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Yakushkin Ivan Dmitrievich

( The philosopher-materialist, Decembrist.)

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Biography Yakushkin Ivan Dmitrievich
29.12/9.1.1793 - 11/23.8.1857
Information Organizer secret society. Sentenced to death, commuted to 15 years hard labor. I believe that matter consists of innumerable moving particles, a special procedure which is life. Defended the idea of evolutionism. He played against religion.

The doctrine of universal motion
'In nature everything moves constantly. Our land is quickly performs its daily movement, but even more quickly turns around the sun. Some celestial bodies, like our earth, have their daily movements and also turn around the sun. The most obvious movement of the sun is. The units are not combined with each other and filling the space of the universe, constantly driven by the host of heaven. In this general movement of units originating from his countless manifestations varied, . but not all units are equally involved in each of these manifestations, those, . which has already excited the holding force and that their combinations were formed in a simple body, . not all equally involved in the manifestations of heat, . light, . electricity, . Magnetism, . and the most holding power is not equally excited for all the simple bodies, and this force was under different circumstances in the same body may have greater or lesser degree of development,
. Similarly, life in its manifestations, from the fungus and to man, has its degree of development and, as with a high degree of heat reflected light, just under the highest development of life appears of thinking '.
(Izbr. Sots .- polit. philosopher. Random. Decembrists, T. 1. M., 1951. S. 166).
Man
'Bee who has just emerged from his cell, has been the ability to use all polysyllabic work necessary for the existence of bees in the hive to its intended order. Ability to bees, just saw the light, the same completely and closed, as well as the ability of any other bees. The family of bees, for their existence without any need to communicate with other bees in their hive is the same order, which was and is in all other hives. The family of a person in itself is too weak to resist the hostile forces around him: the need to connect it with other families to increase their funds to meet the needs of life. Man - a little animal being at its birth and by nature and, . thus raised in the need for convergence with like, . in conjunction with them takes enormous strength, . continually increasing, . therefore people are linked with the peoples, . people are becoming more and more crowded and all of humanity seeks to combine into one, . - And thereby people strongly differs from all animals in general and in particular from the cock '.,
. (Ibid.
. S. 169 - 170).
. Epistemology
. "If each of our individual feelings gave way only to have another, . as individual sense, . replaced as different image in the mirror, . which reflects each new object, . leaving no trace subjects, . reflected in it before, . we are not having an opportunity to compare one object with another object and distinguish particular, . constitute the exclusive ownership of - a separate subject, . would not have strongly about anything no idea,
. Our existence, . each new sensation I'm composing a new, . would decompose into parts, . have nothing in common with each other, but, . having an opportunity to realize the transition from one sensation to another sense, . I'm on to our already own has the possibility of constantly aware of itself, . and, . featuring some of our feelings, . produced in our impressions from the outside, . from other similar experiences, . we get the concept of objects, . outside our existing,
. Our own work I continually manifested in his dealings with the outside world, and not all the impressions transmitted to us by our senses, is equivalent to our I felt. Being in a large noisy conversation, we randomly draw attention to the speeches of one or other of those interviewed, did not listen to the rest of the dialect. Each is accompanied by a feeling in us the consciousness of this feeling, and with the consciousness of some particular ex sensations, . and, . Conscious of the difference of one sensation from another, . before the former sense, . we come to the knowledge of the diversity of subjects, . producing different impressions on our senses,
. With the ability to pay extraordinary attention to parts of objects as individual objects, parts of these produce in us certain sensations. And here I am again aware of our similarity or difference of their feelings, . we, . first admitting similarity and difference of objects, . now, . Again recognizing the similarity and difference parts of their, . obtain a more complete knowledge about, . what is identity and difference in subjects, . we observed. ",

. Natural origin of man
. 'When some semblance of rights in its embryonic state with other animals and he, . and each of them reaches the extent of, . which is determined by way of the future of their existence, . at the same time and all animals, . and man, . for unfailing law of nature, . born from creatures, . a similar,
. Of the fertilized eggs pike never develop other animal, except for pike, with the heart of one ear, and a single ventricle, as in all fish in general, but with some features peculiar only to the pike. Caviar frog tadpole comes originally, . like fish, . who lives in water and breathe with gills like a fish, . but soon afterwards, . on education in its light, . its gills disappear, . and he turns into a frog, . which, . in the way his blood, . has the opportunity to live on earth, . breathing air, . and remain for a long time under water,
. Of the eggs chicken chicken always comes out. In the womb of a woman at all gradual changes of the embryo and polysyllabic its development has always formed the child, and not some other animal. And the chick hatched from an egg, and the child released from the womb of a woman in her zarodyshnom development have been properly belonging to one of education, which distinguishes them from all the other chickens and all the other guys. So, . observations of the embryo, . obviously, . prove, . that primary education for all animals in general, performed by the same procedure, but that each of them in detail and in degree of development varied to infinity, and that each animal is separate from all the animals as an indivisible and yet is a link in an unbroken chain all beings'.,
. (Izbr
. Sots. - Watered. philosopher. Random. Decembrist. T. 1. M., 1951. S. 159 - 160).

Major works 1 / Notes, articles, letters of the Decembrist ID Yakushkona. M., 1951, 2 / Izbr. socio-political and philosophical Random. Decembrist. V.1. M., 1951.

Works 1 / Notes, articles, letters of the Decembrist ID Yakushkona. M., 1951, 2 / Izbr. socio-political and philosophical Random. Decembrist. V.1. M., 1951.

Literature Philos. views Decembrist ID. / / Nauch. zap. (Dnepropetrovsk State. University). 1951. T. 40. Tech. 1; Koshurnikov AA. Decembrist ID. The life and outlook / / Ouch. zap. (Sverdlovsk State. ped. inst). 1957. Tech. 14; History of Philosophy in the USSR. M., 1968. T. 2.


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