Louis XVI( The King of France)
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Biography Louis XVI
Louis-Auguste, Duke of Berry was on the French throne, in a sense accidental: it was not and 12, when the untimely death of two elder brothers and father, Crown Prince Louis of France. Grandfather of the future monarch Louis XV the Beloved by the example of the great predecessor - the Sun King preferred to keep the family of his successors in the side of the Versailles court, from the most important affairs, intrigues and secrets of French politics. They lived in Meudon, located 11 km from Versailles and 9 km from Paris. Palaces, their decorations, parks - everything here was great, but like mentioned provincial handicap and imperial hostility.
. Educating and training of Louis Auguste and his two younger brothers, who were subsequently Louis XVIII and Charles X, was in charge of the Duke Vogiyon, a religious man, an old-fashioned and not very far
. Education has already entered the time of its heyday, and the boys consistently inspire the strict rules of Christian faith and morals. These efforts are not wasted - Louis XVI was an exemplary Catholic, a gentle husband and father, warm-hearted, though sometimes abrupt, even rude man.
. Many times coaches told him about the waste, promiscuity, hypocrisy, treachery and idleness of the Versailles court
. The young prince saw it myself, but because, having learned the lessons of the high destiny of the royal power, had intended, when it strikes an hour, much change. By that appealed not only teachers, but life itself. By the end of his days, Louis XV won the hatred and contempt of no small number of subjects. Even the most quiet and obedient, impatiently waiting for the death of the old and the accession of the new king. One of the nobility and the sly anxiously asked heir: "Some now propose to add to your IME, neither the word 'Beloved'. And what nickname would you prefer for yourself? " The answer startled the court: 'Louis Stern'. Versailles panic began. Rumors, and France came to a standstill in anticipation of the dark, cruel and unpredictable government. Louis XVI gave his life for many high-sounding phrases and threatening speeches, but never became a powerful monarch, words and even hints that find would force the inviolable law. Caregivers is unable to overcome it, neither natural apathy nor timid nature. He was too yielding, frustratingly inconsistent, easily, and somehow indifferent rejected their own decisions, as if knowing that any of them is not significant.
. Although, perhaps, of France, is changing its public face, exhausted from the insoluble contradictions, and then entered the path of violence and civil war, and there was a need - prayer, ext-rodetelny but powerless ruler
. When the logic of the revolutionary struggle demanded the abolition of the monarchy of Louis XVI without much difficulty was sent to the scaffold.
It was believed that he was well educated. Command of Latin, had a vast knowledge of geography, for he himself was the instructions for the expedition of La Perouse, was fond of history and even a translation into French of a book on the life of ancient Romans and the English King Richard II. Was no stranger to literary works and even in his youth wrote 'Reflections on conversations with the Duke Vogiyonom'. Saved and published his voluminous correspondence. However, detected, and in 1873 published a diary of Louis XVI provoked bewilderment and embarrassment. France is experiencing perhaps the most tragic period in its history, and in his diary only dry, extremely primitive writing about hunting and pastimes between meals, on receptions, festivals, etc.. King said many distinguished personages bowed down to him over the death of mother in law, how many swallows (more than two hundred), he nastrelyal between breakfast and lunch. One day, summing up the day, arbiter of France drew up: 'Nothing. Do not hunt '. In addition to hunting, he took seriously, perhaps only a craft metalworker. He did castles. Each of them excitedly brought to court her strict teacher and was very proud, we were able to earn his grudging praise. King liked to pray, confess and to read Psalms.
Married him in 16 years on the charming Marie Antoinette, willful and intelligent daughter of Maria Theresa and Francis I of Austria. Wedding marred by two terrible accidents that in France and abroad have created a superstitious premonition that trouble awaits newlyweds. During the wedding at Versailles courtiers, hlynuv to the altar, was knocked down and crushed to death many (according to some reports, hundreds) of Swiss Guards. A fireworks display on the Place Louis XV, became 23 years the place of execution of the spouses, ended a terrible crush - maddened Parisians overturned carriages, trampling each Dru-Ha. According to some data, at this popular 'Celebration' killed 333 people, and for others - more than a thousand.
. The French took a dislike to the young avstriyachku, believing that the future king would be under her heels, and this would affect the affairs of the state
. It soon emerged that Marie Antoinette was capricious and stubborn that it is unacceptable to spend a lot of clothes and jewels, to a myriad of entertainment and feasting that it protects the conservatives and the most ardent defenders of class privilege. In addition, she has so long to have children. Only in 1778, eight years after the wedding, she gave birth to a daughter in 1781 - the first, and in 1785 - the second son. In short, France more than 11 years had to wait for the legitimate heir to the throne.
Tenth of May 1774, Louis-Auguste and Marie Antoinette became the lords of France. He was 20 years old, her - a year less. 'We started to edit too young', - said Louis XVI his wife Crowned. However, not only prevented him from youth to look 'true king'. Of course, in the form of easily guessed his family resemblances. Has wonderful blue eyes, bred a Roman nose, friendly smile. But it was not in it, neither the grandeur and elegance of ancestors, no inherent significance of the Bourbons, which are maintained even in old age. Addition, the new monarch was short, rather corpulent, ho-ing, Starting back from side to side, as if fearing something, took in a swarm of uncouth positions. He stood, swaying and shifting from foot to foot, and when spoken, could not hide the fact that this weary. Few believed that the unprepossessing appearance and uncouth manners concealed kindness and generosity, contempt for the unjust nobles and melancholy thoughts about life.
. However, gossip about the king were often those who had an opportunity to observe him: courtiers, prizhivaly, lackeys, as well as visitors to the Parisian salons
. For the majority of the French, they are naive and touching their adored monarch, connecting with him and his heirs the best hope. Admirers of Louis XVI significantly diminished only in the years of revolution, especially in the 1791-meters after his abortive flight from Paris.
. During 15 years of pre-revolutionary reign of Louis XVI did not carry out any reforms, help to update, calm and prosperity of their homeland
. Not that he did not want that, but for the implementation of the conceived, he lacked neither the state of wisdom, nor the political acumen nor the dominant courage or rare talent to subject people to his will. Going with the flow, intending to be a good king for all Frenchmen, he ruled in such a way that forced them to further oppose each other.
. To emphasize its difference from its predecessor and show, . that came a new era, . Louis XVI after a few months after the accession to the throne overturned famous reform Mopu, . restored to its former appearance the French Parliament, . including the Paris, . that is, those courts of, . who jealously guarded by the laws, . customs and class privileges of France the old order,
. The Paris Parliament returned the most important right to decide on the legality of registration and thus the entry into force any royal decree.
. Re-creating a powerful barrier to innovation and her own will, . monarch is easy to agree on reform and just as easily reconciled to their removal, he politely invited the ministers to the best men of his time, . prominent economists and financiers, . and then unceremoniously exclude them from cases,
. So it was with Turgot, who tried to abolish become a hindrance to development of industrial production workshops, intended to promote entrepreneurship, introduce free trade in grain, to limit the excessive waste of the court. So it was with Necker and columns, which sought to strengthen the financial position of the kingdom, to reduce the costs of the officials to streamline taxation, and in addition, encroached upon the class privileges. True, France under Louis XVI helped the North American colonies of England to become an independent state - is an indisputable achievement of his reign. Suffice it successfully passed the reorganization of the Army. But on the whole situation was truly absurd. The reforms willingly and passionately argued, and the top scored some supporters, the opponents of change; royal decrees that proclaim, then canceled the major innovations. And while everything was still, but rather, not so - things went from bad to worse. In France, the growing tension and anger, willingness to deal with all problems quickly and decisively, once and for all.
. By 1787 it became clear that the existing state institutions are not able to bring the country out of the protracted crisis
. King collects Notables - representatives of the higher clergy, court nobles and mayors - to introduce new taxes that would have taxed even the privileged class. This attempt failed. In the same year for the same purpose the king agrees to convene the States-General. Their meeting was opened May 5, 1789 in Versailles. Louis XVI said pompous and ridiculous speech, denouncing the "excessive desire for innovation '. June 17 the States-General against the will of the monarch declared themselves the National Assembly, on July 9 it became a constituent, thereby declaring their right to adoption of the constitution.
. Supreme power, losing control of the situation, began to pull the troops to disperse the assembly
. France rapidly and inexorably, as if doomed, embarking on the path of revolutionary and violent means of resolving controversial social issues. And the plight of the country even more complicated because of crop failure, shortage and high cost of food in 1788. And in that burst 1789: capture the insurgent Parisians Bastille; 'municipal revolution' in the provinces; cruel, . bloody, . illumined by the fires peasant uprisings, . included in the story titled 'Great Fear', in the course of many thousands of the crowd, . mainly, . Women, . and a detachment of the National Guard at Versailles on October 5-6, . resulting in the Constituent Assembly, . the royal family and the government moved to Paris.,
. Here's how
. When he reached Versailles, the crowd went to the conference room of the Constituent Assembly, demanded the bread and, having received encouraging promises, moved to the Royal Palace. After much hesitation and persuasion, Louis XVI received a delegation of rebels. During the audience, he spoke of his tireless solicitude for the good of France and pledged to approve the decrees of the Constituent Assembly on August 4, abolishing aristocratic privilege.
Meanwhile night came. It seemed that the peak of the confrontation is over. However the early morning situation has deteriorated. Persistently spread the rumor that caught the coach on which the royal family was going to flee to Normandy. Throughout blamed queen. An angry crowd, insulting and cursing Marie Antoinette storm broke the palace wall, killing several security guards, hoisted their heads on pikes, and entered the unattainable yesterday apartments French monarchs. A secret passage Queen rushed into the room spouse. A little later Crowned the couple was forced to appear on the balcony in front of an angry mob, demanding: 'In Paris! In Paris! " Concorde, in fact, not required. King dutifully complied with an order. They brought his wife and children in the capital, about seven o'clock, snacha-LA at the Hotel de Ville, which had to listen to the solemn and instructive speech the mayor of the city and only at night - in the desolate and gloomy Louvre. Since moving to Paris The Constituent Assembly has strengthened its power, the threat of dispersing it virtually disappeared, and the king no longer able to change anything with my family turned into a hostage of the revolutionaries.
. The head of Louis XVI, was executed on January 21
. 1793 in 10 hours and 20 minutes in the morning
Prior to death on the scaffold he was to go through many more trials and humiliations. In Paris, the king constantly afraid for themselves and their loved ones. True, July 14, 1790 during the Feast of the federation, he uttered an oath of allegiance to the people and the law, calling the acclaim of all present and proving that his popularity is great enough. However, this success proved elusive. Monarch tried to somehow influence the rapid changes that interfere with something, do something about it, but every time I convinced of tsche-those of its attempts. He wanted to restore in France - even with the help of troops, including foreign ones - many of the old order, to consolidate their power to stop abuse of the rights and dignity of the clergy. On the night of June 21, 1791, urged by the Queen, he and his family ran from Paris to Metz, where there was an army general Buallay, faithful to the Bourbons. But here it was waiting for a failure - in the town of Varennes disguised king learned the postal clerk. Under the escort of the National Guard, through the hostile crowds of the fugitives returned to the capital. Legislature, which became the successor to the Constituent, suspended the king from power, but was soon restored to the throne, keeping him only the title and the right of suspensive veto.
. The outbreak of war with the French monarchical countries of Europe, . activation of the opponents of the revolutionary changes in the country, . attempts to coordinate actions of external and internal counter, . Manifesto of the Duke of Brunswick, . French threatened the complete destruction of Paris and the executions of rebels, . if, . EC-I will be done 'the slightest damage' August the family - all this proved fatal to Louis XVI.,
. On the night of August 10, 1792 Paris not sleep
. Hysterically bells, dry rattle of gunfire, cannons menacingly uhali. Peace townsfolk hid. Crowds of armed revolutionaries stormed the Louvre. The uprising succeeded. Palace palaces filled with jubilant winners. The royal family was taken into custody. August 10 to deal with the rebels and the Legislative Assembly of the king was dethroned and his family entered first in the Luxembourg Palace, and then, from August 13, 1793, in one of the towers of the Temple.
. The prisoner took the unusual room on the third floor hallway, dining room, bedroom and a room for servants
. His relatives have placed on the fourth.
The retired monarch gave seven year old son learned geography and Latin language, and those who want to play chess, stroll on the monastery courtyard. In his meeting with Marie Antoinette is always attended by two officers of the guard. Ate the whole family in the dining room on the third floor.
Twenty-first of September, Louis XVI was expecting another blow. The newly elected Legislative Assembly - The Convention - issued a decree on the elimination of the French monarchy. Until then, even divorced from power, even in prison he still was king and, presumably, did not lose the last hope for change for the better. But after September 21 there was only life and family so bitter reflections on the future. But it did not last long.
Already on November 20 at the Louvre was discovered the secret safe, which contained documents that established secret ties with the king's enemies of France, in particular, with the sovereigns of hostile countries, it. Clearly, in the republic, will decide the fate of the former monarch and his family, these ties have been declared criminal.
The process has already begun on December 11 at the Convent. Defendant acted with great dignity. Not agree with any of the charges against him. His brilliantly defended Malesherbes, a prominent politician in pre-revolutionary pores, an advocate of justice and the law, a supporter of freedom of speech and press, a friend and patron of many famous educators. All in vain. In a roll call vote the recent sovereign was found guilty and sentenced to death. 387 deputies voted for the penalty, 334 - against. January 18, 1793 as the names 380 votes 'for' and 310 - 'against' sentence was confirmed by the same tribunal.
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