GUSTAV III( Shvedstky king with 1771goda)
Comments for GUSTAV III
Biography GUSTAV III
. In the history of Sweden XVIII century can hardly find a more enigmatic and interesting figure, . than Gustav III, . - 'Enlightened despot', . admirer of Voltaire and Diderot, . playwright and theater director, . whose life is fatally in general is closely linked to the theater.,
. To better imagine the value of his reign for Sweden, even a cursory look at its history in the XVIII century
. As you know, the first two decades of the century occurred on very hard for the Swedes Northern War, which resulted in the country lost its position as a great European power, and the crown with the death in 1718, the autocrat of Charles XII - his former power. In Sweden, more than half a century established polurespublikansky regime fiance 'era of freedom'. The real power was in the hands of the Riksdag (parliament chetyrehsoslovny, where, in addition to the nobility, clergy, burghers, and included a free peasantry), rather, they have formed the government.
. Gradually, the Parliament will have the political 'party', among which in 1760-ies fierce struggle
. The first - 'Hats' (under the name of noble headgear) - represented targeted to France militant part of the nobility and the privileged burghers of the capital. Second - mostly aristocrats bourgeoisified leaning towards an alliance with Russia and peaceably inclined (hence the derisive nickname of 'caps'), as well as provincial burghers. The radical wing of the party advocated the abolition of the privileges of the nobility. 'Court party' stood for strengthening the power crown for the restoration of absolutism. Soft on the nature of the Swedish king, Adolf Fredrik, in contrast to his ambitious wife Louisa Ulrica, sister of the King of Prussia's Frederick the Great, not too thirsty really dominate, which can not be said of his gifted son, Gustavo.
. The first-born, according to the laws of the Swedish kingdom, he was proclaimed heir to the throne
. Received a thorough education for those days. His teachers were prominent statesmen of the Swedish Carl Gustaf Tessin, and then Carl Fredrik Scheffer. History and geography taught him Olof Dalin, one of the founders of the Swedish historiography. Prince so well mastered the French language that spoke and wrote on it better than the Swedish. Contemporaries struck erudition of the young Crown Prince. Works Wolff and Locke, Montesquieu and Voltaire, Racine and Corneille, works on the history of antiquity, in Europe, especially France, and, of course, its own steel mills throughout the life of the favorite reading of Gustav.
. Quite early in the Crown Prince was to take up the turbulent political life in Sweden, going 'ex officio' in some of the highest organs of governance
. The intrigues and squabbles of party groups, . various libels, . inundated the country as a result of almost unlimited freedom of speech, . and especially the corrupt officials of the state apparatus and the deputies Riksdag (all knew, . that the 'hats' were supported by the French, . and 'caps' - Denmark and Russia) - all would bow to the intention of Gustav to strengthen the power of the crown.,
. In 1766 the highest political interests of the Prince Gustav of Sweden was forced to marry a Danish Princess Sophia Magdalena, with whom he was engaged to the age of four
. Gustav, . low growth, . then thin, . Living, . intellectually developed, . erudite, . inclined entertainment, . represented the antithesis of his wife - high, . large, . extremely shy woman, . no interest in literature, . or theater,
. Already early it became clear that this marriage is a personal level were unsuccessful.
. In autumn 1770 under the name Prince Earl Gotland, accompanied by his youngest brother of Adolf Fredrik and Schaffer traveled to Europe, intending to visit and the 'capital of the world' - Paris
. Here he met the brilliant court of Louis XV, a lot of time spent in conversation with philosophers and writers, known for his earlier books - D'Alembert, Helvetius, Marmontel, Thomas. Even the Crown Prince visited Jean-Jacques Rousseau in his modest apartment on the street Platrier.
. But in the evening March 1, 1771, when Crown Prince listened to opera in the box Countess d'Egmon, he was taken post haste, that his father, King Adolf Fredrik died suddenly of a stroke
. Now visit Gustav takes on an entirely different meaning. France promised him support in the strengthening of royal authority, including subsidies.
. Becoming king, . Gustav III made several attempts to negotiate with the leaders of the warring parties, . but, . Failing, . with the support of the nobility, . increasingly fear for their privileges, . and with the help of Guard and the Army on Aug. 19, 1772 coup d'цLtat,
. Under the muzzles of the guns he made the Riksdag passed a new constitution. To a large extent now power passed into the hands of the monarch, the Swedish government - the Council became a consultative body, the Riksdag, which manages to remain supreme law and taxation, and now met only by the will of the king.
. During the reign of Gustav III, a series of reforms in the economy and social structure of Sweden, eliminated many of the vestiges of the feudal system
. Work has begun on land redistribution, which allowed farmers to consolidate their scattered plots. It was then, when Gustav III, was a state monopoly on the production and sale of alcoholic beverages, which exists in Sweden so far. Been banned torture and mitigated the criminal law. At the same time in the country that has become more cosmopolitan, the Jews were admitted.
'Gustavianskaya era' - a brilliant time in the history of Swedish culture. In 1786 Gustav III was founded by the famous Swedish Academy, the same that in our century, received the Nobel Prize in literature. The King patronized writers and poets, especially approximate to the court, and Leopoldo Chelgrenu playwrights, as well as the unique way the poet and bard Carl Michael Bellmanu whose drinking songs, and now sings all Sweden. From childhood Gustav III was a theatrical, played in amateur performances at court, and later wrote plays and librettos for operas, staged performances, sketch designs scenery and costumes. Designed by Gustav III in the country palace of Drottningholm summer theater, and in our days, the play shows the XVIII century. In 1773, the Stockholm Royal Opera House opens, . in 1788-meters - Swedish Royal Dramatic Theater, . where to put, . particularly, . play, . composed by the king, . example, . on the theme of Russia's history - 'Alexei Mikhailovich and Natalia Naryshkin, . or Rejected love '.,
. However, the political regime in Sweden has become quite rigid
. Unusual for Europe at that time the broad civil liberties, including freedom of the press that existed in Sweden in 1760-ies, were curtailed after the coup. Gustav III established and the secret police.
At first, in the 1770's, Gustav still managed to overcome serious economic difficulties the country. In many ways, this contributed to the introduction of a new monetary system based on a silver riksdalere. However, in the 1780's, by the end of which the king has largely lost the confidence of the nobility, the temporary support was provided by a foreign grants, mainly French. Gustav III frantically searching for yield in foreign adventures. More than once he had thought to rob a neighboring Denmark belong to the Norway, and in 1788, taking advantage of the fact that Russia was fighting with Turkey, provoked a war with her. And here was not without theatrics. Since the king could not begin without the consent of the Riksdag offensive, . Swedish cavalry detachment, . dressed in Cossack uniform, . sewn, . incidentally, . to dramatic performance, . was ordered to commit psevdonapadenie at the border village in Finland, . which took place while the Russian-Swedish border.,
. Meeting Catherine and Gustavus III in Finland in 1783
. However, the Swedish army in Finland did not comply with the orders to invade Russia
. In the town of Anjala, near the border, more than a hundred Swedish officers issued a manifesto, declaring the war illegal. King failed to quell the rebellion, the leaders of which, except for those who managed to take refuge in Russia, were arrested. In Finland, started this military action, which lasted two years. Nevertheless, the conflict king with a large part of the nobility continued. In 1789, . taking custody of its leaders, . supported by tax-paying estates Gustav III made convened by the Riksdag in Stockholm to accept the new constitutional document, . so-called 'Act of unity and security', . King was giving almost unlimited power,
. Anyalskie leaders were brought to trial, held in April 1790. 125 officers were sentenced to death. Although only a colonel was executed Hestesku, these events have increased discontent nobles the king, especially after how far from Paris came the news of the fall of the Bastille.
. War with Russia, which culminated in the signing in 1790 Verelskogo peace treaty, has dealt Finance of Sweden, and so quite upset, a severe blow
. Nevertheless, Gustav III continued to seek a way out of the difficult economic situation outside of their country. In 1791, he turned to Catherine II with the proposal to organize a counter-revolutionary intervention in France, intrigue in Poland, again pondering a plan to seize Norway. Empress of Russia, occupied by other foreign policy matters (there was a war with Turkey, and has been brewing for another partition of Poland), pay lip service to the intentions of the Swedish king, but also seriously involved in the attack on France was not going to. Prisoner in October 1791 Russian-Swedish union agreement said nothing about the campaign against France, but subsidies Sweden still has. However, this money is not enough. Profound changes were needed to overcome the financial crisis, and that is what Gustav went to the convening of the Riksdag, which, to avoid possible excesses that took place far from the capital, in the provincial city of Gavle. The debate, rather violent, yet not go beyond the legislative framework. Nobility behaved more subdued than in 1789, and King managed to win the support of the clergy, as well as tax-paying estates - the burghers and peasants. Externally, even thought that Gustav III finally reached the building of the nation. Now I could think about entertainment.
On Friday evening March 16, 1792 to the Opera House continually drove the sleigh, where vyparhivali Columbine and odalisques, deftly jumped Caliphs and filibusters. All the young people of Stockholm wanted to get on a masquerade, where, in contrast to the official balls, could be present and nobles and proletariats. By eleven o'clock came from the Drama Theater King. In one of the halls of the Opera monarch waited laid dinner, which he intended to hold a small company of his favorites: gofshtalmeystera Hans Henrik von Essen, a number of young cell-cadets and officers. At this time there was no one of the closest people to Gustav III - Gustav Moritz Armfelt, invited this evening to the Danish ambassador.
. When the meal of his Majesty coming to an end, the page handed him a sealed letter, which was reported anonymously that the King plot to assassinate
. At all spells to cancel a masked ball, not down the hall for dancing or, at least, to wear armor under his clothes and get surrounded by guards Gustav III refused. He had been receiving similar warnings, but more than anything else did not want to seem cowardly. Once he said: 'If I get scared, I can edit it? ". And therefore, concluded dinner, the king went to choose her costume.
. He threw on the shoulders of a Venetian cloak of black taffeta, . with it so carelessly, . that because he could see the Grand Cross of the Order of the Seraphim, . available only to members of the royal family, . donned a black hat with white feathers, . to which was sewn on a white mask made of cloth, . covered the face, . and accompanied by Essen and captain on duty down the hall.,
. Approaching midnight
. The ball was in full swing. People had gathered so many that the King and his entourage had to squeeze through the crowd. Suddenly behind the Gustav III emerged a figure dressed in a mask and a black domino. Unknown pulled out a pistol and, sitting down, took aim at the King's back. And at this time he turned sharply to the left. The hand trembled a criminal, a shot rang out, and the entire charge has got to the king just above the hip. He screamed in French: 'I hit' and clutching his shoulder in Essen. The confused gofshtalmeyster helped the monarch to reach a stone bench near the wall.
Ironically, the panic did not raise. The music was so loud that not everyone heard the shot, and some take it for a cracker. Nevertheless, protection was quickly cut off all exits. The wounded King was transported to the palace, where he inspected the life-medics who tried to remove the bullet from the wound. It turned out that the charge of the attacker was still a fraction of wallpaper and even rusty nails. According to witnesses, during the move, sensing the wounds and operations monarch behaved with dignity.
. Soon after his decree, he appointed a caretaker government headed by his younger brother - Duke Karl Sedermanlandskim comprising Armfelt and General Taube, as well as several other dignitaries
. First, the serious wounding of doctors do not fears aroused. A whole week after the assassination Gustav III felt relatively well. But on Sunday, March 26 his condition deteriorated. By sharpened Bo-Lam in the wound, added to a cold - probably in the bedroom was very cold. King was tormented by a painful cough.
The agony began on the night of 28 th. Coughing stopped, there was a great suppurating wounds. Old King's doctor, having examined the patient, eventually encouraged him to call his brother and make peace with him. Because of Stockholm were rumors that Duke Charles had arrived at that unfortunate was involved in the assassination. Gustav III realized that he had to. He immediately summoned the faithful Secretary of State Alice Shrederheyma and ordered to make addition to the main legacy: the power in Sweden should be to the majority of Crown Prince Gustav Adolf, . which was then the 14-th year, . pass into the hands not only of Duke Charles, . but government trustees, . where the King introduced his closest favorites - Taube and Armfelt,
. First he was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs, and the second - the Governor-General in Stockholm. In fact, in their hands passed almost all power. A few hours later the king died.
Duke Karl, not lost composure, acted quickly and decisively. At the meeting convened by the interim government soon the Chief Justice said Vahtmeyster, . that the codicil was invalid, . because the laws of Sweden, it had to seal the two witnesses, . but it is only the signature of the king and the Secretary of State,
. Thus, the power in the kingdom passed to Duke Charles.
. Many opposition, . as nobles, . and proletariats, . who had infiltrated radical ideology of freedom and equality, . received your completed registration to the teachings of Jean Jacques Rousseau, . directly was accused of Gustav III and despotic methods of government, . and generally unsuccessful war with Russia and Denmark, . and the Riksdag in 1789, . and the execution of Colonel Hestesku, . and not only is,
. That is why, as many believe, deserves the fate of Gustav III of Julius Caesar and Charles I. Executor was a retired Captain Jacob Johan Ankarstrem, whose life had a very unfortunate. A guiding hand killers Peklin general, the 'era of freedom' influential figure Riksdag, and then one of the leaders of the opposition. The conspirators hoped that the attempt will be a signal for an uprising, which will limit the monarchy and establish a more liberal regime.
. But the assassination of King horrified many, and therefore the subsequent history of Sweden was much less bloody than it was before.
. Around this event happened many legends, one of which is directly connected with the activity of the French Jacobins - at that time spoke openly about what they are going to destroy the crowned heads
. At the St. Petersburg court, as he recalled the Secretary of Catherine II AM Gribovsky, 'a rumor that the French demagogues sent out such a villain for the attempted assassination of rulers'. Told, if the mayor of Paris, Petion bet that by 1 June of the same in 1792 Catherine II will no longer alive. However, no evidence of involvement of the Jacobins in the assassination of Gustav III in was not found either then or after. In addition, Duke Karl and his entourage came to power, tried to conceal the true facts, because of what occurred version that the assassination was a small group of aristocrats. Only in the first 50 years of this century, young, . but sooner died Swedish historian Anders Larsson, . carefully considering making them available to researchers voluminous criminal case on murder of Gustav III, . able to show, . branched and how deep was conspiracy against the king.,