Mirabeau, Honore Gabriel Riketi( French politician XVIII century.)
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Biography Mirabeau, Honore Gabriel Riketi
Rebelde in 1789 cut his life in two. Aristocrat, rejected his estate, the eternal adventurer who has spent half his life in prison or exile, he became the acknowledged leader of the Third Estate, who spoke with the nobility of the people whose love for him was boundless. When Mirabeau painfully left out of life, under the windows of his home on the highway d'Antenn hours were shocked crowd of Parisians ... The pavement was strewn with sand, so that even the sound of the wheels does not disturb the dying ...
Honore Gabriel Riketi, Count Mirabeau, was born in a castle in southern France Bignon. He was the eldest of 11 children Marquis Mirabeau, one of the most learned men of that time, became, along with Quesnay and Mercier de la Rivero, founder of the famous Physiocratic doctrine - the direction of bourgeois political economy. From his mother he inherited his looks from his father - a deep creative mind. Hated each other's wife gave son violent, irrepressible temper. Growing up in an atmosphere of high-profile family scandals, unpopular firstborn of all life at odds with parents. In the first place because of money: the Marquis was rich, but, as usual, stingy and did not intend to indefinitely pay the debts of her son. In addition, the Marquis did not encourage amorous adventures of the young Count (lack of beauty is more than compensated charm and stormy temperament), because of which he had to leave the regiment. Father ishlopotal secret royal order, and the 18-year-old Honore was in the fortress on the island of Fe.
Of his detention, he has delivered ready to go volunteer in a military expedition to Corsica. By the end of it again and again, women debts: it will remain with him until the end of life. It will, apparently, his marriage in 1772 to a rich heiress Emily de Marignane not their senses Honore and strengthened its financial position. The dowry of his wife and funds provided by his father, were immediately scrolled again appeared debts resumed adventures, and soon after this and prosecute Marquis. Mirabeau, with his wife and young son, was banished to the alpine town of Manosque. But family life had no luck, and the wife took the side of her father. Their joint efforts have resulted in Honore first fort on the island of d'If (where ran the famous Count of Monte Cristo), and then at Fort Joux, lost in the highlands of the Jura.
. Prisoner, he still enjoyed a certain freedom and was able to attend the society in the near to the town of Pontarlier Zhu
. Enthusiastic young Marquise Sophie de Monnier, Mirabeau fled with his mistress in Dijon, but soon found himself in there the fortress. In 1777, a new flight, in the spirit of westerns, with jumps and disguises - in Holland. The efforts of the 'injured party' - the father and wife, Honore, her family, a deceived husband, Sophie and her parents - have been crowned in absentia by a court in Pontarlier: Mirabeau, was sentenced to beheading, his mistress - to life in prison.
Amsterdam proved to be unreliable shelter, less than one year after the fugitives had been tracked down and returned to France. Sophie finally imprisoned forever in a monastery, . Honore - in the dungeon (a single tower) Vincennes castle near Paris, . but only for two years: the old Marquis Mirabeau unexpectedly succumbed to the entreaties and secured the release of his son, . pledge our full submission,
All these vicissitudes is not broken, but only polished the nature Mirabeau. In 1783, on his own initiative, he resumed the trial in Pontarlier. Manifested already remarkable oratorical skills, not only helped him to achieve the complete abolition of the previous sentence, but also brought glory of the innocent martyr. The litigation with the wife who refused to return to him, even though it was won, again added Honore fame. His caste, aristocracy of the nobility, so to the end and did not forgive the man who became her outcast. However, the widely publicized trial, as well as an unusual gift made tribune of Mirabeau very popular among the common people not only in his native Provence, but also outside.
They owned a craving for Peru - many of her generation Mirabeau avoided? In 1770-1780-ies of journalism, which has already acquired a distinctly political nature, represented by the young ambitious man most certain way to stardom. Literary talent, inherited from his father, showed a more Mirabeau in Manosque, where he wrote 'The experience of despotism', the power of which he literally felt the. Then - from the Chateau d'If to Vincennes - followed by a series of opuses, . written for the sake of 'public good': the secret of royal regulations, . Prisons, . saltern of Franche-Comte, . his own family and many other, . not counting the major Latin and Italian translations, . as well as literary trinkets,
. Pos-same, . on the eve of the revolution, . he published a major work 'On the Prussian monarchy' (though his authorship is not no doubt), . scandalous 'Secret History of the Berlin court' (the fruit of your trip to Germany), . then countless pamphlets, . by which he became the focus of political struggle, . erupted in France,
Having finally achieving freedom and fame, Mirabeau began collecting in his youth, his close-minded and spirit - the spirit of the Enlightenment, rebelled against the king around the arbitrariness. Exiles Geneva Democrats Claviц¬re and du Rovere, . novice journalist Brissot, . then the leader of the Girondins, who achieved literary fame has Chamfort and others formed a group of like-minded, . which soon turned into a 'studio Mirabeau', . extremely important in his political career,
. However, historians have sometimes called Mirabeau only performer, voice ideas of others. In any case, he never hesitated to put his name on the grounds that he wrote for others.
In the center of attention 'studio' was primarily financial policies of France. Interested in the criticism of successive ministries, bankers generously paid pamphlets Mirabeau, allowing him to lead a life in a big way. The country seethed with might and main, was the mid 1780-ies. Fierce attacks on the banker Necker, and especially in the pet of Queen Marie-Antoinette de Calonne, the Comptroller General of Finance, cost Mirabeau another secret royal orders, and drove back some time in hiding abroad. In France, he returned in 1788 in the midst of elections in the States-General, declared Louis XVI after the final collapse of ministerial attempts to bring the country out of financial and political impasse. Mirabeau immediately appreciated the importance of what is happening and is actively involved in election campaign. Chance of being elected to the States-General of his class he was not: the powerful noble clans of Provence, from which he suffered so much and that so vexed, have not forgiven him, neither his past sins, nor his recent humiliation. This in no way disturbed Mirabeau: Count offered his candidacy to the third estate of Provence.
. His political program was similar to those of other advocates of reform, . brought up the works of Montesquieu, . Voltaire, . Diderot, . Rousseau and other pillars of the Enlightenment: an end to tyranny and despotism in the country, . establishing a parliamentary monarchy, . brotherhood and freedom,
. Especially freedom - the price of it, he knew from experience. The way to achieve this goal Mirabeau saw in rallying the nation
. Accurately chosen political slogan of national unity, . extraordinary gift of oratory and acting, . conquers those, . who would listen, . even its very origins (lumpen, . but the aristocrat!) and the dubious reputation - all these played a role,
. The crowd literally wore it on his hands. In April 1788 the Count of Mirabeau was triumphantly elected to the States-General of the Third Estate seneshalstva Ex. Leaving the 'vanquished' of Provence, he went to conquer Versailles, Paris, France, and History.
The fate of Mirabeau is inseparable from the fate of the country, which had to deal with the States-General, self-proclaimed National, and then the Constituent Assembly - so began the overture revolution. First, a little lost among the politicians metropolitan scale - Lafayette, Sieyes, Bailly, Mounier, Le Chapelier and others - Mirabeau, one replica could take a worthy place among them. At the meeting of 23 June 1789 he called the master of ceremonies of the court Dre-Breese, . who announced the disposal of the King, . prohibiting deputies from different classes to hold joint meetings, . but actually means acceleration of the States General: 'Go tell your lord, . that we are gathered here at the will of the people and we can not be removed from this otherwise, . as the power of bayonets! ",
. Your lord The tone and meaning of this replica of the behavior of the Assembly at a critical moment. Victor Hugo wrote: "Between the throne and the people had been laid borderland. This revolution arose from a creek. No one dared to do so before Mirabeau. Only a great people has the right to pronounce a decisive era of words'.
From that day on an ordinary member of the Third Estate became the leader and idol of the revolution. Until the end of his life he remained at the forefront of political struggle. If Mirabeau not always write the speech himself, trusting his 'studio', then he brought them the passion, imagination, theatricality. He has played and enjoyed broad support in the Assembly. Heavy, large-headed, he mesmerized the audience and its striking appearance, and peals of thunder voice. 'When I shook his dreadful boar's head, no one dares interrupt me' - wrote Mirabeau in his 'Memoirs'.
He stood at the origins of the most important transformations of the first phase of the revolution. At his suggestion, passed a law on parliamentary immunity that protected the nation from the representatives of royal tyranny. Mirabeau has contributed to the creation of the National Guard and the abolition of feudal rights, the confiscation of church property and the creation of the assignat - paper money era of the revolution. He was among the founders of the famous Jacobin Club and the 'Society in 1789'.
But like any politician, passed a revolution to the crest of the wave, Mirabeau quickly realized the real danger of over-hasty reform violated the balance of power in society.
Too involved in the development of grassroots events, the scope turmoil that swept the country, began to raise the alarm at Mirabeau. Although by itself, the royal couple did not inspire him too much sympathy, to strengthen the shaky throne, perhaps, it was necessary. A strong monarch was needed to maintain political balance, as well as to ensure that the regime of the representative assembly not to swallow our national sovereignty for the sake of a new parliamentary aristocracy. These considerations prompted Mirabeau to communication with the court.
In October 1789 he sent the King 'memoir' - a note in which he proposed a course of conduct that could save the monarch from too drastic steps. Louis XVI was, . according Mirabeau, . solemnly recognize the foundations of a new order, . affirm the rights of the nation and its unity with her and then move somewhere away from the capital, . example in Rouen, . in order to put an end to the revolution and avoid the rise of counter-revolutionary wave,
. Selection of Rouen would delete all the charges in the monarch's intention to emigrate. At the same time, presented to King Mirabeau, the draft of a strong ministry responsible to by the convention. An audacious memoir outraged the recipients and, of course, remained unanswered, but the court, increasingly lost in aggravated circumstances, began to show interest to its author.
Ministerial project, which included all prominent moderate monarchists, including most Mirabeau, 'modest' pretender to the post of minister without portfolio, has become known and pricked up his opponents. In November 1789 the Constituent Assembly passed a decree forbidding MPs to hold any ministerial posts were. This infuriated, but did not stop Mirabeau: In April 1790 he signed a secret agreement with the court, becoming the secret adviser of the royal family. Thus, he could implement his plan: to become a mediator between the monarch and the representatives of the nation. In exchange for advice and recommendations to Louis (which he, incidentally, never used), the King highlighted Mirabaud funds for repayment of the regular and substantial, debts and paying respectable wages. This is important: the contract and continue to ensure that his life is still chaotic and wide. Luxury, surrounded him, gave rise to puzzled questions, and then the suspicion of corruption, which Mirabeau did not even think to refute. Playmates? Doubt. But what is the purpose? Hinder the king finally stand on the side of counterrevolution and the influence of moderate MPs to hold the balance of powers. At court he acted in the interests of the Assembly, asserting that the irreversible, that carried the revolution, in the Assembly defended the interests of Louis XVI, trying to keep the plummeting credibility of the royal power. But the revolution is increasingly repelled by the king in the past, and all the king vehemently denies the revolution in the recognition. Varrensky crisis - an attempt to escape the royal family over the border in July 1791 - has ruined his project of national reconciliation. This, however, happened after the death of Mirabeau. At the end of 1790 undermined turbulent past and the stress of recent years health has failed. Doctors were unable to establish an accurate diagnosis in time, and despite fierce resistance to death, Mirabeau died of peritonitis running. He just turned 42 пЁп+п¦п¦.
Although the clouds have already started to thicken over him, Mirabeau died in the zenith of fame and power. His funeral turned into a grand demonstration. His images have flooded the country. National Assembly decided to bury his remains in the cathedral sv.Zhenevevy announced by now the pantheon of great people. Mirabeau was the first of those who received such an honor. First, he and the 'left' Pantheon: Prosecution, . uttered a whisper during his life, . became loud after the famous discovery - 'steel cabinet' in the Tuileries, . concealed until 1793 the secret correspondence of the King, . compromising, . however, . not only one of Mirabeau,
. Somehow the vicissitudes of fate did not spare him, and after his death.