Bolingbroke Henry St John( The statesman, scientist, philosopher, he)
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Biography Bolingbroke Henry St John
Statesman, scientist, philosopher, orator, secular rake, an avid hunter, is proud that he knew by their nicknames their hounds - all lived together in one man, whose name is Henry St John. For some - a liar, an immoral hypocrite, ready to betray to achieve their goals. For others - brilliantly educated man with a wonderful memory, practical and clear-headed, refined taste, capable of true and lasting friendship.
Born Henry St. John in 1678 in a family of aristocrats. Studied privileged Eton, where he became famous by countless drinking and amours. A personal anecdote attributed to his relationship with the most expensive courtesan of the British kingdom. In 20 years, St. John went traveling through Europe, from where he returned two years.
At age 23 he was already a politician - he was elected to parliament, where the two competing parties: the Whigs, who were supported by the financial bourgeoisie cities, and the Tories, supporters of the old landed aristocracy. For one of the factions of the Tories, led by R. Harley (later Earl of Oxford), and joined the young parliamentarian. Career Saint John, with its enviable oratorical skills, began rapidly. In 1701, he participated in the drafting, . which was intended to prevent the return to the English throne of the Stuarts, . direct descendants of the executed on the scaffold in 1649, Charles I and exiled during the coup years 1688-1689 James II,
The success of St. John's to a great extent facilitated by the fact that he possessed good looks, necessary for a politician with ambition, ardor and contempt for the hypocrisy. Early marriage has multiplied his fortune, but did not change the character - an ideal husband out of him did not get. Fate continued to favor the politics begin. John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, the distinguished English soldier and statesman who became famous during the War of Spanish Succession (1701-1714), lost his son in 1703 and moved his father's love of the young Saint John. That in 26 years, becoming minister of war was not without the support of influential policy. St. John felt for him a sincere affection, . did not prevent, . however, . then start a parliamentary inquiry, . resulted in the British army commander has been accused of misappropriation of funds, . dispensed to military supplies.,
. Attitude to war - that largely determined if the political life of England
. And if the Tories, worried the tax increase, since 1706 started talking about the need to make peace with France, The richest of loans and supply of the army, the Whigs were strongly for the continuation of hostilities. It was they who were overweight in the government, so in 1708 Hurley, who had become secretary of state, was forced to resign after it left his post, and St. John.
. However, after four years on a wave of public discontent with the protracted war Tories regained power
. These were the last years of Queen Anne (1702-1714), always fond of the Tories. The main efforts of Saint John, who became secretary of state, were aimed at signing a peace treaty. Without exaggeration we can say that the peace of Utrecht (1713) was the brainchild of Viscount Bolingbroke (the title was granted to St. John in 1712). Terms of the contract were highly advantageous to Britain: it has received Gibraltar, part of the island of Menorca and asento (a monopoly on the import of black slaves in the American possessions) - from Spain, as well as some land in North America - from France. Later, however, it did not save the Bolingbroke from accusations of betraying national interests.
. It was clear: life is painful childless queen on the wane - it's time to fight for the throne impatient rivals: in France, Catholics and Protestants Jacob Stewart George Hanover
. The Whigs were fully representative of the Hanover dynasty, the views Tory split. Hardly Bolingbroke entertained during those years my sincere sympathy for the Jacobites, rather, he wanted to weaken the influence of the Whigs. In recent months, Anne's reign he was able to change the Lord Treasurer Harley, becoming a favorite of the queen, but it happened too late. How ironic wrote Bolingbroke to Jonathan Swift: 'Earl of Oxford was dismissed on Tuesday, the Queen died on Sunday. Well, what is this world and the fate of making fun of us! " With the death of Queen ambitious Bolingbroke hopes crumbled to dust. On the throne the new King George I, for election to Parliament in 1715, defeated the Whigs.
In March of that year, Bolingbroke fled to France. This gave free rein to his opponents: chief among them - the leader of the Whig Robert Walpole once was charged with treason, . having related to her and allegedly insufficiently profitable Treaty of Utrecht, . and communication with the defeated challenger to the throne,
. Bolingbroke was sentenced in absentia, stripped of all his estates and titles, though he insisted that he never conducted any negotiations with Stuart and hastily left the country only because he feared persecution by the Whig.
During the flight to France was followed by an even more fateful decision - to become secretary of state government is in exile, James Stewart. The move, which Bolingbroke bitterly regretted later. He gave their talents and energies to the case, which was obviously lost. Perhaps he heard the distorted and exaggerated that the number of supporters of Stewart in Britain is, perhaps, he hoped to use to return the Tories lost power, but somehow or other reckless act was committed. Only seven months it lasted Service. After the failed Jacobite rebellion in 1715 Bolingbroke was dismissed from the failed monarch, who tried in vain to find the culprit of his defeat.
. Since then, Bolingbroke had broken with the Jacobites and began to seek through the British Ambassador in Paris, permission to return home
. He has repeatedly offered his services to George I. It seemed a happy moment is close: in 1717 the news spread through London that the king took under his protection Bolingbroke. But fate again played a trick on him. In 1721 became Prime Minister Walpole. He forgave Bolingbroke humiliation parliamentary investigation of the Whigs, held in the war on the initiative of the once all-powerful leader of the Tories. Many have heard Walpole said: 'Let the deprivation of his civil and property rights will never be abolished, and his crimes will never be forgotten'.
. The years spent in exile, and marks the end of political career, at the same time gave Bolingbroke joy of communicating with the intellectual elite of France, Voltaire, Montesquieu
In 1725, he has finally allowed to return to England, he returned the confiscated lands and titles, but was denied the right to hold any official post and participate in meetings of the Parliament.
Unable to remain idle, he led the opposition to the government behind the scenes of Walpole, unable to speak in parliament, began to write speeches for your friends. In the estate Bolingbroke tee, gathered the most enlightened people of the country - Swift, Arbuthnot, Gay, Pope. Perhaps no one Prime Minister is not opposed by many brilliant thinkers as Robert Walpole in late 1720-ies. It is in the tee, the idea to create a permanent log of the opposition - 'Craftsman' ( 'Craftsman'), . the pages that first appeared two major political work of Bolingbroke 'Observations on the history of England' (1730-1731) and 'thesis about the parties' (1733-1734), . brought him fame philosopher,
And yet, blame the almighty Walpole could not. In 1734, turning in a caustic speech to MPs, he mocked his opponent, calling him 'antiministrom'.
. Deeply disappointed, Bolingbroke in 1735 again left the country, telling friends that he is now forever renounces political career and intends to devote himself entirely to science
. Perhaps he himself believed his promises, but they could not come true: he was always drawn to the place where were the best years of unforgettable youth. In 1738 he returned to this time had finally understand: he will not 'save' the British. He dreamed of creating a national party, able to forget about the internal differences to achieve a common goal, but ... vain. Even the fall of Walpole in 1742 did not lead to the creation of a coalition government. 'Those that relied on me as a crutch, in the days of lameness, threw me right now, like a useless tool' - wrote bitterly Bolingbroke friends.
Yes, life is often played with this man tricks. Opponent 'spirit of the factions', who saw one of the main conditions for the prosperity of the country in the unity of the nation, many years he remained the leader of the opposition. Vain and ambitious, he was a few decades was deprived of power. Constantly accused of a lack of principles, Bolingbroke remained committed to many of the ideals of his youth.
. He stood firm on the fact that 'land owners - the real masters of our political ship, financiers same - no more than passengers on it'
. The ideal of government was for him a constitutional monarchy, where the governor respects the rights and privileges of all classes and reigns with love and belief. He denounced the venality of officials, MPs, bribery, prevailed in the elections and in parliament.
Bolingbroke died in 1751 at the age of 73 years.