MYNTYVVAB( Empress of Ethiopia from 1730)
Comments for MYNTYVVAB
(ca. 1710-ca. 1770)
Each year, the Ethiopian rulers carried out in the capital of the season, large and small rainy season (May-June and September-October). Since the beginning of the dry season, the Emperor and the Empress often, with the army and court, visited the capital city nearest to the ground, receiving a tribute here, feeding their people, resolving disputes. Then Emperor (no wife) was going to more remote areas. Here he not only collected the tribute, but also reflect the nomadic raids Oromo, punished the rebellious vassals, and blood flowed in the river. On the eve of and during the campaign the emperor ritual hunting of elephants, rhinos, wild buffaloes, lions, leopards and other large and dangerous animals. Usually, . if not trying to catch up with returning from the raids of the Oromo, . Imperial polyude (detour to collect tribute) was moving slowly, . passing only a few miles a day, . often arranging Dnevka, . but with the advent of church holidays all the army grew to worship in front of churches and priests marching, . respectively, . fasting or feasting,
. Along the way, the emperor visited the churches and monasteries, or slept in them, either in its luxurious and spacious zlatotkanom silk tent. When polyude approached what was then the capital Gondar, . whole population, headed by Metropolitan and the clergy, many churches came out to meet the emperor (which by then had already joined and the Empress and her suite); debtera (lower clergy), . monks, priests sang church hymns, . accompanied by drumming and dancing, women townswoman sang and published jubilant tremolo.,
. Once during polyudya Bekaffa Emperor (1721-1730) came down ill in a poor leader Cushite people of Kwara
. The young emperor's daughter nursed leader Myntyvvab - a girl of rare beauty. Recovering, Bekaffa married her (and maintaining relationships with other wives, concubines). When in 1730 he contracted basis, and then died, the Empress Myntyvvab elevated to the throne of his young son and Bekaffy Iyasu II. From now on it four decades has remained in power. The beginning of the reign Iyasu II (1730-1755), when the emperor ruled by his mother, her brothers, received the highest public office, and head of the church, as usual, it was a riot. But then establish peace and order. In general it was a period of relative calm and prosperity of the country, its culture, the top gonderskoy era in the development of the Ethiopian civilization. The emperor and the empress-mother competed in the construction of monasteries, many of which appeared in the capital. Iyasu II was interested in crop production, perhaps influenced by the Copts and the Armenians, who were many in the retinue of the emperor and surrounded by the Metropolitan (Coptic). In the palace were gardens, seedlings which were brought from Yemen, Egypt and other overseas countries, and around the capital - the vineyards that existed before the XIX ve-ka, when they destroyed the phylloxera. Under the influence of the inhabitants of the Mediterranean at the court it became customary to drink wine. But the wine for communion is still prepared from the Yemeni raisins.
. Iyasu (Jesus) I the Great (1682-1706), . while still heir to the throne, . trained Ethiopian letter (about three hundred characters), . reading religious literature in a dead language of Ge'ez drevneefiopskom, . Christian theology monofisitskomu, . prosody, . Church music, . many-to play the harp begena (one of the privileges of the aristocracy), . as well as the arts of war - riding, . shooting, . javelin, . swordsmanship,
. And of course, the rules of aristocratic behavior, which contrasted with the princes of the common people.
Iyasu I considered the last reformer among gonderskih emperors. Already in the first year of his reign, according to custom, he spent shumshir - removal of some and the appointment of their place of other secular and ecclesiastical dignitaries. There was a radical change of court and administrative officials, governors of provinces, the highest ecclesiastical chi-new, and hence the redistribution of possessions to their income. Later Iyasu established a new hierarchy of ranks in the Light of the empire, which met all the dignitaries, governors and princes of the church. According to custom, the first received word of the Council of the empire of the least important of its members, then - all the more influential persons, and in conclusion ruled himself emperor. Now on the order of speakers was determined once and for all, and thus - and the place of any rank in the hierarchy nationwide. From the imperial court to the regiments of military settlers in the remote border provinces formed a unified system of military-feudal titles, . ranks, . titles, . insignia, . reminiscent pecking in the more developed of the feudal-bureaucratic societies.,
. Particular attention is paid Iyasu I trade
. Ethiopia exported exotic African goods: ivory, rhinoceros horn, hippopotamus teeth, skins, live wild animals and birds, as well as gold dust, especially the slaves - the most profitable at the time the goods. People in bondage captured in the western and southern borders of the empire. Most prized beautiful girls. On each route, each fief from a group of slaves were separated by those local authorities wanted to keep the collection as a customs. When the emperor sent to Europe, embassies, and with them - the young people to study European science university, the Turkish governors of the way of young men were taken into slavery as a duty for the remaining travel. Iyasu forced to make concessions to the Turkish viceroy of the port city of Massawa, through which was the main overseas trade of the Ethiopian empire. He blocked Massawa from land, . stop supplying food to the port city, . and the governor was forced to return to merchants (foreign, . become clients of the Emperor), they arrested goods, he agreed to the proposed conditions of the Emperor section of customs duties,
. By order of the Emperor Iyasu I instead of the countless local customs (which every great lord sought to establish on the road) in each province was left only one route, and the value of duty was strictly fixed.
The most important is the policy of Ethiopia's religious and ecclesiastical. In the Ethiopian Church - guardian of the unity of Christian Ethiopia - have always been rife disputes between supporters of different doctrines and persuasions, covering large groups of monasteries and even groups of provinces. One of these rumors - tovahdo (literally 'Connection') considered his founding of St. Tekle-Haymanota originally from the Shoah (the end of the XIII century), the other - kybat (literally 'anointing'), appeared in Tigray in the XIV century. When Ethiopia was threatened forcible conversion to Islam, and then - in Catholicism, the debate between the advocates tovahdo and kybat subsided. But the second half of XVII century, they flared up. Kybat became the dominant sense in most provinces in the capital also had supporters both directions. Emperors traditionally supported tovahdo, and governors of provinces and especially local dynasty - kybat.
By the end of his reign I Iyasu political situation in the capital and the court become so acute that in 1705 the Emperor abdicated and retired to a monastery, and then took back his resignation and was killed. Over the next quarter-century has been replaced seven emperors. Some of them were overthrown, the other secretly killed. He died from a long illness only Atsme-Giyorgis, nicknamed Bekaffa son Iyasu I.
Bekaffa was courageous, energetic and brutal man, all his reign struggling with rebellions and conspiracies. Criminals he executed, cut off their hands and feet. Gonderskaya (Gonder, again, - while the capital of Ethiopia) tradition considers it a formidable and wise ruler, still about him telling historical anecdotes. However, he patronized the Arts, has invited Egyptian shipbuilders. In general, he continued his father's policies. Son Bekaffy and Myntyvvab gentle, balanced and broad-Iyasu II, remained an Ethiopian aristocrat of his time, for which the order to kill a man was common. Another of his victim was his uncle on his father, also named Iyasu. This Prince for many years been the lover of the Empress-mother, secretly bore him several daughters, the extraordinary beauties. Apparently, the emperor suspected his relative in the treacherous plans (remember Hamlet!) And ordered to secretly sink Prince Iyasu. Then the nurse who was killed for his revenge, poisoning his cousin, nephew, Emperor.
Empress Myntyvvab, suddenly lost her husband and the secret of the royal son, did not lose composure and put on the throne the son of the deceased, his grandson Iyoasa (1755-1769). The young emperor reigned rather than rules, in contrast to his grandmother, who stood in power (though not dispose of a monopoly) for almost 40 years. As the Emperor himself, she was plotting against the powerful nobles, playing on the contradictions between them.
Beginning with the reign of the emperors are increasingly turning into puppets in the hands of feudal cliques, representing some ethnic groups or sub-ethnic groups and together with the province of the Ethiopian empire. The largest of the provinces of Tigray, the cradle of the Axum civilization with an ethnically homogeneous population (tygrayskaya people), through which trade routes from Gondar to the Red Sea coast, and now seek hegemony in all of Ethiopia. Tygrayskih lords headed races Mikael Syhul.
In the reign of Iyasu II, he was the ruler of the area Temben in the center of Tigray. Seeking the greatest possible independence, he maneuvered between the neighboring tygrayskimi rulers, the Turkish governor of Massawa and huge tribes who settled along the southern borders of Tigray. During polyudya emperor in these parts, he even ventured to weave intrigues against him, for which he paid the price: the imperial army laid siege to it and forced to surrender. Michael, barely escaped execution, managed to please Iyasu II his intelligence, erudition, and courtesy, and soon became one of his advisers, and then managing the whole of Tigray.
The young emperor Iyoas, the man is weak, narrow-minded and very brutal, I could not even edit his capital, where the strife began between Kwara - cousins of his grandmother Myntyvvab - and the Oromo tribe of his mother - his wife Iyasu II. Last Iyoas did everything to appease, much to the dismay of Amharic ethnic origin - the dominant ethnic empire. Then the emperor called in Gondar Michael Syhulya with his numerous army tygrayskim.
Michael was appointed governor of Gondar and the time brought the country the order. Rebel lords, he defeated part, and in most attracted to his side.
Iyoas was pushed into the background and now began to intrigue against the unifier of the country. Seeking to draw the ruler of the province of fins located at the southern borders of Tigray, Michael gave him in Gondar extraordinary reception, but the Emperor ordered him to kill. When Michael came into the hands of a powerful rebel brother of the Empress Mary Myntyvvab Barya, Michael wanted to be imprisoned, but sentenced Iyoas his great-uncle to the torture and execution. Finally, when the rebellious governor of the southern province Damot, Emperor secretly encouraged him to revolt.
Elderly Empress Myntyvvab exposed the intrigues her royal grandson, but Michael, who himself has been under 70, did not want to share with her power. As podlovatogo Emperor, he was tried at a meeting of the high nobility and sentenced to death by strangulation silk shawl. This is unheard of before the event (the Emperor of Ethiopia was considered the special semidivine) marked decline in the prestige of the imperial title.
Instead Iyoasa to the throne was seated lame 70-year old man in a few months, Michael had poisoned him, and replaced the 15-year old boys.
Few years Michael Syhul was true ruler of Ethiopia. No wonder Egypt is regarded him as 'king of Abyssinia' (this is reported to Prince GA. Potemkin Georgian officer Manuchar Kachkachishvili). But when Mikael with the young emperor to go to polyude in Tigray, as has risen most amaharskoy aristocracy, seated on a throne in Gondar one of the princes. With great at that time the army tygraytsev Michael hurried to Gondar, and began to execute the traitors. But the leaders of the rebels did not stop the resistance. Their troops surrounded the capital. Now in the internecine battles of the war did not take prisoners. In 1772, besieged in the capital surrendered tygraytsy. Michael Syhul never known defeat in battle, but twice taken prisoner as a result of the siege. He was taken from Gondar, and he died in prison (according to one version, the same year, sentenced to death by his rival, the leader of Amharic feudal rasom Goshu, according to another version, after many years).
. Ras Goshu became ruler in the puppet emperors
. One of them six times and held the throne the same time was overthrown. After his final dethronement in 1800, governor of the capital and the de facto ruler of the Ethiopian empire became great races of Ali, son baptized leader oromskogo tribe Yedzhu. He, his brother Aligaz, their uncle on his mother until the end of XVIII century governors of the central regions of Ethiopia to the rising tide of the country's feudal. Against this background the islands of stability are allocated large principality Tigray and Shoa, which settled branch Solomonic dynasty, as well as Goja in south-west. Among the wayward princes, . decide the destinies of the ancient country on his own, . Ethiopian historical tradition draws an image of the ideal of the noble lord - Haile-Michael (otherwise, . Haile) - member of the clan Kwara, . but at the same time the offspring of two branches of the ruling Solomonic dynasty, . preserved in this tumultuous time, generosity, . loyalty and word of duty, . high altruism,
In the history of the Ethiopian civilization XVIII century - an epoch gonderskoy culture and develop his own style in architecture, painting, music, literature (including the typical urban anecdotes). Following tradition, Iyasu I, Bekaffy, Myntyvvab, Iyasu II did not spare the funds for the construction of churches and monasteries that became centers of education, literary and artistic activities. In architecture and painting of the time clearly emerges Western European influence. It creates the grammar Geez, multilingual dictionaries, rather, lists of foreign words. Continued traditional Ethiopian literary translation (from Arabic) and chronicles. Of the more famous chronicler of the Synod was, at the same time a poet and teacher of the imperial children. As in the previous era, poets, scholars, scribes became some of the great emperors.
A great patron of culture and education were Iyasu II and his mother Myntyvvab. Every Sunday they staged at the palace reception for the book people, . Scientists, . including students, . and treating them with abundant and delicious foods and beverages (wine, . heady honey or just beer, . depending on rank and learning person), . enjoy intellectual conversation,
. In these meetings sounded poetry, played music. Literati also received lucrative orders for correspondence books, which the Emperor and Empress then left in their libraries, or more often gave monasteries. In general, the development of the Ethiopian civilization was very much a. When borrowing some of the technologies and ideas of other civilizations did not occur destructive Westernization or the Islamization of the country in which the stories in the XVIII century the outstanding role played by the Empress Myntyvvab.
Mountain center of the Ethiopian civilization existed more in the I millennium R.H. the extreme north of the Ethiopian highlands, spreading later to its central and southern. In IV-VI centuries between the powerful, rich, colorful urban culture of the kingdom of Aksum, Christianity became the state religion of Ethiopia. In XII-XIII and XIV - beginning of XVI century Ethiopian Christian civilization once again experiencing a rise, . but in the XVI century, almost crushed by the blows of the Muslim troops, . led by Imam Ahmed Lefty and dervishes of Islamic brotherhood Kadiri, . and also because of the invasion of nomadic tribes the Oromo, . now widely dispersed along the edges of the Ethiopian highlands,
. Oromo cut the northern part of Ethiopia from its rich southern and eastern provinces and in the next two centuries have continued raids on all these civilized territory. Wherever they settled, revived dogosudarstvenny tribalism. At the same time for hegemony in the region have fought two of the feudal-colonial empire: The Portuguese and Ottoman. Last subjugated Egypt, where in Ethiopia, according to tradition, bishops were appointed, and the Red Sea, including the most important for the Ethiopian port of Massawa. Turkish sultan is the head of many Muslims of Ethiopia and surrounding countries. Proponents of same Uniates Portugal were Catholic, to which belonged many influential Ethiopian nobles and sometimes - Emperors. Propagation of Islam and Catholicism undermine the influence of the Ethiopian Orthodox (monofisitskoy) Church, . according to the teachings of which human nature of Christ is absorbed by the divine, . that is, remains one of its nature, . for varying language and traditions of the peoples of the country, . Church, . for a millennium acting chief guardian of the Axum civilization and the very idea of unity obscheefiopskogo,
. In the XVII century, the struggle between the advocates and opponents of the union of the Ethiopian and Catholic churches has led to civil war. For the sake of denominational unity Emperor John I in 1668 ordered the Catholic Europeans or take monofisitskuyu faith, or leave Ethiopia. Christians, Muslims (mostly traders and their families) and Jews (Falasha, engaged in gardening and crafts) now had to live separate quarters, not mixing. Two Europeans infiltrated into Ethiopia under the guise of the Copts (fellow Ethiopians), the emperor ordered to hang. In 1636 was founded the city of Gondar, which became the imperial capital.
Compared with the previous period XVIII century was in Ethiopia is not so rapid. Empire, whose territory was significantly reduced, to stabilize their borders and resist breakdown into its constituent parts, inhabited by different peoples. Ethiopian civilization has again become a city. She learned many of the traditions of Western and Islamic civilizations, and military culture of the Oromo and the fourth time already achieved a modest prosperity, but at the same XVIII century began to decline.