Stanislaw August Poniatowski( The last Polish king - the rules (1764-1795))
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Biography Stanislaw August Poniatowski
. French encyclopedic, . educators from different countries of Europe called Stanislaw August in a series of major public figures of the XVIII century, . which in varying degrees, sought to implement the established, . According to Voltaire, . 'republic of philosophers',
. 'Do not you see - Voltaire wrote Helvetius - that the entire North - ours, but sooner or later, the fanatics of the South will also be put to shame? Empress of Russia, the Polish king ... King of Prussia, winner located in the grip of superstition, Austria and other rulers stand under the banner of philosophy '. In contrast to the wise despots such as Catherine II, or Frederick II, Stanislaw August was not a monarch on the blood and spirit. In blood and spirit, he was an intellectual of the Enlightenment, selected on the throne of the will of fate and coincidence.
. Years of government Stanislaw August Poniatowski entered the history of the Commonwealth as 'Stanislav's time', . maybe, . not so much because of the importance of its participation in the socio-political life, . but because of his isklyuchitelnyym merit in the development of culture, . Arts and Literature,
. His name is connected much of, . that first appeared in Poland: the first - in the spirit of the Enlightenment - a holistic program of state, . political, . economic-economic and cultural reforms, the first public national theater (1765), the first secular state school - Knight School Cadets (1765), . whence came the T,
. Kosciusko, . Ya JasiåLski, . Yu.U. Nemtsevich and many other famous people of the Enlightenment, the first Polish magazine of a new type of 'Monitor' (1765-1785), . the preparation of which take into account the experience of the English 'Spectator' Dzh.Addisona and R. Steele, the first in Europe, the Ministry of National Education - National Education Commission (1773),
. By type of British and French scientific societies Stanislaw August and his associates pose Literature Society (1765-1770), . designed to facilitate the dissemination of beliefs and cultural education through publications and translations, . as well as the importation of foreign books,
. Thanks to the patronage of Stanislaw August and some big magnates rapidly developing network printing, publishing and media. Entrepreneurs and experts from Germany, France and England to Poland to introduce latest technology of printing, types of advertising, methods of distribution of newspapers, magazines and books. Reading Room, . bookstores, . literary cafe, . library, along with the editorial, . salons tycoons, . gentry, . highly educated and affluent urban, . as well as centers of political groups and reorganized state agencies has become the focus of intellectuals, . that by the end of 1780-ies appears as a special social environment, . produces some of the national ideological program,
. 'In the occurrence of this layer, . - Celebrates Polish historian E. Kovetsky, . - A necessary element of a modern national community, . great was the role of King, . its sound policies in the field of culture and education, . his scientific endeavors and patronage, . artistic and educational activities',
The last Polish king and was one of the main sponsors of the first on the continent of the Constitution of May 3, 1791, which won a European reputation and inspire educators around the. In general, the combination of pessimistic 'last' with optimistic 'first', 'first' inevitably arises when any attempt to comprehend the importance of the intellectual to the throne.
. Endowed with a fine artistic taste, Stanislaw August, whose name is also associated rapid development of construction, especially in the capital, he participated in the preparation of architectural design and planning of interiors
. If it produces so-called 'style Stanislaw August', . or 'Stanislav's classicism' (a peculiar combination of elements of Baroque, . organic to Poland for nearly two centuries preceding, . with the dominant thrust of the classic),
. On his initiative reworked the Royal Castle, created magnificent palace and park complex å¦azienki in Warsaw. Transforming the capital becomes the real center of the new political and spiritual life.
. Development of new trends in Polish art (Classicism, . sentimentalism, . Rococo, . neo-gothic) contributed to the invited artists Staniså-aw August, . sculptors and architects from France, . Italy and Germany, . as well as the younger generation of Polish artists, . many of whom were trained at the King's personal funds.,
. Literary Salon Staniså-aw August was the largest center of cultural life, 1760-1770-ies
. Among them were the founders of the Polish literature of the Enlightenment - F. Bogomolets, A. Narushevich, S. Trembetsky, AND. Krasitsky and Szymanowski Yu, Yu Vybitsky (later the author of the text of the national anthem) and other. Here the famous 'Chetvergova dinners' in a relaxed atmosphere to read new works, broke lively debate, discuss pressing issues of life and art, sounded witty impromptu, new ideas. Some kind of press organ of this group was the first Polish literary magazine 'Entertainment pleasant and helpful' (1770-1777), who already reflect the official cultural policy of the Royal Castle.
. And it involves not only no-vuyu literary organization of life, but also a new attitude to the writer's work, which previously was not considered a professional occupation
. Many writers Stanislaw August has provided material assistance, contributed to the publication of their work. On his orders, in honor of the writers minted special medals, Narushevich created their biographies, and the French painter L. March - portraits. Another series of portraits executed in the typical age pastels - crayon, adorned one of the hall, adjacent to and which were 'Chetvergova lunch'. However, howling attitude toward writers and literature as an effective means of promoting educational ideas bore fruit already fairly soon: 1770's - is a 'golden period', . flowering of creativity by leading writers - closest associates Stanislaw August,
. And he went into the history of literature as a talented writer (he wrote in Polish and French), rhetorician, poet. He translated Shakespeare from English into French, Horace - from Latin into Polish, poetry and Narushevich Trembetskogo - in French. He left ten manuscript volumes of memoirs in French (although some, . but it was reprinted in the original and translations into Russian, . Polish, . German) and a rich epistolary heritage (among the recipients - Voltaire, . P. Metastasio, . H. Walpole, . Kosciusko, . D,
. Washington, Catherine II).
With royal undertakings forming material and economic basis for the reorientation of the whole national life and of spiritual values. Stanislaw August supported the idea of creating a national industry, organizes company manufactures, producing woolen fabrics (1767), is building a weapons factory in g.Kozenitse. On his initiative, there are foundry and mint in Warsaw, a porcelain factory in Belvidere, enlivened mining. Merit Staniså-aw August is that when it develops a national art industry, the tradition of folk crafts and arts.
. The patronage of Stanislaw August in virtue of his position has gained national character
. In the implementation of their plans, he put his personal and public funds, attracted to the work of not only friends and courtiers, but the apparatus of power. Sometimes it is difficult to determine where it ends king and patron of the King begins - by state cultural policy.
. Of course there were then, and other monarchs, philanthropists: Louis XIV of France, Queen Christina of Sweden, Frederick Augustus I of Saxony Strong, Frederick II - in Prussia, a lot of impact on the fate of national culture
. However, the last Polish monarch had in this regard, one significant difference, . due to some extent and ideas of the Enlightenment, . gentry and the traditions of democracy, . and his personal qualities: Stanislaw August his patronage is not sought to emphasize the grandeur and opulence of the royal court,
. The development of national culture to the highest level of Western Europe - that its purpose. Personally, it was often inseparable from the national, . State: own rich collection of miniatures, . Drawings, . ancient gems he regarded as the beginning of the national museum, . a collection of ancient copies of the proposed use as an aid to art education.,
. Patronage Staniså-aw August was not predicated on considerations of prestige and high society fashion, and the internal needs of a sensitive art of a noble man, active, creative personality
. And absolutely unselfish. Active part, compassion and help others literally destroyed it. Having ascended to the throne fairly wealthy, he left him with huge debts. Perhaps these tendencies Staniså-aw August rooted in the biography of the King - the conditions that shaped his philosophical and ethical interests, general cultural representations and artistic tastes.
. Father of the monarch - too Stanislaw (1677-1762) - distinguished, if not greatness kind, outstanding ability commander, politician and journalist
. He made a brilliant career. A supporter of C. LeszczyåLskie, General Karl XII (fought near Poltava, accompanied him to Turkey), but because marriage entered into the clan Czartoryski, a party which sought to reform the country in the spirit of the Enlightenment. An educated man, he wrote his works in French and Polish. His son grew up in an atmosphere of high culture. Home Education-Lo would be replenished studies at Warsaw Collegium teatinskogo medals and a trip to Belgium and Holland. Then work in the office of his uncle M. Czartoryski - Chancellor of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, visiting Berlin, Dresden, Vienna. Of particular importance was the visit to the years 1753-1754 through Austria, . Saxony and the Netherlands to France and England, . where a young politician deepens knowledge in modern philosophy, . art and literature, . well the same theory of law, . happens in the famous salons and the royal palace,
. In Paris he met with Montesquieu, Diderot, d'Alembert, becomes a permanent guest of the salon of Madame Joffre with which it subsequently linked the long-term friendship. She has assembled a brilliant society of educational thinking iintellektualov. On his return to the post of waiter gets Poniatowski Lithuanian and he was leaving for St. Petersburg Secretary of the British envoy, at the same time representing the interests of 'names' (as the party of Czartoryski).
. A brilliant scholar and wit, has thin French manners and attractive appearance, he - well-known figure in Northern Palmyra
. Also in 1755 his highly acclaimed novel begins with the Grand Duchess Catherine, the future Russian Empress. Revoked in July 1756-the first, he was already in January next year, returned to Russia at this time as a messenger kurfryusta Saxony and king of Poland August III (and also the representative of the 'names'). However, after two years of his diplomatic career was interrupted by the wake of a scandal: the passionate lovers for so long and apparently disregarded the rules of light, it almost cost the life of a young Polish nobleman. (According to some reports Stanislaw August was sent as well, because he was involved in political intrigues of Catherine.)
A few years later was a deputy of the Sejm Poniatowski. Meanwhile, followed by events that predetermined the fate of the Lithuanian waiter. In 1762 at the Russian throne shall Catherine II, and a year later died August III. At the empty throne of Poland August 7, 1764 on the orders of the empress and supervised by the Russian ambassador Keyserling, with the support of 'names' and under the muzzles of Russian troops surrounding the field where the elections took place, built Stanislaw Poniatowski.
. In the rapid whirlwinds and heroic bursts and shattering cataclysms political history of Poland XVIII century figure of the last Polish king, until now seen differently historians
. Contradictory assessments of its activities due to both sets of national mentality and stereotypes of the historical, political and ideological thinking. Inherent difficulties in understanding of what happened have made diplomatic intricacies of Austria, . Prussia and Russia, . destroyed in the long term in the three sections (1772, . 1793, . 1795) centuries of Polish statehood, . and actions of internal opposition and the very heterogeneous ideological trends in the reform camp in Poland.,
. Catherine II, putting forward the candidacy of Poniatowski on the Polish throne, guided by no means sentimental, and exciting memories of her imagination, and as always - policy considerations
. These hopes were not justified Madams. Stanislaw August was never a tool in the hands of the Empress, and each of its assignment becomes the result of constant and intense political pressure, constant and powerful threat of violence from the outside, the skillful use of powerful domestic opposition. And as the demand of Catherine II Poniatowski was erected on the Polish throne, just as she claims, he was forced to renounce his November 25, 1795.
. Now that all his plans collapsed, Stanislaw August intends to go to Italy or Switzerland, but on the orders of the queen for another year - until her death - remains in Grodno supervised the Governor-General NV Repnin
. He survived her for two years. In February 1797 the former king of Poland at the invitation of Paul I arrive in St. Petersburg. Like many other critics 'mama' (well, among them - Kosciuszko and his adjutant - a prominent politician and writer Nemtsevich released from the fortress), he is respected and even honored. Under his residence to assign Marble Palace. Here he died suddenly on Feb. 12, 1798.
. One of the largest representatives of high culture in Poland, the XVIII century, . directly associated with prominent figures of the Enlightenment in the West, . member of the St. Petersburg (from 1778) and Berlin (from 1791) Academies of Sciences, . with refined taste, . talented organizer and art of communication, . Stanislaw August was all the data, . to promote national culture, a new type,
. By the will of a destiny, whether a happy coincidence, a law of a history - he received the maximum opportunity to realize these abilities. And implement them as fully as soon as possible.