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Oliver Goldsmith (Goldsmith Oliver)

( English writer)

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(1728-1774)

. English literature, like no other, teems with eccentrics
. It is understandable, eccentric - not being self-serving, besides amusing. The English folklore surprisingly yumoristichen. English eccentric comes from the depths of people's consciousness. It has long been common literary type. And not only literary. Life.

One of the authors have drawn a lot of eccentrics, he was one of them. His name was Oliver Goldsmith, he was the son and grandson of a village priest with the advent of so small, that like it or not, and should have rolled up their sleeves, take up the plow itself. In fact, there was a priest of the peasants, though quite distinct. Education son, however, still could not give. In any case, such a supposed gentleman-MENU. Oliver trained 'from grace'. The College of the Holy and Indivisible Trinity (Dublin) in their spare time, he swept the yard, cleaned his shoes distinguished classmates, waited at table, and carried them textbooks, when they marched in the classroom. He ate scraps from the table and three teachers go da go to the costume of a medieval servant.

. But Oliver was awarded a Bachelor of Arts degree and received the right to take the examination on any of the four 'professional scholars' - theology, law, medicine and music
. But the path of the theologian does not suit him, and he successfully failed the exam in the diocese. Being a local parish priest as a father and grandfather? No, it's not on it! Relatives, those that richer, sent him to London to study law, but he rode only to Dublin. There he met an old friend and lost money in some tavern. Then the choice fell on medicine. And the best medical faculty in Europe was then in Edinburgh. Two years Oliver regularly attended lectures, and then he was drawn into the distance. Get out on the continent could not be easily. While the ship waited for a favorable wind, Goldsmith spend the time in a favorite of his company's sprightly Scots, with whom he was arrested. They were French agents, and the unlucky traveler had two weeks to feed the prison soup until it became clear that he is not in the service of a foreign power. Three days' journey, and now he was in Leiden, where he attended lectures on medicine. When they left the money, he went on foot to Paris, where he is a faculty of medicine, plus a second can get acquainted with Diderot and Voltaire (about the failed acquaintance, he nevertheless told the most detailed way). And then to Italy, via Germany and Switzerland.

He earned it playing the flute, slept in haystacks, shoes, carrying on his back, but must be worn in the cities. In Rome, spent a little longer, but somehow left him with a diploma of doctor of medicine. I went way back. Approaching the Channel, found that on foot will not pass, but the tattered traveler picked troupe of English players, and before it became clear that his stage talents God has cheated, he moved to England. There he held the exam for the post of ship's doctor, but was unable to answer a single question. Train pharmacist - failed. Teacher - same result. He gave medical advice - the cheap. Good luck to him only once - settled a proofreader in a printing house Richardson. And here was discovered that he was a born writer. In Dublin he had run in verse advertisement. In London, published a poem 'Traveler', written at odd moments during his wanderings through Europe. She brought him fame. Now he's looking for dating such men as Garrick, the famous critic and lexicographer Johnson, painters Hogarth and Reynolds.

And he seemed not to notice that the lion became a secular. He liked to boast a little, remembering some episode of his life, could not resist the sight of the bottle and did not know when to rise because of the card table. Yes, and it was very homely - a small, freckled. But the affectionate, magnanimous and generous to extravagance. One day in winter, having met on the street barefoot poor, Goldsmith led him to his house and went up to her, threw him from the window of your own shoes - the last couple of. On another occasion, he gave all his bedding women in need and for a time slept vsporov feather bed and buried in the feathers. And when I remembered that I myself a beggar, sat down to play cards. Sometimes he was lucky, but he immediately squander gains. And then even he could not pay the money for an apartment. Once he was rescued by Hogarth. He drew a caricature of a landlady Goldsmith, sold, and from the money she paid. Johnson visited him once, when Goldsmith, fearing arrest for his debts, he was afraid to leave the house, and asked whether he had any of the manuscript. Goldsmith replied that he wrote a novel, but that does not cost anything. It was 'Vekfildsky priest' (1766), brought him worldwide fame. In the meantime, he helped him get out of debt.

Money Goldsmith all the time went. He simply takes them. Diligence possessed extraordinary. After 'Traveler' (1765) created the well-received poem 'to leave the village' (1770), . in 1766-1771-m - 'Chinese script' - a large series of pamphlets and humorous sketches of life in Britain, . written on behalf of the Chinese philosopher, . who visited in Europe,
. All these were klassitsistskie works. Goldsmith differed rare literary conservatism. He belonged to Peru and multivolume history and natural history compilation, used at that time in great demand. But the posthumous fame writer of the other works. This 'Vekfildsky priest', unappreciated by the author and initially criticized, but also one of two of his plays 'Night of Error' (1773). Another, 'Dobryachok' (1768), and in the life of Goldsmith, and in fact was not successful.

'Vekfildskim priest' admired Goethe, Stendhal, Walter Scott, Tolstoy, Leskov, Aksakov. It was one of the most beloved books of Dickens. Alias Boz, under which he made his first appearance in the literature, was formed on behalf of one of the heroes of this work - Moses.

. 'Vekfildsky priest' as opposed to 'great novels of the road', which became famous marching for Fielding and Cervantes Smollet, - 'domestic affair'
. It tells of the family pastor Primrose, in which all is not without eccentricities. Pastor orders wandering artist group portrait of his family, but so big that it then can not make out of the barn, where it was written. In addition, the pastor hangs on the wall of the epitaph of his surviving wife, is working on worthless tracts in defense of monogamy clergy, and his son swaps horse for 12 dozen green points. The pastor is taken to correct his mistake and paid a second horse for anything besides an imposter.

The family of a pastor must not only. She suffers constant harassment from the local landowner. But village life is described in such a way that smacks of utopia. And what is the strangest thing - a staunch classicist Goldsmith wrote a sentimental novel.

Even more surprising looks theatrical success Goldsmith. At a time when booming sentimental drama, he wrote a 'gay comedy' with a significant element of farce, paving the way to Sheridan. The central image of the play Goldsmith 'Night of Error' - Marlowe, a young man, shy in a secular society and cheeky with 'simple', as well as farcical hero Tony Lamkin - were among the best comedic roles of the world's repertoire.

Goldsmith won success in poetry, prose, drama, but never gained confidence. When at the end of March 1774 happened to him fiddling disease, he simply did not have the desire to fight for life. But Goldsmith liked. In his last journey accompanied not only close friends, but also a huge crowd of admirers.






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