MILLER Gerhard Friedrich( Scientific.)
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Biography MILLER Gerhard Friedrich
When in 1725 the University of Leipzig neokonchivshy rate 20-year-old vestfalets Gerard Frederick Miller first set foot on Russian soil, he hardly imagined that this country would become his second home. Like many of his countrymen at that time, he came to Russia in search of happiness and still did not know exactly what will. In that year, opened in St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, where Miller was a teacher and assistant high school librarian. The first of these posts, he did not like, but the other's liking. In many ways it is his diligence was collected and in 1728 founded the library of the Academy of Sciences. He maintained radetelno academic paper and laid the foundation of the Academy Archive. But for a successful career that was not enough. When choosing the direction of scientific studies, the youth are increasingly keen on the history of Russia, which at that time was a real terra incognita (unknown land - lat.).
. In 1728, when the royal court, and after him and all the academic bosses have moved to Moscow, on the shoulders of the young scholar went to an easy obligation to continue publication 'St. Petersburg Gazette'
. Creative person, he offered to produce more and a monthly supplement to the newspaper. Thus was founded the first Russian magazine - 'The historical, genealogical and geographical notes', which was soon followed by the second - this time purely historical 'Sammlung Russicher Gesshichte' ( 'Assembly of Russian stories') in German. In it Miller first published excerpt Russian Primary Chronicle, numerous articles and information on Russian history. With this magazine, scientific knowledge about Russia first began to penetrate the West. It is no accident that the magazine was on the bookshelves of Voltaire, Goethe, Schiller and other Enlightenment thinkers of Europe.
But publishing, which brought a young scientist known outside Russia, could not satisfy his. In 1733 he was already a professor of the Academy of Sciences, joins the Second Kamchatka Expedition, led by Vitus Bering, and for a long ten years off to travel to distant Siberia. He explored where dozens of archives, copied hundreds of unique documents, collected invaluable collection of original manuscripts, a variety of historical, ethnographic, linguistic and archaeological materials. First historian turned to the study of state securities agencies.
Back in 1743 in St. Petersburg, Miller began a major work of his life - 'History of Siberia', and to this day not lost its scientific significance. However, to throw himself into his hobby historian was unable. Academy of Sciences then constantly agitated scandals, scholars clash with each other and with the boss. Miller also was a proud, arrogant, ambitious and cocky. His main opponent was M.V. Lomonosov. When in 1749 Miller, based on the sources available to him, prepared a detailed dissertation on the Norman origin of the Russian state, Lomonosov hit him with a hard-hitting and not at all fair criticism.
. Not many years of incessant attacks, large and small troubles (and the leadership of the Academy on the results of scientific debate made purely administrative findings) have not broken Miller's desire to engage in Russian history, his love for her
. In late 1740-ies he took Russia's citizenship and received the official title of historiographer. In 1754, Miller asked the Academy to publish a new magazine 'Monthly writings', which describes the scientist published a decade of leading figures of Russian culture and science of XVIII century. Here is the first time in Russian appeared philosophical novel by Voltaire, information about books on. Goldsmith, works to. Linnaeus and other. Miller published in the journal and a number of his articles - on the history of ancient Novgorod, Time of Troubles, Russian chronicles, Russian geographical discoveries, the Russian-Chinese relations. All these topics were not raised earlier in the Russian historical science.
But the years took its toll and in mid-1760-x historian drawn to 'safe haven'. His Manila, Moscow, far from academic squabbles and has astounding archival treasures. In the 1765-m Miller's request was granted. At first, he was appointed director of the Moscow orphanage, and a year later 'assigned' to the Moscow archive of Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Begun the most tranquil and prosperous period of his life. During the time spent in Moscow, Miller has a great deal: to publish several important historical sources and works of his predecessors - AI Mankieva and VN. Tatisheva help NI. Novikov in search of documents for his 'Ancient Russia vivliofiki' and MM. Scherbatov - for his "History of Russia ', to analyze and describe more than one archival document, put forward the idea of centralization of archives, to become a teacher and educator of the first generation of Russian professional archivists. Do not leave it, and scientific studies. Thus, in the second half of the 1760's and 1770's produced a number of articles about the reign of Peter the Great, a book on the history of the Russian nobility, continued to work on the history of Russian geographical discoveries, the collected material on Moscow's orders. In the 1778-1779 academic years already elderly traveled the cities of Moscow province, which wrote a series of historical essays. Thus, the first time in the history of historiography was the subject of the Russian town. At the same time, he edits and adds to its own to become the first country in the geographical dictionary, wrote about Russia for 'Encyclopedia' of Diderot and d'Alembert, collects materials for the Dictionary of Russian language. He penned the first in the historiography to the history of Pugachev.
A tireless worker, in the last two decades of his life Miller has won universal praise and respect. However, this does not affect its abundance and position in society. Only a month before his death in 1783 he was awarded the rank of a worthy and the Order of St.Vladimir. Then Catherine II ordered him to buy Miller's extensive library and collection of manuscripts. Special Decree of the Empress, they were left to the eternal archiving of Ministry of Foreign Affairs and since then more than two centuries of the famous 'portfolios Miller' (now in Rossiyskom Archive of Ancient Acts), . as the inexhaustible source of scientists draw attention to the history of medieval Russia.,