Barras, Paul Franö¬ois Jean Nicolas( French revolutionary)
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Biography Barras, Paul Franö¬ois Jean Nicolas
Name Barraza also closely linked to the end of the French Revolution, as the name of Mirabeau, with its beginning. Barras - it Thermidor, the Directory, is the power of the nouveau riche 'new rich', which invariably gives rise to any revolution. Those who are protecting their own financial interests and it is more the others interested in the stability of political order, not 'rein in' revolution. Behind them are those who can extinguish the flame. Following Barras came Napoleon Bonaparte.
Paul Francois Jean Nicolas, vicomte de Barras, came from a family 'ancient as the rocks of Provence'. He was born in Fox Amfu in the south of France. Somehow finished board, in 16 years, began routine for the noble scion of a military career, but already in 28, after several campaigns, as a captain, resigned. Barras settled in Paris and began to successfully squander his fortune. In this pursuit, and found him in the 1789 revolution. Like many young men of his circle, Barras was not a stranger to new ideas of his century. He might well speculate on the Rights of the nation and the evils of despotism, though, apparently, politics attracted him far less than the secular and not entirely secular entertainment. Started the States General, their subsequent transformation into the National Assembly suddenly piqued his curiosity. When a crowd of Parisians rushed to storm the Bastille, Barraza wanted most to see this extraordinary spectacle. But curiosity is not a reason chtobyy plunge into a revolutionary maelstrom with his head, like other. I made no attempt to join the events, rapidly developing in Paris, Barras left the capital and returned to their homelands.
At first glance, surprising move, since almost all more or less ambitious people were pulled from the beginning of the revolution is in Paris, which, incidentally, had an exceptional opportunity dream careers. But this is the calculation: politics begin in the capital did not break, if it was not worth the province. Barras understood that it was necessary to enlist public support.
At home, he entered politics closely, and soon was promoted to administrator of the Department Options. Successfully resolved and the family business: the revolution abolished titles of nobility, and a former viscount married a girl of humble origin, but with a very respectable dowry. In addition, the marriage proved to be onerous, the wife always remained in the Fox and never endeavoring to follow spouse. A few weeks after the wedding, in the autumn of 1792, elected on an additional list in the highest legislative and executive body of the republic - Convent Barras returned to Paris.
At first novice modestly lost among MPs. He rarely went up to the rostrum of the Convention, he tried not to take too active positions and generally talk less. However, he has established close relationship with the Jacobin Club, and when the question of the fate of "Citizen Capet," very strongly cast his vote for the execution of the King. Finally Barras was seen and vested important powers: the spring of 1793 Convent sent him and another deputy, Freron, with a mission in the Upper and Lower Alps, where they were supposed to expedite the work took place levy a republican army. The mission actually means almost unlimited power over the several departments.
On the road Barraza and Freron found the news of the defeat of the Girondins and the beginning of the rebellion in the south of France, where the administration of several departments opposed the expulsion of the Girondins from the Convention. Marseille and Toulon were covered by the uprising. Designated observer at the Convention of the Italian army, Barras took part in the siege of Toulon, where she first met with Bonaparte (it cm. in volume 'nineteenth century'). The meeting proved to be fleeting, but Barras probably remember a young general. As for his own involvement in the fighting, according to one version, it was of no small importance, and according to another - a very modest. Uncommon revolutionary zeal manifested later, when the rebellion was suppressed. Barras and Freron began zealously to establish order in the southern departments, organized mass executions of rebels and sympathizers to their cause. At the same time as the alleged rumor, do not forget them, and actively correct their financial affairs. To punish the rebellious town, friends came up to deprive them of historical names: Toulon became known as the port on the mountain, and Marseille - Nameless City.
Angry Marseillais - this is their city gave the name of the most famous song of the revolution - 'Marseillaise' - soon reported greed Barraza in Convent. Maximilien Robespierre, known as 'incorruptible', and especially his younger brother, Augustin immediately smitten with him strife. In January 1794 Barras was recalled to Paris. Oblique views of members of the Convention, the isolation in which he was not bode well. Barras with trepidation awaited the inevitable end of his career, which at that time was completed in such cases the same way - at the guillotine. It seemed on the verge of a wheel of terror and his hook ...
Are you going to the opponents of the Committee of Public Safety to counter-attack? Had there been a conspiracy, or simply 'force of circumstances' crushed robesperistskuyu dictatorship? Of course, Barras was looking for like-minded. He became close to Tallien and Fouche. In his house were going Lekuantr, Freron, Rover ... Coup 9 Thermidor (July 27, 1794; Thermidor - 'hot' month) saved their lives and abruptly changed the course of the revolution, ending with the Jacobin dictatorship. Barraza same Thermidor brought to the very crest of the big policy. Contrary to the usual legend, he took no active part in the events unfolding in the Convention on the eve and day of the coup. But past military experience played into his hands: the evening of 9 Thermidor Barras was appointed commander of the Paris National Guard. Night, gathering the forces loyal to Convent of the Paris sections, he stormed the town hall, where the sheltering leaders of the Jacobin dictatorship: Robespierre, Couthon, Saint-Just, Lebas. This could not affect his popularity both in the Convention, and on city streets.
Barras gradually became more influential, although his first real role was small. For some time, resurfaced the old charges of theft and abuse of power, but in early 1795 Barras was acquitted. He was given the rank of brigadier general and was elected to the Committee of Public Safety (appearing at the site of the Jacobin Committee of Public Safety). With this appointment Barras fall once again proved to be on everyone's mind. In October, 1795 (on the revolutionary calendar month was vintage - Vendemiaire) royalist uprising in Paris. They managed to bring to the streets of twenty thousand of his supporters. By becoming a member of the Committee for the Defense and Commander of Internal Troops, Barras turned for help to the young general, who still remembered for Toulon - Napoleon Bonaparte. Guns of the crowd drowned out his cries, shot at the church sv.Roka. Barras again became the savior of the republic, dividing the laurels with Bonaparte. From that time the role of Barras in the Convention has become one of the leading.
Back in August (month 'golden fruit' - Fructidor) The Convention adopted a new constitution. Immediately after the 'vandemerskogo crisis' elections were held in the new government: the Council of Five Hundred and the Council of Elders. They formed a new government - the directory in which runs from now the Ministry. One of the five directors elected Barras. And although the number of votes cast, he was the last in this list, he, single, managed irremovably sit in his place until the end of the Directory.
. Thermidor and the Directory - this is also a revolution, but she did not like a revolution Jacobin
. In place of the gloomy long-standing ideals of the times 'republican virtues' financial interests come and enjoy life, however, only for those who could afford it. There were many: in the murky waters of revolutions is convenient to fish. Wealth is no longer hiding, and put himself conspicuous: balls and revels not halted. Salons flourished: Madame Recamier rivaled Madame Tallien. Nouveaux riches and the survivor of the old aristocracy were hastening. In this motley society Barras - 'Republican king' - felt great. Grobua Castle became the center of his 'FEB-pa'. Luxury, pleasure, women and politics combines in his life. However, the policy required considerable caution and a certain hardness.
After the victory over the royalists in Vendemiaire Barras decided to step down as military powers and focus only on politics. All years in power, he did not forget to provide a rear and regularly renewed his seat in the province. Post Commander of Internal Troops, and along with his weary mistress, Josephine de Beauharnais, he left General Bonaparte.
Despite the noble origins and gentility, the former Viscount Barras remained a firm Republican and did not think about the possibility of restoration of the monarchy in France. Straightened with the royalists, he attacked the nobility and emigrants neprisyagnuvshih priests - the main bastion of the counterrevolution. Thus, was a blow to the right. On the left is threatening the stability of the Jacobins. Now that word has acquired a negative connotation, and understood by him in the first place Robespierrists, that is, the organizers of terror. In the recent past, and Barras was himself a Jacobin and 'terrorist', and therefore act with caution. He is a firm hand, included in detailed lists (announce people outside the law) of all their old personal enemies, but managed to preserve much of the former, the Jacobin administration. Executions have been the most odious figures such as Vendee executioner Kare. The majority osuzhddennyh was sent to Cayenne (French. Guiana).
Shooting at Church of St.. Roca
Generally, secret games were his element, but opponents lacked. Autumn 1797 with the support of Bonaparte Barras made short work of the royalists. But he realized that not right - the main threat to its power, and strong, covered with the romantic glory of victory young general. After the successful campaign of the French army in Italy, where the capital is literally flooded trophies Barras felt that the popularity and ambition of Bonaparte made his own position was too precarious. To send a potential rival away from Paris, Barras insisted on holding the Egyptian campaign. In the spring of 1798, Bonaparte led French troops in the country of pyramids and sphinxes. Calculations Barraza, however, were not justified. The sudden return of Bonaparte from Egypt led by the French, tired of stretching already a decade of revolution, a sigh of relief: that's who can finally restore order. Confronting Bonaparte was no longer possible.
18 Brumaire (9 November 1799; Brumaire - month fogs), denoting the final of the French Revolution put an end to the career Barraza. For some time he had expected that the First Consul, the owner of a new order, remembers Barraza, but the expectations were in vain, and soon he voluntarily resigned.
The time had all feared rival of Bonaparte, who lost this game for power, but he could start a new and. Barraza was sent from Paris, first in his castle Grobua, then to Belgium, then to Provence, and in 1810 he was finally allowed to live in France. Forced to live in Rome, he remained there until the first of Napoleon's abdication. On his return Barras again surprised his contemporaries luxury and mores of their home 'court', but retired from politics.
Few of the supporters Barraza had a chance to rest quietly in his bed. He graduated from the life in his palace at Chaillot, where he wrote his memoirs that so much shocked France in the last decade of the eighteenth century.