizers of mug Love-ers of Western European literature, which approached the Bryusov In. Fritsche, P. Kogan. According to friends, one of the first people in the early 90's brought to the university 'fresh air of the revolution and the teachings of Karl Marx' (Archive of the USSR. F. 643. - Op. 1.. - D. 92) and 'to the end remained faithful to the banner of Social Democracy' (Star. 1912. -? 24). Even during training and immediately after completing the course in 1896. SH. tries his hand and as an interpreter. In the journal 'Teatral' published his translation of the play Spanish playwright JosцL Echegarayn (1896. -? 55-90). Subsequently, the press appear his translations of poems of Ada Negri, Blasco Ibц¦ц¦ez, novels, plays B. Shaw. Typically, the translation W. selected works of pronounced social playing. There is evidence that he knew 26 languages. At the same time it acts as a critic (a review of the play in. Sardou - Teatral. - 1895. -? 48 and literary critic (article 'The two noble cousin', a controversial issue Shakespearean criticism '- Teatral. - 1896. -? 86, 88). In these pa-bots W. He showed himself a follower of cultural-historical school of literature-AKING.. In 1898-1899 he. his reviews and notes appear in the bibliographic section-sky 'Russian statements', and from 1900-1903, Mr.. He publishes a 'critical studies' in newspaper 'Kurier' and is its executive secretary. During these years, W. fighting for a Marxist methodology of literary analysis, expression-working principles of socio-genetic approach to art, rejects assess-night aesthetic idealists criticize mechanistic followers. Taine, shows 'failure' the populist views on the literary pro-cess, against the surface assimilated Marxism E-Soloviev A.. Work in the newspaper interrupt the arrest and exile - first in Tver (1902 per-view in the Arkhangelsk Province. (1904-1905). Amnesty 1905. allowed W. return to party work. He becomes a member of the literary and lecturing team at MK RSDLP, wrote pamphlets, speakers working in the classroom. In the years of revolution and reaction, he fellow Bolshevik publications 'Struggle' (1905, 1907), 'Torch' (1906), 'Working the banner' (1908), 'Journal of Labor', 'Work it', 'Pro-letary' (1909) 'Voice of Life', 'Our Way'. (1910), 'Our Time' (1911), in which ryh publishes articles on the trade union movement, anti-opportunistic-grained of all stripes Last W. was arrested in 1910. He died of cancer as-ludka. In recognition of the companion was "touching figure ... in our party '(C o r k in n of B, C, T e of a new in. I. From the memories / / At the dawn of the labor movement in Moscow .- M.. 1919 .- From. 112). Over the passion in the pursuit of a Marxist-ing views earned him the nickname 'philosopher-orthodox' (R u r k s and A. S. Having survived-toe.-M., 1965.-P.86). Republishing in 1918. Ada Negri's poetry, translated by S., V. Fritsche, wrote that it is necessary to recall the 'name of a comrade, with a otdavshe th disinterested Mr. valiant cause of the proletarian revolution' (h e r p and Hell. Poems .- M., 1918 .- With. XXV). And perhaps, in part, and a critic had in mind when translating the following lines to the Italian poet: And you will fight with pen and case / For long-luck days to come, / And thou wilt shew the world in the su-dark gray / Dawn birth of lights'. W. was personally acquainted with in. I. Lenin. In 1909, Mr.. participated in the meeting of the expanded edition of the newspaper 'Proletariat', held in Paris under the leadership of Lenin and condemn the 'Capri school', headed by a. Bogdanov. At this meeting, W. Lenin took the platform, delivered born to a negative-tion of otzovist activities Bogdanova, distanced himself from the ideas of God-builders-tion. However, at some stage (1905-1910) was influenced by the philoso-Sofia Bogdanova, . that the negative impact on his views, . Shih-getting the most complete embodiment in the book 'The justification of capitalism in zapadnoev-ropeyskoy philosophy' (M., . 1908), . severely criticized by Lenin (Poly,
    . cit. cit .- T. 29.-C, 459-474). It Sh, . defending a class approach to ideology, . argued, . that the whole bourgeois philosophy throughout its history has been employment-protection is the selfish interests of the ruling classes, . and 'all of submission to the bourgeoisie of the world and man' to build the image of Mr. likeness of its industrial-governmental organizations (Justification of Capitalism in Western philosophy .- C,
    . 150). SH. ignored the participation of other classes in the creation of add -. A particular philosophical system in W. provided with a replica of 'inner side of capital talisticheskogo Enterprise, . therefore, all the philosophical concepts Traktovaya-lis to them as the antithesis of organizing the upper and lower ranks of the executive (Ibid .- C, . 7), . and the history of philosophy was built as a parallel to the development of manufacturing pro-duction,
    . 'Vulgarisation materialism', which were pointed out in. I. Lenin (Poly. cit. cit .- T. 29 .- C. 474), measureless uprostitelstvo echoed in the literary-critical articles written in these years: 'A new scene and new drama' (Crisis Theater .- M, 1908) and 'Nearistokraticheskaya aristocracy' (Literary races-pad .- SPb.. 1909 .- Book. 2). Both articles W. reacted to the product as a set of symbols that require interpretation of what should contribute to the construction of a 'common' material 'source' (Neristokraticheskaya aristocracy .- C. 243). Finding a permanent variation of modernist motifs of death, Destruction of, darkness and madness, the critic concluded the sermon 'reduction' of life, a kind of Neo-Malthusianism Andreeva, Artsybasheva, Sologub and Hip-Pius. These theories are called, in his view, the tendency of modern capitalist production-sky to the dismissal of workers, the mass expulsion of the 'untrained' pro-letariata of technically equipped workshops. This also explains why W. and the appearance of conventional theater: the requirements of the economy dictate the director destruction decor-tions, the reduction of the props to a minimum, reducing the number of stagehands. This view is sharply criticized a. Lunacharsky, . seeing it is not a class-new method in the study of culture, . as' a kind of misanthropy, . wishing all the high motivation to see the deception ', . happily revealing a 'sham-ideals of socialism' - low-lying truth ', . 'selfish' interests of the ruling classes (A to have a h a r s k and d A,
    . V. Coll. cit.: In 8 tons - Moscow, 1967.-T. 7.-C. 187). Emerged as a modernist literature 'cult', . contempt for the 'crowd', . gipertro-raphy 'I' - is nothing, . disguised as high-demand skills of desktop, . which may help him to take a worthy place in society, . built on competition,
    . The idea of 'cult of talent' sounded in W. already in article about a. P. Chekhov - 'Theorist talented life' (Pravda. - 1905 .-? 1), . a co-writer of the Torah denial philistine vegetating, . hatred of vulgarity tractors Finn-ish as the glorification of 'professional skills' intellectual proletariat', . craving situation, . conducive to the development of his natural abilities,
    . The writer's outlook, according to S., turned out great closed on production for the social group which he represents. As a result, Chekhov was counted among the 'camp of modern idealists'. This you-water was made W. because, . By that time he had all the modern art at the chal-understood as the products 'bankrupt cultured cells' (restoration of the devastated aesthetics / Essays realistic outlook .- M., . 1904), . have failed in the social sense, . unable to create its own culture and therefore forced to refer to previously usable art techniques, . in particular to Romanticism,
    . Realism in this approach remains the brainchild of the past - the era commoners, . directly attending the life, . in the struggle for existence 'and not resort to' lift-decomposing deceptions', . to 'inventions', . to facilitate a collision with a brutal 'true life' and 'brighten up the moment the inevitable end "(Ibid .- C,
    . 90). All modern art in the interpretation of W. turning out art-game (Ibid .- P 654). Thus, already by the time of 'Restore-ing destroyed aesthetics', W. abandoned many of his valuable observations on the literary works and literary process in general, . Koto-rye was made to them in the first period of activity (1899 - 1903), . he proposes' to seek out and find out indefinitely complex links, . tie ill-divine images and the psychology of the writer with the manifold social unit '(Kurer. - 1902 .-? 42),
    . He did not consider all possible events of the spiritual life of the nineteenth century show of 'violent events' 1789-1815 gg. As did many of his contemporaries. SH. emphasized, . literary phenomena that arise because of 'different histori-ing the causes and to determine their origin can not be ignored a number of intermediate links as an intellectual, . and the social order '(Eng-skie statements .- 1899 .-? 295),
    . (Later it turned out to be missing just 'psy-hologicheskoe link', . a study of 'conditions for the existence of public yache-ek' he substituted the study of technology and method of manufacture.) This is carefully-ing 'search for the' Communication 'units' has helped him not to be deceived 'reflection-em' social and economic relations in the 'ideological' novels Boborykin Mr. Verbitskaya,
    . He resisted the spread of criticism of the opinion that at the turn of the century Russian literature is in decline. Indicator of genuine ideological relics of Russian literature served it works Korolenko, Veresaeva, Hsieh-rafimovicha. A distinctive feature of 'modern realism' turn of centuries (Kur-er. - 1901 .-? 145) he believed increased lyrical beginning, emotional, and not a right didactic impact on the reader deeper psychological analysis. SH. pointed out the special role of time in the plays of Chekhov, stressed the importance of circumstance adjustment elements that acquires a symbolic character (Kurer. - 1901 .-? 65, 70). In the work of M. Gorky W. heard the anthem ... construction of life 'and' true builder 'named Danko (Kurer. - 1901 .-? 236), noting, however, that on any systematic creative work tramps can not, they-ARE was limited by only the verbal attacks on the middle class. Polemical directed against the populist theory of 'the hero and the crowd' Art. SH. on Dobrolubova (Courier. 1901. ? 320) Comparing the ideas Dobrolubova and Pisarev, he noted that Pisarev ogrubil ideas Dobrolubova, highlighting the 'strong personality'. Most likely with a refutation of some of the es-teticheskoy theory relates Pisarev and extensive work W. 'Recovery time-rushennoy aesthetics'. Although direct 'cause of' birth 'new art' W. declared 'co-time machine production and modern iron-ment Industry' (Kurer.-1900 .-? 322), . combating decadence walked him through you, the phenomenon of the social roots of this phenomenon in power pessimistic mood-tion were those social groups that are 'out ..,
    . progressive social development (Kurer. - 1900 .-? 336). One of the first W. able to recognize the idealistic 'roll' former comrades in Marxism - H. Ber-dyaeva and C. Bulgakov. In their appeals to religion, he saw the rejection of the materialist-ic understanding of the laws of historical development. Sensing the growth of in-Teresa to Dostoevsky in their environment (Back to Dostoevsky / Courier .- 1903 .-? 287), he contrasted the idealistic interpretation of his works of socio-genetic study of contradictions world writer. Speaking of Me-rezhkovskom and Gippius, . He cautioned against the reproaches of the Symbolists in 'malicious hoax', . showing, . that their hesitation and ambivalence worldview NE-lyayutsya consequence of social position occupied by them - 'between hell, , . philistine 'stalemate ..,
    . and paradise progressive 'live' life '(Kurer. - 1903 .-? 273). Unlike some critics of the Marxist orientation, W. did not succumb to broadcast calls Nietzsche's birth will be a superman-schego and, . although noted anti-bourgeois character of Nietzsche's philosophy, . concluded its reactionary: anti-bourgeois pathos of Nietzsche develops into antidemo-kratizm, . contempt for the masses,
    . However, in his critical practice, W. use-shaft taken from Nietzsche's philosophy, the term 'cult of suffering', which is one-to, it turned out identical to the concept of exploitation and oppression of peoples, yes. 'Irresistible attraction to life', 'belief in the bright future of mankind' (Ada Negri. Poems .- C. VII) marked them in the poetry of the Italian poet were, in his testimony to just monitor the growth of class-cos naniya proletarian, but the source of it - 'the cult of suffering', which produces a strong and resilient people. The same motive 'suffering' together it creates-operation Nadson, Merezhkovsky, Minsk, in the study of Bunin's 'Stages HIGH lyricism' ( 'From the history of modern Russian literature' - Moscow, 1910), dur-ing W. as a preparatory sketch for the 'impersonal' literary history '(P. 199), which will serve as an ideological illustration of the process of addition of bourgeois society (P. 294) and the establishment of which he dreamed of. At the end of the life of W entered on the path of overcoming the 'vulgar co-tsiologizatorstva', . began to realize the importance of the writer not only as an expression of class and group interests, . but also as an artist, . whose value is not reduced despite minus its 'social character of faith' (B l a s k a and b a n i e a,
    . Poln. cit. op. (Invasion) / / Introd. V. M. Shulyatikova.-M., 1911.-T. 1-C. 7). The contradictions of the literary-critical activity W. Zili reflected the complexity of the formation of the socio-genetic method in literary criticism at that stage, . when defending the social function of literary happening in the struggle with the concept of inherent laws of artistic vein specificity, . the indication of the role of classes in the origin of the literature was judged by equating the content of the product to the moods of a particular social group,
    . There has been clear from the review-negative attitude to the philosophical heritage W. were invited from even-seem to come about for a long time the term 'shulyatikovschina' (See. 'Philosopher science skne' .- 1985 .-? 1) Op.: Ada Negri. Poems / Translation. with Italian. and foreword. V. Shulyatikova - M., 1900. Izbr. literary-critical. Article Ed. with primech. V. Goebel: Joined. Article. V. Just-in .- M.: L., 1929. Lit.: D on b r s a i n M. K. V. M. Shulyatikov / Literature and Marxism .- 1930 --. Kn. 6, P l e s a n about in GV. Izbr. philosopher, made .- M.. 1957 .-- t. 3, G o r e l o v AND. E. The Bolsheviks in the period of reaction (1907-1910) .- Moscow, 1975; graduate of Moscow University - the Bolshevik Leninist generation .- M, 1982: Co-warriors .- M., 1985: burning and. Party pseudonym - Donat / / Arguments and Facts .- 1987 .-? 36; Ste p a n s in. N. Adresovano Moscow .- M., 1987, M and x a y l o c a M. V. N. A. Dob in Marxist criticism of the early twentieth century / / 'Ste-zeyu truth to the good'. 150 years since the birth of the N. A. Dobrolubova. Materials Dobrolyubovskih readings and memorable days in the home country H. A. Dobrolubova .- Gorky-ski, 1987.
  • Bulli for SHULYATIKOV Vladimir
  • I'm preparing for publication all the work Shulyatikova VM
  • Bulli for SHULYATIKOV Vladimir
  • I'm preparing for publication all the work Shulyatikova VM
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