Maria Teresa( Empress of the Holy Roman Empire s1745)
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Biography Maria Teresa
In October 1740, from Vienna to spread the news of the sudden death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. This morning he indulged favorite pastime - hunting and suddenly overnight, gave up the ghost. Learning of this, the first minister of Louis XV, Cardinal de Fleury frankly expressed what others dared not even dream of: 'Habsburg no more'. Neighbors monarchs long-awaited opportunity, in order to divide the ownership of the monarch, to whom God gave his son. However, remained a daughter - 23-year-old Archduchess Maria Theresa. Another four years before her birth, Charles VI, the last of the men in the way of the Hapsburgs, issued a Pragmatic Sanction, declaring the indivisibility of the Habsburg possessions pass by inheritance to the eldest son, and failing this to the eldest daughter. So - to Maria Theresa.
She was born when her parents had not yet had time to recover from grief - the death of their first son, the Archduke Leopold did not live a year. The emperor has long hoped for the birth of a son, and therefore not particularly worried about how to bring up her daughter as a future regent of vast estates. That is why so little is known about the childhood years of Maria Theresa. We know only that she grew up in a light-hearted side of the vanity of the court, becoming over the years, a beautiful, healthy and cheerful girl, endowed with the same fiery temperament. At the court balls she could never tired to dance until dawn.
Mentors young Archduchess had Jesuits. In the law of God, the curriculum included the history, geography, languages, art, music and dancing. Maria Theresa perfectly mastered Latin, to perfection - French, worse - Spanish and Italian. In German only spoke the dialect of Vienna, and the spelling of the language has never failed to achieve. The years passed, hope for the emergence of an heir remained smaller, and Charles VI, did their utmost means in order to leave the throne of his daughter, still kept her away from public affairs.
. When Maria Theresa was time to marry, the choice fell on the Duke of Lorraine, Francis Stephen, the age of 15 who lived at the court of Charles VI, who is a cousin of his father young
. The Emperor is very favorable attitude toward the young lotaringtsu. Maria Theresa was 12 years old when she first saw him, and, as later admitted immediately felt it his future wife. 20-year-old Franz Stephan then left Vienna to take the reins in his native Lorraine. There was a long separation. When he reappeared in Vienna, the 17-year-old Maria Theresa, has already earned the glory of one of the most beautiful woman in Europe, had conceived a passionate love for him. Franz Stephan reciprocated. Emperor blessed daughter, . especially, . that the marriage was combined with the interests of big politics: Britain and the Netherlands, . Concerned, . to preserve the balance of forces in Europe, . agreed to accept the Pragmatic Sanction with the condition, . that the heir to the throne marry a prince, . having little personal power,
. So the Prince and was Franz Stephan.
Twelfth February 1736 in Vienna, the wedding, but after four years of Maria Theresa, had to take his father's heritage, the very poor;. In recent years, the life of the emperor had lost vast and rich province. The political situation in the country remained unclear, and finance - frustrated. It soon became apparent and that the Pragmatic Sanction, bought a whole big concessions to European monarch, in fact, cost a little. The imperial couple - Maria Theresa and Francis I Stephen, enthroned among her children
Elector of Bavaria Karl Albrecht, the first to make its claim - completely unwarranted - at Austrian Succession. Nevertheless, France immediately supported their. Do not keep us waiting long and the King of Prussia Frederick II. In December 1740, without declaring war, he moved his troops into Silesia, were part of the empire. This was the signal for other powers to attack on Austria, which could become, as it seemed, an easy prey. No one is allowed and thought that the young ruler would be able to resist them. However, during the War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Maria Theresa had shown resilience and energy, plunged into amazement all of Europe.
. Collection of hereditary possessions, she began by saying that in June 1741 went to the dominion Habsburgs Hungary, in order to get her crown
. After the Archduchess confirmed the privileges of the Hungarian magnates, the coronation was fixed for June 25, 1741 in Martins Church in Presburge. Primate of Hungary, Count Esterhazy, citing Maria Theresia sworn in, threw it on her shoulder gown, girded with the sword, and then crowned Stephen's crown - a symbol of the Hungarian kingdom. Meanwhile, the situation became increasingly unenviable. The French, Bavarians and Prussians thronged from all sides. Maria Theresa was advised to agree with Frederick II renouncing Silesia. Even the beloved husband disagreed with those who cowardly thought it a lost cause.
Maria Theresa again went to Presburg. October 11, 1741, she in mourning attire, with a crown on the head of St. Stephen said in Diet speech in any way with tears in his eyes told of his plight and confessed that, out of all those seeking help from the loyal and brave Hungarians. Inspired by her words, tycoons knelt and, having drawn his sword, swore allegiance to his queen. Sejm declared mobilization, collected an army of 40 thousand. However, perhaps not in the speech case. Preserved a touching tradition that beauty Maria Theresa of Austria won the hearts of Hungarians in the very moment when there appeared before them with a baby Joseph on their hands ...
. The initial successes of the Bavarian Elector Karl Albrecht was impressed by the Allies, and in yanva-D in 1742, he, at the insistence of France, was proclaimed Holy Roman Emperor Charles VII.
. Circumstances forced Maria Theresia to make a separate peace with the most dangerous and hated enemy, Frederick II of Prussia, giving him a large part of Silesia
. But managed to repulse the French Bohemia, and in April 1743, Maria Theresa, together with her husband solemnly drove to Prague. May 11, she swore Czech estates, and the next day was crowned with a crown sv.Vatslava. On the day of the coronation came the news of the victory over the Bavarians. All the way back to Vienna, the Czech queen became continuous triumphal procession.
But it was too early to rejoice. In the summer of 1744 Frederick II crafty again entered the war and confused the Austrians all cards. But on Jan. 20, 1745 died unfortunate Emperor Charles VII, Maria Theresa, and did not miss a favorable case to conclude in April with his son and successor of Charles VII, the Elector Maximilian III, world. He recognized the Pragmatic Sanction, and promised in the election of the emperor to vote for the spouse of Maria Theresa, and she, in turn, generously refused reparations.
. Now, Maria Theresa ever was close to the cherished goal - the restoration of the rule of the house of Habsburg in the Empire
. Finally, on Sept. 13, 1745 has come to pass: Franz Stephan became Emperor Franz I. However, Maria Theresa did not want to be crowned as the Empress-wife. Pride would not allow her to accept the second part! Yet now she called herself an empress.
War of the Austrian Succession ended October 18, 1748 signing of the peace Ahenskogo. Now, Maria Theresa the opportunity to do reforms in the spirit of 'enlightened absolutism'. As a result, a new system of central authorities, more than meets the absolutist aspirations of the Empress, and lasted until 1848. The same purpose is served as a military, the judiciary and especially the financial reform which abolished some of the privileges of the church and the nobility, in particular, exempting them from paying taxes.
. In 1749 the Empress asked the Count Kaunitz develop a strategy for the Austrian foreign policy
. The future Chancellor was of the opinion that there is nothing more important than the return of Silesia, and is completely coincided with the desire of most of Maria Theresa. To achieve the goal was necessary alliance with France, which became more manageable only after Frederick II signed a defensive treaty with England. Finally, multi-year effort Kaunitz been rewarded: in 1756 the Austrian alliance with France had become a reality.
Maria Theresa guessed: England needed the support of Frederick II not so much for defense as for attack, which he confirmed his invasion in August 1756 in Saxony. All attempts of the Prussian king to forge an agreement with Austria, Maria Theresa rejected, but formed an alliance with Russia.
. The outbreak of the Seven Years' War (1756-1763) went to Austria with mixed success: major setback after impressive victories
. June 18, 1757 the Austrians under Field Marshal Down defeated the Prussians under Colin. When all this event has reached Vienna, the empress of joy knew no boundaries. She served in the Cathedral of St. Stephen a great thanksgiving mass, and also established the Order of Maria Theresa, until 1918 remained the highest military award Austria. The first was a knight of the Order of Field Marshal Daun.
In October 1757 Austrian troops occupied Berlin, but then suffered two defeats - at Rosbahe and devastating - of Leuthen. Revenge was taken on Oct. 14, 1758, when the Battle of Hochkirch Down struck Frederick II is one of the most severe injuries. Fleeing Prussians abandoned field camp with guns, banners, standards and provisions. On the battlefield, were found dead Prussian field marshals, Keith and Francis of Brunswick. Prince Moritz Angaltsky captured.
Late at night on Oct. 15, 1758 Field Marshal Down couriers galloped up to the gates of SchцTnbrunn Palace, where the celebrated Empress's name. When there was a triumphant fanfare, Maria Theresa, gripped by an irresistible joy, told me to get up and gather all the children who were in the palace. Then picturesque procession headed by the imperial couple went to the chapel, where solemn mass was celebrated.
But Austria and Russia have failed to take full advantage of success. Maria Theresa was aware that not have their way, and agreed to the signing of the peace in February 1763. Silesia passed to Prussia, but Frederick II undertook to cast their vote for the son of Maria Theresa, Archduke Joseph in the upcoming elections, Holy Roman Emperor. March 27, 1764 Electors unanimously chose him. The following year, died the Emperor Franz I. The new Emperor Joseph II formally became co-regent with Maria Theresa, but in fact the affairs of its domination, it. Frequent disagreements with his son, although they were sincerely committed to each other, have complicated the last years Empress, already dimmed by death of beloved wife. Maria Theresa was determined to not throw more than their people into a bloodbath. War of Bavarian Succession called potato, as the case then it did not lead to battles. And this was the great merit of Maria Theresa. When in July 1778 by Prussian and Saxon army invaded Bohemia, she found the strength to seek peace proposals to the hated King of Prussia. This attempt was unsuccessful. Then Maria Theresa once again prevailed, and wrote himself to Catherine II (with which left much to be desired), asking for mediation. The queen responded, and in March 1779, negotiations began. May 13 of that year, just as the birthday of Maria Theresa, was able to sign Teshensky world, which, as she admitted she considered the completion of his reign. At that time she ever been true to its motto: 'Justice and softness'.
Live Maria Theresa remained little more than a year. When her hour had struck, a kind word about her was found even in Frederick II: 'It has glorified his throne and his race'.
Maria Theresa once said: 'He's all, without him nothing'. She loved her husband devotedly, but insisted that he belonged to her undivided. In it she saw the meaning of life. In his 'Franzl' finds solace in a difficult moment, shared his joy. The more terrible blow befell Maria Theresia his sudden death. She took refuge in his chambers, and many days with no one talking. Before her death she had not withdrawn mourning garments. Jewelry handed out to children, and dresses - maids. The room in which the dead emperor, converted into a chapel, where the day of his death still serve mass.
We crowned parents had 16 children, to whom they were warmly attached. However, six died very early. Some, with the conclusion of advantageous marriages, increased the influence of the house of Hapsburg. Joseph II married Princess Isabella of Parma, the granddaughter of Louis XV, who in 1763 died of smallpox. From the same illness soon departed to another world, and his second wife, Mary Joseph of Bavaria. Taking care of your daughter, caught herself Maria Theresa, seriously ill, but overcame illness. After the death of the second, the hated, the wife of Joseph II, refused to marry again. While he was co-regent with his mother, his influence on the policy of Austria was insignificant: imperious Maria Theresa firmly holding the reins in his hands. But from 1780 to 1790 years, he gained fame reformer. After the death of Joseph II two years, the emperor was LцLopold II, his brother. The youngest of the sons of Maria Theresa, Maximilian, was destined to be the last Elector of Cologne, where he was driven forces of revolutionary France.
Different fate of the daughters of Maria Theresa. Maria Anna, born with physical disabilities, became abbess of the monastery, specially founded for her in Prague. Elizabeth, beauty meets mothers infected with smallpox which left her face so terrible it follows that a marriage had nothing to think. And she was destined to become abbess of the monastery in Innsbruck. Favorite daughter of Empress Maria Cristina married Duke Albert, the ruler of the principality of Teschen in Silesia. His love for his daughter Maria Theresa and son-in postponed. After the death of Maria Christina, Duke Albrecht ordered the famous Italian sculptor Kanovei tombstone, a recognized masterpiece of this master.
. The greatest hopes were connected with the marriage of Maria Theresa's youngest daughter, Maria Antonia (Antoinette), which became the wife of French dauphin, later King Louis XVI
. It was an act of reconciliation with the Habsburgs, the Bourbons, lays the groundwork for a political alliance between the two powers. The tragic ending of this marriage is known: the French Revolution had sent the royal couple to the scaffold. In captivity and in the moment of execution of Marie Antoinette behaved courageously and stoically, as a worthy daughter of her mother.
Maria Theresa constantly carried on correspondence with his children, constantly showing maternal care. Daughters, she admonished not to forget their native language in a foreign country, and his sons as an example of his father.
Empress has found eternal rest in the Crypt of the Capuchins in Vienna, where he was buried along with her husband one of sarcophagus. She told me to make it when she was 32 more пЁп+п¦п¦. Next - the graves of children. As if in death, she leaves them to their mother's guardianship.
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