Motoori Norinaga( Great writer Japan)
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Biography Motoori Norinaga
At the end of 1801 in the province of Ise, Mount Yamamura near the temple Merakudzi was buried man who planted near the grave of pine and cherry, but on the headstone write only the name. Such was the will Motoori Norinaga. What was he to Japan? Why still revere the memory of him, . in 1972 in his native opened a memorial museum, . which is located next to the Shinto shrine dedicated to him? In a specially equipped room, carefully kept the manuscript scholar, . things, . belonged to his family, . Two self-portrait,
. The museum is far from the tourist routes, but every year there is a lot of people. Norinaga was one of the brightest figures in the National School of Sciences, which sought to eliminate the influence of Chinese and Japanese to instill a sense of admiration for their culture, to awaken interest in native history, religion, literature. He was born in the town of Matsuzaka. His father, Otsu Sadatosi, was a prosperous wholesaler cotton fabrics. The town was located in the province of Ise, where there was a shrine of Ise, the most revered Shinto temple complex. In it, according to legend, the Sun Goddess Amaterasu inhabited, from the hands of a Japanese emperor and received its power. The family worshiped the Shinto gods, believing in their goodness and power.
The boy was ten years old when his father died and he was taken to his elder sister. He studied hard, even in 11 years could read the play Noh theater, Japanese narrative, religious literature in a simplified presentation. He curiously watched the crowds of pilgrims, . who came to the temple of Ise, . a magnificent religious ceremonies and colorful festivals, . that aroused his interest in the national Japanese religion Shinto, . which by then had replaced Buddhism and Confucianism, and lost its former influence,
. The reasons for this were purely political: the de facto ruler of the country - the Tokugawa dynasty of shoguns - borrowed from China, Confucianism, made it official ideology. They are very suited main idea of this doctrine: live according to their social status, be faithful to his master, that is, shogun, not complaining of the hardships of life. And the emperor shoguns deprived of any real power supposedly for his own good - nothing to pollute the divine person of taking care of daily affairs, that's enough and that it retained the right to distribute court positions and awards. Emperor as though he reigned, but nobody and no orders and for the slightest offense could be punished. So then will the representatives of National School of Science fight for the restoration of its former influence of Shinto, because in it they drew ideas for the study of ancestral rights of the emperor to govern the country. And teaching Norinaga play a huge role.
And while the boy worked diligently and was not going to go on line merchant. Mother, yielding requests beloved son, allowed him in 1752 to go to Kyoto - the ancient cultural center of the country - to study medicine. He liked to travel, he went to Edo, Osaka, not just in superintending Yoshino, where slopes are captivated spring white cherry blossom dress. Then he would write the following lines:
. Wherever you look,
. whiten the clouds in the mountains,
. and fragrance
. Yoshino cherry on the jet --
. but how do I know where the flowers?
. Youth not only learned the secrets of medicine, but used every opportunity to supplement their education
. He then turned the Japanese classical literature, beginning with her study of 'The Tale of Genji'. This brilliant novel XI century carried with it a lot of mysteries, wondering on which Norinaga spent a lot of time. Written by the court lady Murasaki Shikibu, he tells about people far pores, about why they lived, what joy, what sorrow from their hearts ached. Norinaga believed that the writer was able to reveal the unique 'charm of things' - 'mono no aware', my heart to know their inner essence. The reader, read this sad story, wrapped aroma era, as it is finally translated into Russian. While living in Kyoto, Norinaga took his place vernacular name Otsu Motoori. Perhaps among his ancestors, and had some samurai named Motoori, many merchants' houses were descended from samurai families, the circumstances changed its social status.
In 1757 Norinaga returns home, where begin to practice medicine, but also the lessons of the Japanese classic leaves. And gradually, literature, the ancient chronicles, Shinto teachings become his main occupation. Norinaga created at a time when the rulers of Japan did not differ ability to lead the country lacked a strong will, and sought only for personal enrichment. In the second half of the eighteenth century in Japan prospered bribery, tyranny, embezzlement, corruption, rule of favorites. And then there was drought and crop failures - the sources of additional disaster for most people in Japan. In his treatise 'Tama kusige' ( 'The precious casket') Motoori Norinaga named one of the greatest evils of the time excessive number of officials of all kinds. And insisted on reducing their number. Oppressed peasants summoned his warmest sympathy. He exposed the luxury of the nobles and merchants, in contrast to her misery of ordinary citizens and farmers. The source of this evil he saw in the uneven distribution of wealth. He came down on bribery, flourished among government officials. All this led him to conclude that 'evil in the social rank and file comes from the evil in the social summit'.
However Norinaga only this conclusion and confine. For others realize that we must take up arms and drive out the villain or kill him. Norinaga indignant cruelty harakiri, this unique method of suicide, which is on the samurai code of bushido (the warrior's way) expressed willingness to sacrifice their lives for the sake of moral purity, in the name of duty. There is no public benefit, he reasoned, when honest and capable people end up with him because of that made some trifling service error.
Motoori Norinaga covered himself with immortal glory, preparing comments to the 'Kojiki' ( 'records the deeds of antiquity'). The monument was made in the year 712, reliable information about the manners and customs of antiquity intertwine it with the legends, the main one of which tells us about the divine origin of the Japanese emperor. Chronicles appeared to penetrate the country Chinese scientists, which made it possible to trace the path of ancient Japan. Deciphering 'Kojiki' Norinaga devoted 35 years of life, proving the complete absence of foreign influence on this monument, condemning the worship of China. Motoori Norinaga like brushed 'the dust of ages' with 'Kojiki', trying to bring to public attention this book. He and his followers worked hard to restore the former splendor, and other monuments of antiquity.
Speaking to students and pupils, Norinaga argued that Japan, not China - the center of the universe. We are descended from the goddess Amaterasu, preached Norinaga, therefore, stand above other people and never the Chinese elders do not understand the essence of the inscrutable! So he sought to educate the Japanese spirit of patriotism and self-confidence. But, as often happens, ideas Norinaga initiated and nationalist tendencies, which at the same time helped the Japanese to defend the independence in the mid-nineteenth century. His love for the country, he expressed these lines:
plants overseas lands
but no aroma
no color can not be equated to
with Japanese cherry blossoms ...
Will agree with Norinaga that flowering cherry is really a poetic image of Japan, is her heart, and the annual spring bloom of sakura (cherry in Japanese) still leads the Japanese to die away before her delicate beauty. And let this tradition lives forever.