Slide Ivan Ivanovich( inventor-nugget)
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Biography Slide Ivan Ivanovich
'By adding together the fiery car to stop water management ... that she was in a position at the will of our own, that demand would be, correct, '- so wrote Ivan Polzunov in the explanation of its draft heat engine. Inventor-nugget from the distant Barnaul hoped to use to carry out fundamental technical reconstruction of the mining production in Russia and thus' ... the glory of the Fatherland and to achieve ... nationwide favor of a custom type, making it easier to work on our future '.
I must say that by the middle of XVIII century, located in the mining business in Russia has reached a very high level. Center became its Urals, where the childhood and adolescence Polzunova. Enrolling in training for the warden Catherine factory, he was able to fully meet the technological processes and production equipment. Power base of the plant were 50 waterwheels, operated by the erected across the river Iset dam. And in general, plant at the time could only be built near enough full-flowing river and, moreover, in an appropriate place for the construction of the dam.
In addition, the production needed to fuel and raw materials. As a rule, they were transported to the plant on horseback, which was both inefficient and - with the development of production - worth more expensive. Thus evolved the need for a qualitatively new source of energy, which would not depend on local conditions and could be used everywhere, including in coal and ore mines.
. Polzunov understood that the creation of such a universal motor - the case tomorrow, and yet deeper and deeper into it sank
. In April 1763 he applied for the head Kolyvano-Voskresenvkih factories AI Poroshina memo and the attached draft 'ognedeystvuyuschey' machines. With its development Polzunov into account the experience of foreign inventors. They tried to combine the steam vodopodemnik discontinuous action and water wheel, and had him conveyed the movement of bellows, which directed the air in the forge.
. These bottles were the main facilities at the mining and ore plant at the time
. Placed in the shops and various hammers and rolling mills. They were to report back and oscillating motion. Polzunov abandoned water wheels and substantially simplify the design of the engine, more than doubling its profitability. There were two engine cylinders, each of the piston: when one fell, another rose. Both took turns turning the shaft performing a swaying motion.
Reviewer Labor Polzunova became president of Berg College IA Schlatter. In 'Discourse on proektovannoy shihmeysterom Polzunova fire acting machine' patriarch of Russia's coinage and Mining Sciences noted that '... And this machine is already invented since the beginning of this century, Mr. Saverio and that ... He shahmeyster so praise worthy Tricks onuyu car was able to transform and to pretend that this Evo fiction for a new invention must honor '.
. In general, praised the draft, . Schlatter suggested, . but to implement a combined option: steam pumps to lift water from gutters and direct it to the water wheels, . which passed through the drive to the movement of air breathing bellows,
. The position of the venerable scholar is understandable. On the one hand, the credibility of European science and engineering, but on the other, - a daring prozhekt inventor of single-blind Siberia. Polzunov Schlatter did not accept the recommendations and developed a second draft that differ structurally and for increasing the size and power of the machine.
Polzunov possessed extraordinary thirst for education and science. And though he came from the common people (born in the family of a soldier), nevertheless, successfully completed a verbal school, and then the arithmetic. Later Polzunov was a good job training at factories, mines and mining.
But the main source of knowledge of the inventor in youth and adulthood were self. He delved published by the time Proceedings Belidora, Leupolda, Trivalda, Schlatter, containing information about the various steam plants. Connecting good theoretical training and a great work experience determined the successful outcome of not only design but also project. Construction of the steam engine was launched in the spring of 1764, and in December 1765, she successfully passed the pilot tests and in the summer of 1766 was put into operation. Polzunova, however, was not destined to see a favorite child in action. From excessive stress, fatigue and loss of strength, he fell ill with galloping consumption, and, as a healer, wrote Kizing Ya '... this May 16 th of the on-Noon at 6 o'clock ... Updated October by the will of God '. The machine worked for over a month, or more precisely 43 days, after which due to faults in the boiler was stopped and, as it turned out, forever.
For a short and hard life Polzunov made a lot. And the service has achieved honor and recognition, and the creation of the steam engine, all brought to its logical conclusion. Of course, contributed to this and the natural talent and extraordinary perseverance. And, in addition, goodwill and participation of everyone with whom he had to face due to their activities - from the Office of servitors Kolyvano-Resurrection plants to the Empress Catherine II. Thanks to her Siberian nuggets showed kindness and assistance to the Cabinet, Berg-Collegium and Academy of Sciences. In November 1763 a decree was issued on the product Polzunova in '... Mechanicus with rank and salary of engineering Captain porutchika '. But, most importantly, encouraged to '... bude it when plants need not hath need, . then send the Evo here (ie, in St. Petersburg - aut.), . in order to acquire it for themselves more in the mechanics of art here at the Academy of Sciences, two or three with thereof to the adjacent vyaschshim instruction and akin to it by his talents and abilities with the best of success to continue to use the factory to use ... ',
. However, highly appreciating Polzunova, Office of the Resurrection Kolyvano-mining district has done everything possible not to let the inventor and implement in their own proposed draft.
. One of the reasons for the strong support of the Siberian craftsmen were 'boundless zeal for the welfare and prosperity of the Motherland folk Orthodox Russia'
. But there were quite earthly material considerations. And they are determined, first of all, action is none other than ... First Person Russia Empire - vsederzhavnoy, August, brilliant Felitsa. What is it?
History Kolyvan-Resurrection plants dates back to 1727, when Akinfiy Demidov, opened the first in the Altai Kolyvanovskoe production. 13 years later construction began on the Barnaul plant. It happened not by accident - there were found rich deposits of silver ore. Find out about them, managing state-owned factories in the Urals VNTatischev unsubscribed all Demidov enterprise in favor of the Treasury. Two years later, at the request of a favorite of the Empress Anna Ioannovna Biron, plants were returned Demidov. But ten years have passed, and in 1747 followed a Supreme Decree on the transfer, and now forever, these plants are in the personal property of the Imperial Court with instructions' as much as possible to deliver silver ore. "
. When she went in 1762 to the throne of Russia, Catherine II became sole owner of the factory
. And after spending just one year on the throne, she certainly felt the need for replenishment of their own money in gold and silver. In addition, the Empress is not difficult to provide the highest grace Siberian handyman and thus get in his face a faithful servant of the throne, and in light of being branded as 'sheer and generous patron of arts and sciences'.
. Talking about high liability Polzunova and his devotion to the Fatherland, is appropriate to cite one example
. Winter 1760 Polzunov at Krasnoyarsk pier head alloy produced in the district ore. The fact that it happened, the best he told himself: 'Kazennyi house ... God knows why, from the inside, during deep sleep on fire. And as we have a black room with senmi inside the flame and embraced in the room ... fire started, then waking up from sleep, rushing to tongs state affairs and the books in the window with them ran out ... as a state treasury together with the Holy cases remained without any damage and expenses ... spent all my own '.
. Besserebrennik, . ironically sitting in the literal and figurative sense of the fabulous silver stocks, . Polzunov support a family (mother, . wife, . two small children) at an annual salary of 84 rubles, while extremely concerned about, . as 'п¦п¦п¦я-п+пT noble zeal to achieve the glory of the Fatherland'; did not complain - he worked, . worked, . worked, . work and burned, . not short of up to forty.,
. Unlike Watt, a Polzunova was not scientific and engineering environments
. The only source of knowledge for him were the books. And despite this, sliders before Watt created a steam engine. Was not his fault that such a gigantic task was not developed. Just Polzunova phenomenon - is a classic example of the advance of time and events. This has happened in history before and after.
Russia has always attracted foreign scholars. One of them - Eric Laxman, . who examined her bowels, . fauna and flora (later, . in 1770, . He was elected to the Petersburg Academy of Sciences), . traveling around the country, . visited Barnaul, . met Polzunova and carefully studied the steam engines were constructed,
. On his impressions Laxman wrote: '... Who do I have the most notable acquaintance, a mountain mechanic Ivan sliders, a husband who does honor to his Fatherland '.